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Nov. ‘26, 1946.
w, J_ HAUSMAN
2,411,723
, VARIABLE ‘SPACING MECHANISM FOR KEY‘ OPERATED PRINTING MACHINES
Filed Feb. 20, 1943
17 Sheets-Sheet 1
Walieriésmm
Nov‘.- 26, 1946.
w. J. HAUSMAN
2,411,723
VARIABLE SPACING MECHANISM FOR KEY ‘OPERATED PRINTING MACHINES
Filed Feb. 20, 1945.
1'7 Sheets-Sheet 2'
No‘). 26, 1946},
. J. HAUSMAN
2,411,723
VARIABLE SPACING MECHANISM FOR KEY OPERATED PRINTING MACHINES
Filed Feb. 20, '_ 1945
17 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Nov. 26, 1946. .
w. J. HAUSMAN
2,411,723
VARIABLE SPACING MECHANISM FOR KEY ‘OPERATED ‘PRINTING MACHINES
Filedmfeb. 20, 1945
17 Sheets-‘Sheet 4
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2,411,723
VARIABLE SPACING MECHANISMFOR KEY OPERATED PRINTING MACHINES
Filed Feb. 20, 1943'
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. ‘Filed Féb. 20, 1943
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Patented Nov. 26, 1946
2,411,723
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
VARIABLE SPACING MECHANISM FOR KEY
OPERATED PRINTING MACHINES
Walter J. HausmamWashington, D. (3., assignor
to Burnell Machine Company, Incorporated,
Wilmington, Del., a corporation of Delaware
Application February 20, 1943, Serial No. 476,572
.
12 Claims.
(Cl. 197-84)
1
2
This invention relates to key operated type
printing machines and more speci?cally to such
If the characters of the text are to be those
a machine which is adapted to print copy to be
of foundry type faces, the copy has always been
run offby letter-press printing machines employ
used as either high quality originals or as com- 1
ing composed type. The composed type must be
positions for all forms of reproduction processes 5 set either by hand or by a type setting machine
which employ photographic steps in the prepa
or it must be produced by a type-casting ma.
ration of their printingstones' or plates, and
chine, such as the linotype or monotype. Set
which is also adapted to produce compositions
ting the type by hand, of course, can only be em
for processes which compose directly on the plates
ployed pro?tably for headings, or other parts
and employ stencils and hecto-graph masters.
employing unusual type faces. Type setting and
The designing of a key operated type print
type-casting machines entail a large capital in- ,
ing machine which is only capable of produc
vestment and the“ employment of highly skilled
ing copy to be used as high quality originals is
craftsmen to operate the same. Before the copy
no longer a remarkable accomplishment because
can be prepared, the composed type must be
there are typewriting machines now available on 15 locked in a chase and leveled on a “stone” or
the open market which are capable of attain
imposingtable to eliminate light spots. It may
ing this desired result, and any improvements
even require a certain amount of “underlay”
which might now be made thereover could only
work before an even impression can be obtained.
relate to details, such as type face design and
It is very evident from the above brief de
possibly line justification. However, the design 20 scription of the procedure which has been nec
ing of a key operated type printing machine
essary to prepare text copy of foundry type faces,
which is not only capable of producing high qual
that, as compared to letterpress printing, the
ity Originals, by the use of diiferent styles and
principle. advantages obtained from the use of the
sizes of typewriter type faces, but is also capable
aforesaid mentioned branches of planographic
of producing from foundry type faces copy which 25 and intaglio processes have been in connection
will meet all of the demands and requirements
with reproducingillustrations or pictorial parts.
made of text compositions to be used in the sev
This difficulty of producing text copy undoubt
eral reproduction processes employing photog
edly has been the principle reason why photo
raphy in the preparation of printing plates, or
.lithography, pantone, and photogravure proc
the like, and directly composed plates, stencils,
esses“ have not succeeded in entirely dispensing
and hectograph masters is indeed an accomplish
with the use of the letterpress for printing large
ment. To meet such demands or requirements,
quantity work. That these processes which em
a machine must be able not only to print or ‘make
ploy photographic steps otherwise would accom
impressions with a reasonable number of differ
plish this result is borneout by the fact that
ent “families” of foundry type faces, but it a1so
practically all reprints or reproductions of previ
must be able to operate with a reasonable num
type faces. To the best of my knowledge and
ously printed books, ,or the like, now are pro
duced by the same because the pages of the origi
nal prints can be employedas copy.
