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Патент USA US2411736

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2,411,736
Patented Nov. 26, 1946
~UNITED STATES
‘
PATENT ' OFFICE
2,411,736
_
Mernon or CANNING FRESH WATER FISH
Armin a. Kleinschmidt, Mankato, Minn. '
No Drawing. Application'yApril e, 1945,
Serial No. 587,015 ~
15 Claims.
This application is a continuation-in-part of
(01. 99-1881)
2
portion of the ?llet and thelayer containing the
my application Ser. No. 579,680 ?led February
rib
24, 1945.
to 21/2 hours, preferably 2. hours. The brine
‘
bones.
'
'
The ?llets are then placed in a brine for 1%.
This invention relates to a process of canning 5 used should have a salinity of 80% to 100%
fresh water ?sh and particularly to the canning
of ?sh such as carp, buffalo, sheepshead, suckers,
ciscos, bull heads and the like. Fresh water ?sh
have not heretofore proven suitable for canning
according to known ?sh canning processes be
cause-of the high moisture content and the soft
ness of the ?esh. When utilizing known ?sh
saturation, preferably about 90% saturation, at
75° F. or alternatively the ?llets may be brined
for 11/2 to 21/2 hours in a 20% salt brine at ‘75° F.
and after removal from the brine, packed in dry
10 salt for approximately 8 hours.
'
,
The brining operation serves to make the ?esh
of the fish more solid and in addition serves to
reduce the blood content of ?sh such as carp.
canning processes the resultant product is mushy
and unappetizing with a disagreeable ?shy taste.
The brining step may therefore be dispensed with
In addition, the fresh water ?sh have a “muddy”
where the ?nal product may permissibly have
taste that it has been impossible to remove. It 15
somewhat less ?rmness.
has heretofore been thought that the “muddy”
After the brining operation, where used, the
taste was due to the type of water in which the
?llets are removed and rinsed and are then placed
?sh were caught, and it has been suggested that
in single layers on a‘wire tray or basket and
in order to remove the “muddy” flavor, the ?sh
positioned so that the outside portion of the
20
be con?ned while alive in running water having
?llet, i. e. the portion next to the skin, is up.
a sandy bottom and the ?sh fed special diets.
The baskets or trays of ?llets are then placed
I have discovered that even these expensive ex
in a steaming retort for a period suf?cient to
pedients are not effective for the removal of the
loosen the “muddy” streaks hereinafter de?ned
“muddy” flavor. In addition during the canning
and properly reduced the moisture content. A
of such fresh water ?sh in accordance with known 25 pro-cook of 1 to 11/2 hours at a temperature of
processes the bones‘ do not become edible'and
220° to 260° F. usually suffices. The preferred
the large bones protrude from the flesh when
temperature is 240° F. At the end of,the steam
canned and present an undesirable appearance.
ing operation the trays of steamed ?llets are
I havev discovered that these dif?culties of the 30 removed and are cooled to approximately room
prior processes may be overcome and that fresh
temperature which is usually accomplished ina
water ?sh may be canned, the product so ob
time of 1 to 2 hours, although they may be cooled
tained being ?rm, free from “muddy” ?avor and
longer if desired.
disagreeable ?shy ?avor, wholesome, nutritious,
of good color and free from inedible bones.
It is, therefore, an object of the present in
vention to provide methods of canning fresh wag
ter ?sh.
It is also an object of the invention to
provide methods of canning .iresh water ?sh
wherein the ?nal product is free from “muddy”
.or disagreeable ?shy flavor and is ?rm, whole
some, nutritious and free from inedible bone
structure and of good color. _
Other and further‘objects of the invention are
those inherent in the method herein illustrated,
described and claimed.
The pre-cooking operation serves to cause a
change in color of several distinct ?eshy portions
35
of the ?llet and reduces the water content. At
about the median line of the ?llet and on the out
side of the ?llet, in respect to its location in the
live ?sh, there is a streak of fleshy material some
40 times called the “lateral line.” When the ?llet
“is cross sectional this streak will be seen to be
relatively wide at the outer surface of the ?llet
and tapered to a point on the interior of the
- ?llet portion. In the live or uncooked flesh this
‘5 streak is not very clearly delineated. However,
In accordance with the present invention the
fresh water ?sh or solidly frozen fresh water ?sh,
if not stored in the solidly frozen state for an
excessive period, are ?lleted by cutting on either 50
side of the back bone so as to remove the back
bone structure. The ?llet is then removed by
after the ?llets have been pre-cooked bysteaming
as described, this “muddy streak” in the ?esh
or “lateral line” as it is sometimes called, is rela
tively soft whereas the remaining portion of the
?llet has a much ?rmer texture. Some variation
in color of the median streak as compared with
the remaining portion of the ?llet also occurs.
