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Патент USA US2411740

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g ' v‘2,411,740
Patented-{Non 2'6,‘
,i >. a , any nimluasmmi
s-asslgnm'entstto Theirexas Company,
» ‘Min/Incorporation ofsllelaware,
a, 515,254; i~ ] T" ,
a a
cushioned by.‘ au-mass‘of incom
' ri'l‘hisiinvention ism-a‘ aniseaeraaii'wnisuse .11' ;.§it-.
is, mu times,
either. air or produots of] combustion
tlon Fengintn! -_the'l ‘fuel-‘mention snark-‘ignition ‘ or-botlu. -_Conseq11_§nt1y;theaccumulation oi'any
ens substantial ~; amount .; on highly-@compressed , and
=v heated end Igases‘ consisting ~ 0t iunburned vcom
_' In thecopendingi “new assesses: a
v~ > ber,-Ser1a1fNo. 513,232,‘
"bustible =-iuel-,a-irv mixture. is avoided, ‘and; knock
?edllecemlier 1751943; as
" ‘ ya continuatlomin‘epartot
I , ' October 23;1942;fthere is
ingoI-vthe enginecannot ot'eui?gv
serialiliioi' 483,031,‘ tiled ‘
the preferred embodimentnnentioned above,
thef-fuel-is injected- in a3 generally‘ tangential di
disclosed . andgclaimedi >
"r'eotion of theeomhustion'spaoe inthe direction
' 1 an-internal'comhustion'ljengine oftvthis typeizan'dif .
a method 7 of {operating ‘siichi' ‘an-engine; whereby‘ ‘10 :01 eir'switl; andvejn; the form of a: highly atomized I
intensity. *Ma'nyofthe
v spontaneous} ignition-i] or the fuels‘ mliture; ‘and
"413115855915? of low
I ’
Y knocking of'the engine;areeeliminatedf'irresneci w
are not-jcapableoi producing ‘the desiredtype of
'tive of the-octane valueand :oetanerva1ueiof5the
'tuelemployed,'and"\irrespeotive'ofithexeomprese-f:u (-
. t
‘ '
sion‘ratio or theengine "and the‘j charge =density
’ '
used; _='-'I'his ' is,‘ accomplished
thy}; '
‘but rather, form va
; more 'ormless" sqlldiplet not‘ high, intensity, ‘ More
lover; rlvrintrorder to mount ‘the fuel iniectioninozzle
tissues-wit“ - ;so'asito
discharge‘ in a generally tansentim direc- /
_. ,clent fuelflrom mixi'ngt with
} that
' ‘ air within the ‘combustion space wmcn=wou1qnor+ s ' ‘I 1 tion' or “,the rvcombustion space, the cylinder vWail
many form: the sci-called "ends-gas?‘,meamngrunq
F'burned s combustible
must be drilled},with a. bore passing through the
fuel f vapor-air mixture j.
waliln a non-.radialdirection, vwhich ‘may, involve j
"tlons oi structuralstrength;strains,,and thefor
L trappeidjby' the ‘heme front following ' ignitlomfso v ' "oertalndimcultles inoonstruction and considera- ‘ = '
_ that-fsnontaneousignition
' " knocking orhi’
imavéti'onoia zas-tightsea-h Moreover, many con- ‘
vent'i'onal engines Whioh are‘othervvise adaptable‘
‘ to. conversion to this method» of knock-free com- I
ferred-iiienihodinient“of; that diiventlon',
‘air ls‘introduced into thecomjpustlongspace'ot the:
bustlon, are equipped. with, radially drilled holes
‘‘ engine in a'manner to produeélarhlilhvelocity of , j which are not susceptibletothe proper mounting
swirling movement therein, this, air-is ‘compressed i '01 the injection nozzle ' in. the desired vtangential
while maintaining the swirling movemenwand = relationship.