Two devices intended to overcome this recog
nized dif?culty have been tried out to a limited
extent commercially. These devices are photo
belief, Such a machine has never been designed
,composing machines and typewriter machines
before,
means of the stones or plates used in such piano
which are capable of interchangeably using sev-.
eral sets of type faces of different sizes and styles.
There have been developed several different
graphic processes as photo-lithography, photo
lithography-offset, and pantone, and in such in
types of photo-composing‘machines but they all
employ the same basic principle. This principle
tagjlio processes as photogravure, it is necessary
to prepare a composition which is photographed
as a step in the production of the printing plate "
embodies the production of a print which is com
posed by making a succession of photographic
ber of different styles and sizes of type faces for
each one of the selected “families” and the char~
acters of the copy or composition must be spaced
as intended by the designers or founders of the
'
In the printing of text or reading matter by
orstone. 'It is the usual practice to assemble the
complete composition for ya plate, which may
print one or more pages of the matter to be re
produced, before resorting to the step of photo
graphing the. composition.
‘
pictures on a sensitized negative from a set of
master characters which, for example, may be
carried by a ?lm. The desired characters are
successively moved into the exposure position, in
response to .the actuation of-the appropriate keys
of a keyboard, and a picture is taken of each
2,411,728
' 3
character.
is photographically printed until a complete com
position of a page, or the like, is formed. The
print is then removed, developed, and ?xed, and
it is to all intents and purposes the same as a
operated type printing machine which is capable
print made of letterpress cop-y produced by the
use of composed type.
4
chine is not capable of preparing copy for repro
duction processes which will have the appearance
of copy prepared from foundry type.
With the above discussion in mind, it is the
primary object of this invention to provide a key
Character by character, the matter
of producing copy suitable for use either as high
quality originals or to take the place of and be
the full equivalent in appearance of reproduction
copy which has heretofore been prepared either
A more complete under
. standing of this principle may be obtained by a
study of the Edgar K. Hunter patent, No.
1,732 049, issued October 15, 1929, which is illus
from ordinary or special typewriter type faces or
from composed foundry type faces.
A further important object of the invention is
trative of this development.
Although this photo-composing process speci?
cally, and the general subject of photo-typogra
phy under which photo-composing falls, havev
to provide a machine of the above mentioned type
which is capable of preparing reproduction copy,
been in the development stage for quite a number
of years, as evidenced by expired United States
or copy for reproduction compositions, which may
be written with many styles and sizes of type
writer type faces, with all of the written charac
ters for any given style or size properly, uniformly
spaced, or with many styles and sizes of foundry
processes has remained unsolved.
type faces, with all of the written characters
Photo-composing processes, and the like, have
differentially spaced in accordance with the sizes
failed commercially because of several undesir
of the different characters and the intentions of
able features. First, the production of composi
the designers of the type faces.
tion by this method is very time consuming and
Still another object of the invention is to pro
costly because of the aforementioned tedious 25
vide feeding mechanism for the copy paper hold
method of photographically printing the compo
ing carriage which will operate to advance or
sition character by character. Second, the com
space the carriage in response to actuation of the
position is prepared “blind”; i. e., it cannot be
several character printing and/or certain control
seen until the composition is complete. There
keys either a uniform distance for all characters,
fore, errors cannot be detected until the print is
including lower case letters, capital letters, and
removed, developed, and ?xed, and, as it is im
?gures, so that typewriter type faces may be em
possible to correct errors, considerable time is
ployed, or a plurality .of different distances for
lost in completing a composition, in which an
loWer case letters and capital letters and. a uni
error has been made unknowingly, which must be
discarded after the error is detected. This, nat 35 form distance for ?gures, so that foundry type
faces, with their various widths, may be em
urally, adds materially to the cost of using this
ployed.
_
process. Third, it almost always is necessary to
Another object of the invention is to provide
edit compositions one or more times before they
proper carriage feeding mechanism of the above
are entirely satisfactory, as the party responsible
for the work cannot determine just how it will 40 mentioned type which is adapted to be adjusted
to permit the machine to interchangeably em
appear until he can view the completed composi_
ploy many different points and styles of type
tion. As changes cannot be made in photo-com
writer type faces and many different “families,”
position prints, new ones must be prepared after
including different points and styles of each
each edit.
“family,” of foundry type faces.