In the female ?sh a large proportion of the ?llet
an incisive out between the skin of the ?sh and
the flesh structure. With larger coarse ?sh, the
is white, and after cooking the “muddy streak”
?sh may be skinned. In this operation the rib
55 is dark and clearly delineated. In the male ?sh
bones of. the ?sh are preferably kept on the ?llet.
the major portion of the ?llet ranges in color
and removed subsequently in order to minimize
from relatively light at the forward portion to
the wastage of edible tissue which accompanies
dark near the tail portion and when cooked the
removal of the rib bones in the ?lleting operation.
“muddy streak” is dark throughout its length.
If such waste is not objectionable the rib bones 6.0 It is therefore fairly evident at the forward por
may be removed by cutting between the ?eshy
2,411,736
4
tion of the ?llet but less evident toward the rear
or tail portion of the ?llet. However, in each
type of ?llet, male or female, the “muddy streak”
The skin is then lifted off and the “muddy streak,”
then clearly discernible, is scraped out and the
flesh removed from the bones. This is repeated
is of soft texture as compared with the re
for both sides of the ?sh. The ?esh is then ?aked
and processed as in the case of the ?llets.
In a further variation of the invention the
whole ?sh, as received from the supplier, and
having the heads and tails of the ?sh on and not
eviscerated, may be scalded for a very short time
in order to loosen the skin and scales which may
then be removed easily by mechanical or manual
methods. In carrying out the invention in ac
cordance with this procedure the whole ?sh are
scalded in a water bath which is maintained at
mainder of the ?llet and its location therefore
easily determined after the ?llets have been pre
cooked.
,
I have discovered that the “muddy flavor”
and disagreeable ?shy taste of the fresh water
?sh is due to the soft, “muddy streak," and to
overcome this taste dif?culty it is removed in the
process of the present invention. The “muddy
streak” of relatively soft textured ?esh may
easily be removed by using a paring knife or a
V-shaped tool which is'drawn down the streak. 15 substantially boiling temperatures by any suit
This plows or lifts out the softened material
able heating arrangement. This may be accom
which is then discarded or used for Waste prod
plished by a thermostatically controlled heater
ucts. An easy separation of the “muddy streak”
or by bleeding live steam into the scalding vat.
from the remainder of the ?llet is then easily
The scalding operation may be carried out very
possible as after cooking there seems to be a 20 conveniently by carrying the ?sh on a conveyor
line of cleavage separating the “muddy streak"
through the scalding bath, the conveyor speed
from the ?llet, and it is therefore possible to re
being regulated so that the proper scalding time
move the streak almost as a whole. Throughout
results. Before scalding the ?sh are preferably
this speci?cation and in the claims the term
graded into three or more size brackets such as
“muddy streak” shall be taken to mean the above 25 extra large ?sh over 10 pounds, large ?sh of 7 to
described “lateral line,” however elsewhere desig
10 pounds, medium size ?sh of 5 to 7 pounds and
nated. After cooking and before removal from
small ?sh of 3 to 5 pounds. The scalding time
the trays, the “muddy streak” is removed as‘
for the small size fish, 3 to 5 pounds, is about 1
above set forth.
minute and 20 seconds; for the medium size ?sh,
The ?llets are then removed from the trays, 30
to 7 pounds, 1 minute and 30 seconds; for the
the large rib bones removed and the lower fatty
large ?sh, 7 to 10 pounds, 1 minute and 40 sec
portion on the ?llet, corresponding to the belly
onds; and for the extra large fish the scalding
of the ?sh, is preferably trimmed off. The ?llets
time is slightly increased in accordance with the
are then ?aked and packed into cans, slack ?ll.
size of the ?sh. Separate conveyors and scalding
The cans are then exhausted either by the hot or 35 vats may be used for each size, or one size run
mechanical exhausting methods, sealed and then
at a time and the conveyor speed adjusted so as
processed at elevated temperatures for steriliz
to give the proper scalding time for the size of
ing. Where the hot exhausting method is utilized
?sh being processed. The time of scalding is
the ?lled cans with the covers loosely placed
adjusted in accordance with the size of the ?sh
thereon are placed in the retort for 5 to 10 40
so that the ?sh skin and scales are softened and
minutes, preferably about 8 minutes, at about
made readily removable but so that the under
212° F. The cans are then removed from the
lying ?esh of the ?sh remains substantially un
retort and sealed in a closing machine after which
affected.