near the - end of, the compression stroke iuelyistin; #30 ' 1 One rjozvtne iprmciaaiiobjéets
of the‘ present‘ in?‘" ‘
" Jectedilntothe compressed-swirling airrin aimane
. _
' ventionis to overcome the.
ner to’provide' knock-tree eom'busti'ona The lat- 1 oulties and .ato?provide'for theready. and economi- * o
ter‘ is" effected ‘by, injectln'g__ the-fuel at such-a , tem- _' ; ‘ cal oonversiongof: available ‘engines and oon‘venr.
perature ‘ andv pressure that‘: at least-‘a part "of'ithe " i‘tional jiuel injection; nozzles
fuel ‘?ash vaporizes or iormsfvapjori veryrapidly,v 35 iknookeireeduoe ha combustible‘ 'fuel
vapor-air mixture with
the locus-‘of-"injeetion,
v The “?rst increment of injected‘. fuelrisllsparkr i'g
niteod substantially i as i’s'ooni‘ as ‘the’: combustible
>oniy/a'short travel
this method of
‘. q
this vapor-mixes’withithe‘swirling air, to prune; - >~ ‘‘;._;Another object o! theypresent-invention'
is. to
' I, _V ovidegamadapter@for ozconvementlyyand eco-_ '
_ '~' D
luel! iniectioninozzle,
£94 an
engine eylinderto produce iby impingement a de- y ‘
' sired? atomized soft spray or. proper intensity and,
- mixture has been-tormedpand¥¢. - dispersion and of limpet-‘direction in the combus
fuel hastbeemintroduoed -_to<produce ignoohi-z'rhe , $1911 1511506, #0,» Wm?“
method {ifv knook-free'
immedlatelgnltion‘tof thisl'?rstrincrement. ovfjln
lected'ituel‘ establishes v_agi'fianie}. front; andv the-ling- I 45“combustion-31.;
>01 ' the I invention
I . is. to 'pro
theylnleetion periodi-i'nto
j of the‘ combustion space immediately.
v- '
' _ toltlzthe
' 7 whereby; the {remaining liniectedrgmelimlxes with‘ -
i vide' arimethod ,oiiendaapparatus- tor, oar'ryiiis out‘ I
1 roornbustiomwlthout.knoqking v in >aa-,-fuel-lnjeotion'
pirkéignition internal-comhustion-engine, wheree ._
nf thelfueli jet 1 from the vnozzle i_s1,for'x_ne¢, intof'the
jadditional; swirling air; to " ranicllyl.v form c'omb'us-j-i
*tible?fuel Vv'aporgair; mixture‘. that-iis' consumed 7'2
rapidly‘? as formed, j
011 the] cylinder.‘walhpistonjand Shir
Thelnet ir’esultj, "$118-$133! combustible:- fuel-girl" electrodes 1- isl: at the, ;same time; evcid'eda,
mixture ‘; under'g'oingcombustion‘ within the cyiir'fé
thatii'ss'i I 'Qther objects‘ ' advantages of vthefinveptlonl
‘r. combustioniésubstantially'
consumed .' after ionisation »
7, ‘
will be apparent from the following description
when taken in conjunction with the attached
drawings and appended claims.
In .the drawings, which illustrate a preferred
embodiment of the invention,
Fig. 1 is a plan view of an engine cylinder, with
upper end of the combustion space, 20. The
socket 25 provides a slight semicircular indenta
tion in the wall of the combustion space, the elec
trodes 21 being. at the center of this indentation
and approximately on the imaginary line consti
tuting a continuance of the circumference of the
appurtenances including the fuel injection sys
combustion space as viewed in Fig.1. The elec
tem and controls illustrated diagrammatically;
trodes 21 extend down intothis socket 25 so that
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on the
the ends of the electrodes are just below the
plane of the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
10 horizontal plane of the upper end of the combus
Fig; 3 is a perspective view of the adapter;
tion space as viewed in Fig. 2. It will be under
Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional view of the adapter '
taken on the plane of the line 4-4 of Fig. 3; and
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic plan view of the engine
stood that spark plug .26 is connectedbywire 28
in 'a'conventional ignition system (not shown)
‘ which is timed in synchronization with the engine
cylinder combustion space, illustrating the type 15 cycle to produce a spark of ignitibleintensity at
of combustion occurring therein.
the electrodes 2'! at the proper periodof the cycle.