Of course, any typewriting machine is capable
Still another object of the invention is to pro
‘of preparing copy which can be used in making
vide a power operated drive for the aforemen
compositions for reproduction processes, and such
tioned adjustable carriage feeding mechanism
copy is entirely satisfactory if the typewriter type
which also may be employed for moving the car
face characters and the uniform spacing of said
riage its full length of travel, or any desired
characters of the ?nal printed matter are accept- .
fraction of its full length of travel, in response
able. Such printed matter, however, cannot be
to depressing certain control keys.
made to have the appearance of foundry type
Another object of the invention is to provide
face printing. This is due to the fact that all
a paper carriage and drive mechanism with a
typewriter type faces must be speci?cally de
i selectively operable connection between the same
signed to provide harmony when all of the print
so that the carriage normally will be connected
ed characters are uniformly spaced, whereas
to its drive mechanism but may be disconnected
foundry type faces are designed to provide har
therefrom and moved independently to any de
mony when all of the printed characters are
sired point in a line being printed and then either
spaced according to their respective widths.
patents dealing with the subject, the problem of
economically providing foundry type face copy
for photolithography, and the like, reproducing
Furthermore, the ordinary typewriter machine
60 reconnected to its drive mechanism at said new
is only capable of printing with one size and style
of type; i. e., capital and lower case letters for
a given size.
As stated above, it now is possible to obtain
typewriter machines which are capable of print
ing with different sizes and styles of type faces.
However, for any given size and style, the charac
ters must still be uniformly spaced and the type
faces must be specially designed to provide har
mony for this uniform spacing.
Reference may "
be made‘to Patent No. 1,964,748, issued to Frank
H. 'I'rego, on July 3, 1934;, for a disclosure of a
typewriter machine of this kind.
It is obvious from the above that even this
variable type size and style of typewriting ma‘
position or returned to its former position and
then reconnected to the drive mechanism.
A further object of the invention is to pro
vide, line spacing mechanism for the carriage
which will space or move the paper vertically
any one of a suitable number of different dis
tances, each of which is a multiple of 1/12 part of
an inch, or a multiple of one “point” in type
sizes.
A still further object of the invention is to
provide a platen structure on the carriage which
will afford an appropriate printing surface for
?at faced foundry type which may vary .in size
from 6 pt. to 14 pt., the said printing surface of
the platen structure being so constructed as to
, 25411323
sectional 'viewof the ‘carriage clutch mechanism
permit’
z-t‘he operator
it :to swhén
_.be L replaced
the-one
at ‘I theuse
will
‘becomes
of andaun
'
ieven' 'or‘lpitted. or‘. when‘ aiiprinting ‘surface. of ‘a
different characteruoridegree of hardnessis de
sired.
'
"'
.
r
and taken on linetlel-etl‘l‘of Fig. 10,
'
'IFigurel2tisa fdetaii, end elevational View of
a compressible‘ clutch collar which iormsa part
of the'riclutch mechanism disclosed vin Figs.‘ 10
_
‘Another’ object :of theiinvention is to provide a
:novel form of spacing mechanism, ‘for spacing
andlll,
"
.
'
I
.
.
Figurex13. .is a : central longitudinal sectional
between words; which operates on the ‘principle of
view ‘of the clutch collar shown in Fig.12,
' .
spacing different numbers of.‘ “units,” a_“‘unit”
Figure 14 :is a detail plan view ofa 'reversin ‘
being the ‘width of Ithernarrowmost type face
character which can be used with :the machine,
and which ‘may vbe used ‘to ‘re?ect. justi?cation
drive clutch by means of which the paper car
:triagermay‘be power :shifted ‘to any extent desired
in either ‘one of its .two possible .directions of
:of the right-hand margin-of .the'copy printed
.on ‘this machine.
.
'
'
travel,
"15
Stillanother ‘object 1.of the invention is to pro
videxa'machine which possesses ‘all of the above
mentioned features‘ and yet onegwhich willrre
~
:Fig. 14,
:20.
ving collar of the reversing clutch,
-'
"
Figure 17 is a detail, vertical sectional view
taken on line l'l-l‘l of Fig. 14 and more spe
ci?callyiillustrating one of the contractible clutch
‘
.-<-‘;In the accompanying drawings .forming a part
bands of the reversing clutch mechanism,
Figure 18 is a partlyvertical sectional view
‘of this speci?cation and .in‘ which like numerals .
are employedto design'atelike parts ‘throughout
"the same,
and elevational view illustrating a character con
trolling or actuating key with its mechanism
which operates to‘position' its particular type bar '
Figure 1 is a plan view of the .key operated
printing machine embodying this "invention,
Figure
the right
with the
moved to
Figure
-
taken on line I6-l6 of Fig-F14 and speci?cally
< illustrating the. shifting mechanism for the slid
Other objects and advantages of the invention
‘will be apparentduring the course 'of the follow
ingdescript-ion."