If too long a scalding time is used for
they are returned to the retort and processed
the
particular
size ?sh undergoing treatment, the
from 3A1 to 2 hours at 220° F. to 260° F., prefer 45
underlying ?esh will be cooked and will break off
ably at about 240° F., followed by a quick water
and be lost as waste during subsequent treat
cooling for extracting heat from the cans. The
ment,
and if the scalding time is too short the
time variance for processing depends on the size
skin and scales are not easily removable. The
of the can, the larger can requiring a longer
scalding time may thus be de?ned generally as
period.
50 sufficient to loosen the skin and scales but not
The ?lled cans may also be exhausted by
sufficient appreciably to cook the underlying ?esh
utilizing a vacuum closing machine in which
of the ?sh. The scalding time may vary from
the cans are placed, a vacuum drawn so as to
as low as 60 seconds for the smallest fish of less
de-gas the cans and the can lids sealed in place
while the vacuum is drawn.
A vacuum of 20 to
28 inches of mercury, preferably 23 inches of
mercury vacuum, is employed when utilizing the
mechanical vacuum closing method. The cans
thus exhausted are then processed as described
above for ?nal cooling and sterilizing the con
tents thereof.
The cans may be ?lled with the dry, ?aked
?llet and any suitable sauces, oils or condiments
may be added to the cans prior to the closing
operations.
than 1 pound to a high as 120 seconds or even
55 more for very large ?sh. The Water in which the ?sh are scalded may have salts added thereto
to raise the boiling point of the scalding water.
After the scalding operation the skin and
scales are removed either by hand or by the use
a of
machinery such as a tumbler.
‘he removal
of skin and scales can be done very easily by
stripping the skin and scales by hand, but where
large batches are handled costs may be lowered
, by using machinery.
6. O1
Where using the tumbler the scalded ?sh are
placed in a cylindrical tumbler made of expanded
metal lath, and the tumbler slowly rotated. The
skin and scales are sluffed off by mutual abrasion
of the fish and by abrasion of the ?sh against
70 the walls of the tumbler. The residue of skin
260° F. and preferably 141/2 hours at 240° F.,
and scales is washed off by a spray of water.
after which they are removed from the pre
After removal of the skin and scales by machine
cooker and cooled. Cooling time depends upon
tumbling the ?sh are inspected and any bits of
the size of the batch and ambient temperature
skin and scales not removed in the previous me
and may range from l-2 hours to overnight.
chanical operation are then removed. The heads
In a variation of the method the ?sh may be
scaled and eviscerated and the heads removed.
After brining as in the case of the ?llets, the ?sh
are placed in single layers on wire trays and
pre-cooked with steam 1 to 2 hours at 220° F. to
2,411,736
the cooling and to speed removal of the moisture‘
and tails are then cut oil and the ?sh eviscerated
from the ?sh flesh.
and the belly fat removed. These operations can
be carried out conveniently by dumping the ?sh
from the tumbler directly onto a moving belt
where they are carried-‘along past a series of
workers for inspection and removal of bits of
scale and skin and then through ‘a decapitator
and taller and ?nally to an eviscerating station
where the ?sh are eviscerated and the belly fat
removed.
’
'
'
‘The ?sh are then washed'preferably utilizing
I
Where the “muddy streak” has been removed
earlier in the process the ?sh are then simply in
spected to see whether there are any portions of r
the “muddy strea ” remaining on the ?sh and if
so, these are removed. When the “muddy streak”
has not previously been removed, it is now'clearly
discernible and can be removed by the use of a
10 V-shaped cutting tool. ~
> The ?sh ?esh is then removed from the larger
bones, ?aked and canned in accordance with the
a brush washer for the inside of the ?sh followed
by a spray wash of the entire ?sh carcass for
previously described procedures.
.
The invention is illustrated by the following
removal of residues loosened in cleaning.
The “muddy streak” is not clearly discernible
at this stage since the scalding operation does
intended to be limiting upon the invention de- I
not cook the ?esh of the ?sh and hence has not
darkened the “muddy streak” relative to the re
Example A
examples which are merely illustrative and are not
scribed and claimed:
maining ?eshy portions of the ?sh. If desired,
Freshly caught carp were ?lleted by cutting on
however, the portion of the ?sh forming the 20 either side of the back bone so as to remove the
“muddy streak”
which later becomes clearly
central portion of the back bone structure. The
discernible during the pre-cooking operation, may
be removed in whole or in part at this point in
the process. The “muddy streak” is not yet
clearly discernible to the eye, but a skilled oper
V ribs, severed from the back bone, were permitted
to remain with the ?llet which was removed from
the outer skin by a short incisive out between the
skin portion and the ?esh portion of the ?llet.