Referring more particularly to Figs. 1 and 2,
The cylinder is also equipped with a threaded
the engine cylinder is indicated at l0 having the
bore 30 drilled on a radius of the cylinder com
usual water jacket I I, with piston I2 and connect
bustion space (Fig. 1), the included angle 3| be
ing rod I3 which runs to the usual crank shaft 20 tween the radii intersecting the center ofbore 30
(not shown). The cylinder head is equipped with
and thetelectrodes 21 respectively being shown as
an intake port l4 communicating with a convene
approximately 30°, although this maybe varied‘
tlonal air intake pipe or manifold which may con
ashereinafter described. In accordance with the
tain a customary air‘ ?lter (not shown). Port ‘- present'invention, an; adapter 32 (Figs. 3 and 4)
l 4 is controlled by a poppet intake valve l5 having 25 is mounted within bore 30 and receives a-fuel in-'
a valve stem l6 extending through the head to
jection nozzle 33. Fuel from a suitable source
the exterior thereof. The cylinder head is also
of supply‘ such as tank 35 is drawn through line
provided with an exhaustport l1 communicating
36 by‘ fuel pump 31 driven by-the engine in, any
with a conventional exhaust pipe which may con
. conventional manner. The fuel pump forces the
tain a suitable muiller (not shown). The exhaust 30 liquid or liquefied fuel under-pressure of about
port is controlled by-a poppet valve it! having a
500,-4000 lbs. per square inch throughline 38 into
valve stem 49 also extending throughthe head.
an accumulatingtank .139, from which‘it passes
It will be understood that the valve stems l6 and
by line Ill leading to the injection nozzle ‘33. Line
ii! are actuated in customary manner by suitable
40 contains acheck valve 4| and may be‘equipped
cams carried by a conventional valve cam shaft 35 with. a suitable heating means, shown as'an elec
(not shown) driven at one-half the engine speed
trical heating coil-42. While any conventional
for four-cycle operation.
' '
fuel injection‘ system can be employed, the one
As shown, a disc-shaped combustion space 20 is
shown- is of particular adaptation to multi-cylin
formed within the engine cylinder, which is'cir
der engines, since the separate cylinders and their
,cular in cross-section. ‘While ‘the piston and cyl 40 respective injection nozzles can be» supplied
inder head are shown in Fig. 2 as being ?at, one
through individual lines 40 ‘running from the
or more may be dished or crowned.
It is to be
understood ‘that the term “disc-shaped” is used
in a broad sense as meaning a combustion space
which is generally circular in cross-section, but
which may have various con?gurations in vertical
section due to dishing or crowning of the piston
or cylinder head or both. The intake valve I5
is equipped with a shroud 2i shown as extending
approximately 180° about the valve, the ends of
the shroud being positioned substantially on a
radius of the combustion space (Fig. 1). The air
intake opening of the valve is thus tangential to
thereby impart a high velocity of swirling move
ment to the air introduced into the combustion
space in‘ the-direction of the arrow 22. While the
180° shroud in the position shown constitutes a
preferred arrangement, it is to be understood that
the angular extent of the shroud and the setting
of the shroud with respect to the true tangential
position can be altered somewhat to secure di?er
ent velocities of air swirl, so long’ as the» spray
pattern. rate of fuel injection and-positioning of
the fuel injection opening with reference to the
locus of spark ignition are properly coordinated
with the air swirl velocity in a manner more fully
described. below.