-
Figure 16 isQa detail,"ver_tical "sectional view
quire the services of..a skilled typist and‘rnot a ,
.
’
the reversing clutch and taken on line l5—l»5 of
,
rcraitsinanskilled in the printing :art to operate
the same.
‘
Figure #15 is a detail, vertical sectional view of
'
in printing positionwith respect'to the printing
2 is a side elevational view, taken of 30 surface of the platen structure,
side of the machine v‘shown in Fig. 1,
> Figure 19 is a View similar to Fig. 18 but illus
exteriorv ?nishing plate or panel re
trates a di?erent'chara'cter key and its type bar
betterillustrate the mechanism,
‘positioning vmechanism,
~
.3 vfisra, vertical sectional view» taken
Figure 20 is a detail plan view illustrating a, key
through themachine of Figs. 1 and 2, the said 35 and three bars whichmay be operated to effect
movement of the paper carriage four different
predetermined'distances to provide desired spaces
between “words, or the like, with the link, lever,
section not being taken on any particular section
line of the preceding ?gures but being laidv out
to best illustrate certain parts of the mechanism
of the machine,
1
and. cam elements which are actuated by said key
v .
Figure 4 is atop ‘plan view which illustrates the 40 and bars to bring about the desired movements
keyboard, or the ban-k of: character and con
of the paper carriage,
trol keys, with the links, levers, cams, etc.,
actuated by said keys, and also illustrates the
taken through; thecarriage spacing mechanism
source of power and apower transmitting or
clutch; "mechanism, which interconnects the
of Fig.‘20,
'
rying a like number of different sized or styled
'
- type bars,
Figure 5 is a vertical sectional view taken- on‘ ~
line 5—5 of Fig. 3,
~
"
_
'
'
,
‘
7
~
=Figure I23 'isiav substantially vertical sectional
view taken on line 23-‘23 of'Fig. 22V,
Figure 6 is’ a‘vertical‘ sectional view taken on
line?f-(iof Fig. 13,
p
._
‘taken on 1ineI25-'25 of Fig.”22,-~ ‘
?gure also showing a-portion of-the :carriage
taken‘o'n line‘ 26—26 of Fig.724,
L
carriage and more clearly illustrates ‘the paper
'60
pan and platen structure,
‘Figure 9 is .a rear elevational view of the paper
pan'and platen structureincluded as’ a part ,
.
V, ~~
a _v
V
Figure. 10 is a detail. horizontal sectional view
of a portion of the paper carriage drive .mecha
nism and more particularly illustrates a clutch
unit by means of which the carriage may be
disconnected from its
I
Figure 26 is a detail, horizontal sectional view
'
> Figure 27 is‘a detail plan view illustratingcon- ,
. I Figure 3. is a front elevational view ‘of thepaper
.of the disclosure of Fig.;8,
'
V; Figure 25 is a ‘detail; vertical sectional View
which supports and feeds -.or~advances the paper 55
on which the. printing is to be‘impressed, this
.
'
Figure 24P'is-a detail, vertical sectional view
taken on line 24-24“ ofi-Figi22;
Figure ‘7 isa detail plan view of the carriage
.feeding mechanism,
,
employed for holding and collectively moving into
printing position three different type baskets car
mately'illustrating the mechanism lying. below
'
‘
Figure 22 is a plan view illustrating a spider
source of 'powerto the par-tsof the machine to
‘be operated ‘thereby, the. said, plan view approxi
the line 4-4 of Fig. 3,. .
’
Figure 21 is a detail, vertical sectional view
drive. mechanismfand ‘
moved independently thereof and by means of
which the carriage may be, again connected; to
its drive mechanism either :at its former posi—
tion or. at any :other desired ‘selected ‘point
throughoutthe line being :printed,
,
:
'
'
.. Figure 11_ is a detail, substantially vertical .
trol keys and the Irnechanism operated thereby
which is employed for elevating a" type basket,
arranged‘ in printingpositi'on with respect-to the
p1aten,“not"'shown, ‘for the purpose of printing
, capital letters, _'
~
"Figurei28 is a vertical sectional view of the
mechanism shown iniFig.'27_.
"
‘
:Figure 29 is a detail, vertical sectional view of
the shaft ‘whichvis‘elevated or moved vertically
ingan-iaxial direction ‘to'rraise a type basket into
its capital letter printing position,
-
'
Figure 30 isiadetailr'vertical sectional View
illustratingionetype basket in printing position, '
a plunger’ and: its“: operating mechanism which
will move the selected andpositioned type to im
press cr printthe selectednharacter on'the paper
to receive the impression}; and ‘printing ribbon
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