ator can, by using a ‘ll-shaped cutting tool, re
move the portion of the ?sh flesh along the
median line of the ?sh where the “muddy streak”
is known to become, later discernible. It may
be pointed out that there is a ?ne not very clearly
visible median line lengthwise of the ?sh along
The ?llets were then soaked for 2 hours in a so
dium chloride salt brine of 100% saturation and
after brining were removed and rinsed. The ?llets
were, then placed in single layers in wire trays
with the outside portion of the ?llet (that portion
adjacent the skin) arranged upwardly, and the
trays placed in a steaming retort for 1%; hours
the approximate center of the “muddy streak”
at 240° F, reducing the water content thereby.
part of the ?esh, and this assists the operator
in removing the V-shaped cut of “muddy streak”
Following this the ?llets were allowed to cool 1
35 hour. The darkened and relatively soft central
material even though the streak as a whole is
“muddy streak” which thereby became apparent
not'discernible at this stage. When the “muddy
on the upper part of the ?llets was removed by
streak” is removed at this juncture, this is accom
a triangular pointed knife, and the ?llets removed
plished before the washing operation.
The thus treated ?sh are then brined for 1 to
21/2 hours by either the batch or continuous
method_
.
_
and the larger rib bones which were loosened from
40 the ?eshy portion of the ?llets by the steaming
were likewise removed. At the same time the soft,
somewhat oily portion of the ?llets corresponding
The brine used sho 1d have a salinity of 80%
to the belly of the ?sh were trimmed off. The
?llets were then ?aked and packed into cans. In
to 100% saturation, preferably about 90% satura
tion at 75° F. For purposes of preparing the brine
there may be used a salt composition containing
some of the cans there was added tomato sauce
98.5% to 97% sodium chloride and 11/2072, to 3%
and others mustard sauce or cottonseed oil and
of calcium chloride, or unre?ned rock salt may
be used with or without the addition of a minor
the remainder packed dry without any additional
percentage of calcium chloride. The length of
and exhausted by heating with steam in a retort
sauce.
The cans were then closed but not sealed
time of brining depends upon the size of the ?sh, =
for 8 minutes at 212° F. The cans were then re
the smaller time interval being preferred for the
moved and-‘immediately sealed and returned to
the retort and processed for 75 minutes at 240°
F. after which they wereremoved and quenched
in cold water. The canned, ?aked ?llets were of
small to medium size ?sh and a, greater time in
terval for large or extra large ?sh. Where extra
large ?sh are being handled the meaty portion of
the ?sh may be slit lengthwise of the ?sh in order
' , ?rm,delicate texture, light in color and completely
to permit ready penetration of the brine solution
free from ?shy or muddy taste or odor. The prod
and also to facilitate heating during the subse
uct is nutritious and of good ?avor.
quent pro-cooking operation.
and appearance resembles that of the white meat
of chicken. The product has a high food value,
being rich in proteins, calcium and vitamins, par
After brining, the ?sh are then removed and
washed either by spray or tub washing methods,
drained and then placed on trays for pro-cooking.
It may be noted that when utilizing whole ?sh in
accordance with this method of the invention the
capacity of the trays is greatly increased over the
amount capable of being handled when the ?sh
are ?lleted initially.
The ?sh on the trays are then p-re-cooked for
1% hour to 1% hours at a temperature of 220° to
260° F. The preferred time and temperature is %
hour at 250° F. At the end of the pre-cooking op
eration the trays are removed from the pro-cock
ing retort, cooled to approximately room tempera
ture which is usually accomplished in a time of
about 1 to 2 hours.~ During thecooling time cool
air may bc'blown over the ?sh in order to hasten 75
The flavor '
ticularly vitamins A and D. In the ?lleting opera
tion and the subsequent removal of the larger rib
bones, the larger bones of the fish are removed
but the smaller bones distributed throughout the
?esh of the carp are not removed. These small
bones were, however, reduced to a completely
edible form and were hardly discernible from the
remaining portion of the ?llet. The edible bone
residues add considerably to the calcium and
phosphate contents of the product and are advan
tageous. When the carp used for canning is of
relatively small size, even the small rib bones may
be allowed to remain in the product since they
were reduced to edible condition during the brin
7
2,411,736
8
ing, steaming and cooking steps. When thus al
The yield of canned, ?aked ?sh in Examples
lowed to remain in the product they added to the
calcium and phosphorus food values.
A, B, D and E average 17.4% of the weight of
the ?sh as received.