Moreover; the inductionv air
swirl can also be secured by arranging the air
accumulator tank 38.1
V ,
Any suitable and conventional means for regu
lating'the quantityof fuel injected and the time
of fuel injection‘ in relation to the engine cycle
can be employed. As diagrammatically illus
trated, the injection nozzle 33 is equipped with a
spring actuated valve 44 having a valve stem op
erated by cam,“ carried by cam shaft 46, which
is- interconnected to bedriven b-ythe engine at
half the engine speed in any conventional man
ner. Cam 45‘ may be adjusted relative’ to the
piston stroke to control the-time of fuel injection"
or'injection advance,-and adjusted relative to the
valve stem'to. control the lengthof 1 time of open
ing ofthe valve “- to control the rate of fuel
injection and' the amount, of fuel injected on
each stroke. was controls forthis purpose are
conventional and -well-known,fno further illus
tration thereof is deemed necessary. 7 It is to be
understood that the quantity and rate of fuel
injection and‘ the injection advance can be con—
trolled bye, cam-.operatedpplunger-type' fuel pump
cooperating with a pressure-operated'check valve
in‘ the“ injection ‘ nozzle in " conventional manner,
instead‘ of the'arrangement described above. ’
' The adapter 32 is preferably formed of good
heat absorbing ‘and conducting material, such
intake port 14 so as to be generally tangential to 1
as brass- Thisadapter comprisesa body'portion
the combustion space, in place of the shrouded 70 50 of larger external diameter and a threaded
'valveconstruction illustrated,
The cylinder head is equipped with a threaded
socket 25 adapted to receive a spark plug 26 so
that the’electrodes 2-‘! ‘of the plug are positioned
extension v5| of smaller‘ diameter adapted toibe
received in gas‘ tight relationship in the threaded
bore 30.‘ An external shoulder “limits threaded
substantially at the circumference and at the 75 insertionlof the adapter into the bore 30, so that
the end ‘wall 53 of the extension is substantially
“ ?ush, with the circumference-oi -.the,:combustion~
what: upwardly so that theiouter;surfacethereoi;
space 20:1- TIle‘bOdYYpOi‘tiOnSO-isif0lfmed with an‘
dust,missestheelectrodes ‘2-1 of the spark plug“;
enlarged'socket'vportion 54,:tlie'outer end of which
I ‘The end wall 53 isyinaposition to'receive hear-t5.»
_ has internal screw’threads?“,adaptedqtorreceive'
of combustidn‘trom the‘combustion:space-landgto-‘a '
‘ , '1 an;
externally threadedcportiona560i
in gas-tightrelatlonshipw
fuelExten-‘jinjec- 95g~ _- ‘ store
that heatvsinvce'gtheadapter-is
cooling waterswithin.the'watei-f.
'slon1H1iis'i="formed“with. a; ‘socket-portion’ “of v jacketlll, 'HoweveLMsince the, adaptepr'is prefer
' -smallerrinternal.diameter adaptedto receivethe ‘I erably ..ot7l'iigh"gheat_ conductivity, this-- heat is,
noz'zle‘tipilwhich is‘ provided with thegusual 111-; ‘taken .up in substantialp.941?’1W1"he fuel vwh?m...
- ' jection-.~spo1tt{59 at'the: end-thereon An internal-'10; impingesonthe-Iuel passage 63 so that ‘the-fuel,
shoulder 60 limits threaded engagement of nozzle“, 1 is _ simultaneously, heated to v‘promote. [rapid va-.'
' 1 “within threadsv 55 by ‘virtue, of _ccoperating;:_; ' porizationasit is, converted by impingementsintoq
‘ ‘shoulder 6| on the nozzle?so that thejinjectionf
the soft atomized spray." This produces alsprayi , v '
portais' is close .to and positioned, rearwardliofw: l whoseuouter surface is,e form of; a very ?ne
theinterlor of enduvl'iall‘?. ~_-_»:;;-.;Y;1{:_ v
1 3,515, mist'tvhlch'fisf.almostaimmediately .cpnve?ediillm
-A:borej63=is drilledxthroughsthe end-."wall?," Q a‘porfasit passesjinto the combustion‘ space:_ a.