Example E
Example B '
Fresh carp is ?lleted as in Example A and after
Fresh ?sh was ?lleted as in Example A, brined
?lleting soaked for 2 hours in a sodium chloride
for 2 hours in sodium chloride salt brine having
salt brine having a salinity of 22% saturation,
after which it was removed and dry salted over~
a salinity of 100% saturation.
night (approximately 8 hours). The ?llets were
then removed and soaked 45 minutes in cold wa
ter and after rinsing processed as in Example A.
The resultant product was somewhat more salty
than in Example A but the ?avor was satisfac
tory and the product was ?rm in texture, of good 15
color, nutritious and delicious, The smaller bones
The ?llets Were
then removed, rinsed, and placed on wire trays
with the portion of the ?llet next to the skin posi
tioned up. The trays of ?llets were then steamed
for 1 hour at 240° F. and the “muddy streak”
which then became clearly discernible was re
moved, along with the larger bones which had
loosened from the ?eshy portion of the ?llet. At
the same time the fatty portion of the ?llet cor
responding to the belly of the ?sh was trimmed
off. The thus processed ?llets were then ?aked
and divided into ?ve batches to which tomato
sauce, cottonseed oil, mustard sauce and water
were added. To one of the batches of ?aked ?l
which were not removed were no longer discern
ible as bone and served as valuable natural min
eral factors.
Example C‘
Fresh carp were scaled and the heads removed.
The ?sh were not soaked in brine but were rinsed
after cleaning and were placed in a single layer
on wire trays and steamed for one hour at 240° F.
lets no additions were made. The cans were then
closed, exhausted and processed as in Example
D. The ?avor of all of the packs was excellent,
?esh ?rm and the product was nutritious and
whereupon they were removed from the steam 25 the
of full ?avor.
ing retort and cooled overnight in the trays. The
Example F
skin was then scraped o? and at the same time
the “muddy streak” was removed by means of a
Fish which had been quick frozen and stored
blunt V-pointed instrumentthat was drawn down
30 for two weeks were thawed and part of the batch
the median line of the ?sh. The ?esh was then
was scaled and the heads removed as in Example
removed, ?aked and put into cans. The cans
C and part of the batch ?lleted as in Examples
were then separated into four batches and treated
A, B, D and E. Both batches were brined for one
as follows: To the ?rst batch tomato sauce was
hour in a salt brine of 100% saturation and there
added, to the second batch cottonseed oil was
added, to the third batch mustard sauce was
added and to the fourth batch water was added.
Dry salt, su?icient to season the ?sh to taste was
then added to each can and the cans covered but
not sealed. The cans were then placed in a retort
after removed, rinsed and steamed for 1% hours
at 240° F. The batch which had been scaled and
the heads removed (but not ?lleted) was then
treated as follows: The skin was folded back and
the “muddy streak,” thereby exposed, was re
40 moved by a sharp pointed instrument as de
and steamed for 5 minutes at 212° F. whereupon
scribed above. The ?esh was then removed from
they were removed, sealed and returned to the
the carcass, the ?sh turned over and the same
retort and processed for '75 minutes at 240° F.
process repeated on the opposite side. The por
Yield of ?aked ?sh (canned) was 12.9% based
tion of the batch that had been ?lleted was
upon the weight of the whole ?sh received.
45 treated as follows: The “muddy streak” was re
moved by a sharp pointed instrument and the
Example D
large bones that were then easily separable from
Fresh ?sh were ?lleted as in Example A and
the ?eshy portion of the ?llet and the fat belly
rinsed but not brined. The ?llets were then
portion of the ?llet were removed. Each batch
placed in wire trays with the part of the ?llet 0 was then divided into 4 portions. To three of
toward the skin arranged upwardly and pre
the portions there were added tomato sauce, cot
cooked with steam for 11/2 hours at 240° F. The
tonseed oil and mustard sauce, respectively, and
trays were then removed and the ?llets permitted
the fourth portion was packed without any addi
to cool to approximately room temperature while
on the trays, whereupon the “muddy streak” .
which was then easily discernible was removed as '
tional material. The cans were then covered but
not sealed and placed in a retort and exhausted
by heating with steam at 212° F. for eight min
in Example A and the larger rib bones which had
utes. The cans were then removed from the re
been loosened from the ?eshy portion of the ?llet
tort and processed for '75 minutes at 240° F. In
were taken out. At the same time the fatty por
every instance the canned ?sh was of delicious
tion of the ?llet, corresponding to the belly of the
and edible character and the ?esh was ?rm and
?sh, was trimmed off and the ?llets ?aked and
nutritious. The yield of canned ?aked ?sh was
packed into cans. The pack was divided into ?ve
19.2% of the whole ?sh starting material.
batches. To the ?rst batch there was added to
Example G
mato sauce; to the second batch, cottonseed oil;
to the third batch, mustard sauce; to the fourth
Fresh carp were ?lleted as in Example A and
batch, water; and to the ?fth batch, flaked ?sh
the ?llets soaked for one hour in a salt brine of
without any additional material, To the Water
100% saturation. The ?llets were then removed
pack batch and dry pack there was then added
from the brine, rinsed and placed in a single layer
su?icient dry salt for seasoning and the cans of
on wire trays with the portion of the ?llet next
all batches were then covered but not sealed and 70 to the skin up. The trays were then placed in a
exhausted and processed as in Example C. The
steam retort and Dre-cooked for 1.1/4v hours at
resultant products were ?rm, nutritious, highly
240° F. The trays were then removed and the
edible and full ?avored. The color was desirable
“muddy streak” removed before ?llets are re
and the bones remaining were reduced to edible
moved from the brine, and the bones and fatty
condition.
'
75 portion of the ?llet removed as heretofore de
"2,411,736
9 -
v
‘scribed. ‘The yield of i?aked ?sh wasaapprorri
mately 15%, ‘based upon the weight-of the whole
‘ weighed from 4 t0;'8, pounds and were scalded for
" ?sh used as starting ‘material. The ?aked ?llets
. were then-?lled into the cans and 11A‘ ounces'of
?shof about 5-6 pounds the scalding time was 90
seconds; for ?sh of about 4-5 pounds the scald
ing time was 80 seconds. After scalding, the ?sh
time intervals asirgiollowsz For ?sh ofabout 8
poundsthe scalding time was 100 seconds; for
cottonseed oil for each 5 ounces of ?aked ?shiwas .'
added. The cans were‘ then evacuated and sealed
in a vacuum closing machine utilizing a vacuum
of 23 inches of mercury. The sealed cans‘ were
then processed for 75 minutes at 240° F; and after
were placed on a work table and the skin and
scales which were then thoroughly softened and
easily removable, were peeled o-? by hand. ‘The
10 heads and tailswere then cut oil, the ?sh evis
They
processing were promptly water cooled.
cerated and the belly. fat removed. Then by
product was ?rm,,of good ?avor and color and
using a V-shaped cutting knife'a cut was made
nutritious.
-
along the median line at each side of they ?sh in
_
Example H‘
the place which by previous experience the “mud
dy streak” was known to become later discern
I - ‘Fresh ?sh were scaled, eviscerated and the. 15
' heads removed.
ible during the pre-cooking operation. In mak
The ?sh were. not ?lleted or
ing this cut the ?ne line of cleavage in the fish
flesh lengthwise of the ?sh on either side was
layer on wire trays and pre-cooked for 11/4. hours
used as a guiding line for the cut. The ?sh were
at 240° F. < The trays were then removedv from the
cooking chamber, held overnight and the skin 20 then washed in running water, care being taken
that the internal cavities of the ?sh were thor
lifted from the cooked ?esh. The “muddy streak”
oughly cleaned. The ?sh were then divided into
which was then clearly visible was removed from
two batches. In the ?rst batch the ?sh were
each side of the ?sh and the ?esh lifted from the
brined in a brine solution containing a salt s0-'
bones, ?aked and ?lled into cans. To each 5
lution of 90% saturation. The temperature of
ounces of ?aked ?sh there was added 1% ounces 25
the brine Was about 60° F. and the ?sh were kept
of cottonseed oil and 4%; grams of dry salt.- The
in the brine solution for one hour and'then re
> cans were then evacuated and sealed in a vacuum
moved and rinsed. In the second batch the ?sh
closing machine utilizing 23 inches of mercury
were .brined in a solution of 90% saturated so
vacuum and processed for '75 minutes at 240° F.
dium chloride brine containing plus 3% calcium
The yield was 15.9% based upon the weight of the 30 chloride. The calcium chloride percentage was
whole ?sh used as starting material. The result
by weight, based upon the’, amount of sodium
brined.
The ?sh were then placed’ in a single
vant product was highly nutritious, oflfuil ?avor,
light color and of ?rm texturer
chloride salt required for producing a saturated
'
‘ sodium chloride solution. . In the second batch
the temperature of the brine solution was ap
proximately 60° F. and the ?sh were brin'ed for
. Example I
Fresh ?sh were scaled, evisceratedv and the
7 one hour and then removed and rinsed.
heads removed as in Exam‘plefI-I and soaked in a
salt brine of 100% saturation for one hour where
The ?sh were then placed in single layers upon
trays andthe ?rst batch pro-cooked for 1 1/4 hours
at-2‘40°_ F. The second batch was likewiseyplaced
‘upon they were cooked, held overnight, the
“muddy streak”_ removedythe’ flesh lifted and
?aked as in Example
The yield was 117% of
?aked ?sh based upon the whole weight of the
carcass.v The cans were then evacuated and
sealed in a vacuum closing machine utilizing '25
inches of mercury pressure. The, product was
on trays and'prewooked for 45 minutes at ‘250°
F.
were then inspected for the presence of the “mud
4 :3:
dy streak” material along the median line cuts
highly nutritious, of ‘full ?avor, good color and
?rm
texture.