this'bore ?aring-:outwardlyjtrom assmaller dil-f V ‘Inf'operatiomon ‘the ;_fou1v'-str>oke_cycle,‘ai,11 :ori
’ ameter: opening‘-,64_‘.'Iacing>vtheefuelinjection“porti-1 ' dilute ialfuelraiij'mixture whichlsjod lean'to 5119-,“
> ‘59, inthernozzle- tip??; to .a; largeri diameter post;
ports-combustiqn lsjdI’B-Wn you the suction stroke
- ?atztheoutervsurface ofiendwvall:53.:E As shown 20- Q1’ piston .ll'ithrqllg. intake port I4, andthroueh
: ' , particularly .in‘iFig. ,3,thecenter"line:of bores”? - 'theatangentialifpoiituiformed lzpy-v shroud '2l_;s'o,'a.s
is vinclinedwitl'ig respect. to" the central: axis :of the 1'
‘adapter,- whereby the fuel-qjettdischargedi from;
to impart; “a, blend/810,011"! Pf Swirling movement,
tothe 811? 'withln?h? cylinder, y-This-ail‘‘Or-‘(invitev
I port 5,9sofsnozzlevtip'5? passes zthroughthezinneri
' mixture is'vthen‘icompxjessed‘on the compression
‘on: theztwallloflbore?»at‘rsubstantiallyy-the locus
' Setsgihat the-stagt; of ;vfuel injection occurs“ on‘.
port ilaslindicatedsby theline GT-andimpinges 252 stroke of the ~piston-'~_ Ina-injection advance is,f_
* indicated :at 68. ,Thefco'mpar'atiyely ‘solid 'fueli'
detgoi ‘rather high intensityas producedby'nozzle:
eachcyqleffmm‘about 15?‘, berpreitop' deadgceatep '
to aboutZOiaitettop dead; centenand preferably. v 4
an-highly; , abouti?oéi'inbefqréktop
strvqké- The iuQlsislniected,from-nozzle,a
dead center;of‘thelcom
Qthrough. vthego'uten port ssintq th'egcombustlon- 'y'niasainfst therimningellie?fmember?iend is»
spaee'asaindicated at sa-i'rhe outward ?are‘ jot-j v demoted intotheicombustionspacw {11134521115
theafuel impingement; passage?“ is S0¥c0o1fdl-'f; , dicatedvxnoregclearly'linRigs.‘ 3 andidwhere-the
' nated ‘with‘othe1j constructional; featuresjincludéx ‘Soft spmllv 15‘ sliowni?t 59-? The Outer ?dgeyqftthis.
- ing theipositionin'g of the'nozzle:tip and :the gen-*1 35“ may which‘ vaporize-s rapidly is mixed ;~w1.t_hi the;
, f>terz'line"mil-directionalaxis 'ofr'tliesfuelé jet-from ‘ swinlirigsairlanddisatztheisame time¢di?usedias
” the-nozzlethat.therde?ectedisoft‘spray '69vpa'ssjes, .
‘a indicat?dyat‘ 1.0 towardthe.circumfermcenf-the
' vinto the combustion spacetzl?qwithcut.substantial. ~' " combustion-space and 1mm direct contaotyWlth .