'
'
'
'
,
I
previouslymade in the ?sh.’ In some cases‘ some
..
bits of “muddy streak” material, which had not
been removed in the vprevious ‘operation-and
ExampZeJ
Fresh ?sh were treated as ‘in Example H except
' which were now clearly discernible due to the
that instead of holding the pro-cooked ?shover
night the ?sh were ‘held for only one hour after
‘steaming, whereupon the skin and the ‘l‘muddy
streak” were removed and the?esh separated
from the bone and ?aked. , The yield was 15.9% ;
of ?ake based upon the weight of'the whole ?sh
used as starting material.
Both batches were then removed from the
‘pre-cooking retort, cooled to approximately room
temperature which required 1 to 11/2 hours'and
The cans were then
darker color produced during pre-cooking, were
now removed.
The ?esh of the ?sh [was then
removed from the larger bones, ?aked and placed
in cans. Cottonseed oil was added to each can
inthe ratio of 20 cc. of cottonseed oil for each
3.2 ounces of ?sh placed in the can. The oil was
placed at‘ the bottom of the cans and the ?aked
?lled ‘utilizing 1% ounces of cottonseed oil and
?sh then hand packed to vslack .?lled ‘capacity.
va'jvacuum closing machine in which the vacuum‘
drawn was_23 inches of mercury pressure. The
24 inches of mercury and ‘were then processed
i'or 75 minutes at 240° F. and afterprocessing
were promptly water cooled for 15 minutes in
cold running water.‘ The product in every in
stance was ?rm and of good ?avor and color and
washighly nutritious. In the case of the ?sh
The cans were then evacuated‘and sealed on a
41/4 grams of dry salt to each 5 ounces of ?aked
?sh. The cans were then evacuated andsealed in GO vacuum closing machine utilizing a vacuum of
'cans were then cooked at 240° F. for '75 minutes
‘and promptly quenched in cold water. The re
sultant product ‘Was'?rm in texture, good ?avor
and color and of delicious and nutritious charac
ter.
'
'
.
brined in the combined sodium chlorideecalcium
~ chloride‘ brine, the ?sh when packed into the cans
appeared to have a slightly lighter ‘color and ?rm
—" Fresh'carp with the heads and" tails on; not -70 er texture as-compared with the ?sh brined in
Example K
evis'c'erated and as received from the supplier"!
ordinary sodium chloride brine.
"
'
'
; Ingeneral it may be stated that the canned
"were scalded icy suspending them on hooks in a
Water bath that was maintained at approxi
mately 212° F. by bleeding live steam thereinto.
product-is ?rm "and o; appetizing color and sat
' The ?sh in the batch undergoing treatment
most lots.
isfactory ?avor, the ?avor being very good in
In general there was an absence of
2, 41' 1,736
11
pronounced ?sh flavor.
v12
The appearance, and
wise along each side of the ?sh at the median
?avor were similar to canned chicken.
line‘ location of the “muddy streak.”
To insure proper distribution of sauces, oils,
5. The process of claim 3 further characterized
or condiments when used, they should be added
in that the “muddy streak” is removed after pre—
hot to the cans when the heat exhaust method is 5 cooking and before removal of the flesh from
used but they may be added cold when the vac
the larger bones of the ?sh.
uum closing method is used.
The process of this invention is also applicable
to the canning of the better grades‘ of ?sh such
6. The process of claim 3 further characterized
in that in brining the ?sh the brinlng solution
contains sodium chloride and a minor percent
as perch, pike, trout and the like, but since these 10 age of calcium chloride.
are not generally commercially available and in
7. The process of claim 3 further characterized
any event usually command a high value as fresh
in that in brining the ?sh the brining solution
?sh, the commercial advantages of canning them
is an 80% to 100% saturated aqueous solution of
are much less than for the cheap grades of rough
a salt mixture composed of 98.5% to 97% so
?sh.
15 dium chloride and 1¥/2% to 3% calcium chloride.
As many apparently widely different embodi
8. The process of canning fresh water ?sh
merits of this invention may be made without
which comprises brining, precooking and canning
departing from the spirit and scope thereof, it
?sh from which the head, tail, skin, scales, ?ns,
is to be understood that I do not limit myself to
eviscera and larger bones are removed in process,
the speci?c embodiments herein except as de?ned 20 said process being characterized in that prior to
by the appended claims.
canning, the “muddy streak” portions of the ?esh
What I claim is: ,
of the ?sh are removed therefrom.
1. In the canning of fresh water ?sh, the im
,9. The process of canning fresh water ?sh from
proved steps comprising prior to removal of the
which the inedible portions of the ?sh, such as
head or viscera, preliminarily scalding the ?sh in 25
head, tail, skin, scales, ?ns, eviscera and larger
water at approximately boiling temperature for
bones are removed and the edible portions of the
a time interval to loosen the skin and scales, the
?sh are canned and sterilized in the can, said
time of scalding being insu?icientappreciably to
process being characterized in that prior to can
cook the underlying flesh of the ?sh, then rening the “muddy streak” along the outside of
moving the skin, scales, head, tail ‘and viscera, 30 each side of the ?sh is removed and the flesh of
the process being characterized‘ by removing the
the ?sh is brined and precooked.
“muddy streak” portions of the ?esh by cutting
10. In the process of canning the ?avorsome,
edible portions of fresh water ?sh from which
a V-shaped groove lengthwise of the
along
each side‘ of the ?sh at the median line, and
washing the ?sh.
2. In the canning of fresh water ?sh, the im
inedible portions, such as‘the head, tail, skin,
scales, ?ns, eviscera and larger bones, are re
moved during the process, the improved steps
comprising cutting away the “muddy streak”
proved steps comprising prior to removal of the
head or eviscera preliminarily scalding the ?sh
in water which is maintained at approximately
boiling temperature for a time interval su?icient
to loosen the skin and scales but insufficient ap
preciably to cook the underlying ?esh of the ?sh,
tumbling the ?sh in a perforated revolving drum
while running water thereover to remove the skin
and scales, inspecting and removing any bits of
skin or scale thereafter adhering to the ?sh, re~
moving ‘the tail, head, eviscera and belly fat, the
process being characterized by removing the
“muddy streak” portion of the ?esh of the ?sh
by cutting a V-shaped groove lengthwise of the
?sh along each side of the ?sh at the median
line, and washing the ?sh.
along each side of the ?sh and brining and pre
cooking ?sh prior to canning the ?sh, and ster
ilizing the product in the can.
11. In the process of canning the ?avorsome
edible portions of fresh water ?sh from which
the inedible portions, such as the head, tail, skin,
scales, ?ns, eviscera and larger bones, are re
' moved, the improved steps which comprise, when
,
3. The process of canning fresh water ?sh com
prising preliminarily scalding the ?sh in water
at approximately boiling temperature for a time
interval to loosen the skin and scales, the time
of scalding being insui?cient appreciably to cook
the underlying ?esh of the ?sh, removing the'
skin,‘scales, head, tail and eviscera, washing the
?sh, brining the ?sh in a salt brine solution, pre 60
cooking and cooling the ?sh, removing the ?esh
of the ?sh from the larger bones thereof, pack
the skin and scales are removed so as to expose the
underlying ?esh of the ?sh, cutting away the
"muddy streak” by making a cut of generally v
shaped cross section along each side of the ?sh at
said “muddy streak” so as to cut it away from the
remainder of the fleshy portions of the ?sh, brin
_ing and precooking the remaining portions of the
?sh so as to reduce the moisture content thereof,
and then canning and sterilizing the remaining
?eshy portions of the ?sh.
12. The process of claim 11 further character
tized in that the ?sh are brined in a sodium
chloride salt solution of 80% to 100% strength
for 1 to 21/2 hours.
,
13. The process of claim 11 further character
ized in that the ?sh are brined in a salt solution
of 80% to 100% saturation wherein the salt used
is a mixture of 97% to 98.5% sodium chloride
and the remainder calcium chloride.
14. The process of claim 11 further character
ized in that the ?sh are precooked with steam
for 1% hour to 11/2 hours at a temperature of 220°
from larger bones, the “muddy streak” portions
to 260° F.
of the ?esh of the ?sh are removed therefrom.
15. The process of claim 11 further character
4. The process of claim 3 further character 70
ized in that the ?sh are ?lleted before the re
ized in that after scalding and prior to brining
moval of the “muddy streak,” brining and pre
the “muddy streak” is removed by cutting out a
cooking.
1
ing the flesh in cans and exhausting and steril
izing the can and contents, said process being
further characterized in that at one stage in
the process after the removal of skin and scales
and prior to the removal of the flesh of the ?sh
V-shaped groove in the ?esh of the ?sh length
ARMIN R. KLEINSCHMIDT.
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