- ‘rei'mpii'igementzonjthe-sivallofaliheifueljpassagebk"v . ‘thepelectrodes'?of, spark‘ plug¢26., ~g1n this lnianij ‘
As shown-more‘ pa'ifti'cularly‘in ‘Figgek-theafuel. '40,._I‘1veried11f§ct. impi?gemenli 'Ofylliquid'i'fu?l P8111016 I ‘ -
nozzle soeket portions 5.41 andigsl oftbeadapte'f ‘_ i, onxtheielectrqgles 1S aY01d€d-'/S0.~th9!t.mis?ringand
are‘ drilled :at; anlvangl'e'vto t’hejcentralI-axi‘s of ‘the
_ damping out-cube plugvisapreventeds ‘Howeven';
> adapter, as indi'cated'bvy-the?-includedtangle: 1'0, ' _' the‘ combustible i-tuel-yaporrair; mixture "rapidly:
formed-fIiOm"the-mixingv Of‘wthe" swirling 'alI'EWith. >
'portions-toltheaxis ofthe}:adapter'is-"at'isubstan-' v45 the outer,“ edge‘iof'tzthe vaporized-mel-mist is‘ ,1
ytiall‘y i-l'ght’angle‘s‘to>theiimaximum"angulariim“ ~ ' bmught ,:directly- into contact rwlthff‘éth‘esei elec-v“v a
clinationofthe'fuel'passage.63;to‘the'axis ofthei’ ‘ trodes.
" Theksparkltiininglis
bei‘ev'ident fro‘me-Figs}? ‘ands-4.1 ’
When. the‘: adapter 'ispi'operly.mountediinrplalcefl
v \
jectionadvanceintal'manner'descrihed inv 'atei', ;‘ I '
with1n'bore-330; the outerjp'ortf? 1n-end'wall'53w5o detail hereinbelow," SO':-.that".a,_'SDM'krY-Qf??i?QE-‘
' 'jwillbepositionedsubstantiallyla-s shown in Fig. 2» 9 intensity isipresent at thegelectrodesjat
‘ somewhat aboveythe horizontalpcenterfv-line‘ii'ofi I "the ?rstincvremehtzof injected fuel in'
line ~
of ,lcombustible- fuel‘ vapopair' mixtur,
boifejll; _ Most ‘of the angular inclination of ‘fuel
passage 63~isdirected in'1'the horizo'ntaliplane of
thoseielectrodes.‘ This-insures ignition an,
, ,
‘ b5; 1
Fig;- 1 towardathei'locus rof sparkiignition;*buta, :55 lishesa-?ame front indicated at vll; v'I‘heheat:
‘\portion,lofP‘this'angular ‘inclination-;fiidirected- 70f combustionmausesrapid expansion otgtne
upwardly as sHOW'nJ-in‘FigTZ: At»the"~same=t'ime-,Q ~mixture and-thinning proceeds‘ inwardly toward'i
' 'mostortne angular incllnationpfthesocket por-‘j‘ v. tneecente'r,of'thecombustion'spacesproduclnsla ' I
tions‘ 54-1-5115 directed upw'ardly‘inithe‘vertical. _ zone of _¢:ucombustion-: indicated» by the- cross?v _'
slight‘ or
‘Fig.’ ass
‘tilt that
to“ the
spray fformili‘YThejde;
results-ins , goo bustionzonelhs.
shown for-'clearnessin illustra»
c0m-, fl
’ ?ected‘ spray thus lpasses into'the'eombustmn ’
I spaceim a generally tangential direction-thereof:
as viewed in the-horizontal planeorFig}. 1;‘;buns;-§.
?On ‘as being» Of ?ppreciablell-width, it is-to' be?’
understood'that'the'regionof active'burnln‘si?lay' ,
be>con?ned=~substantiallygto a curved line ‘ll of,
v : also-lslightly inclined upwardly as viewed in the I65 thew?ame .fmnt and" not have the, avimtnuma '
vertical {P1811901'Fis‘;izi‘vi'l'hernet-result is‘the t'fi'dicatei
,p ~
production? ot'ria .fanyshaped spray as'viewed in I ‘ " ‘t The. spark plug-72d is;spaced ?bm_a1e',1o¢i1s of
Fig. 11 located atlone sidesofzthe' combustion space 1, lnjectionraaa .su?lcientjtdistance stowpermitvrthe; - ,
nearsthe wall thereot butavoiding direct impinge-w ' ' formationlof, the combustible fuel. vapor-air mixi-y
I ment oiliquid_fue1~partic1eson the wall; andP-be-sj <70 turle'during the‘ intervening travel oftheiinjected' '7
' ingotsu?icientlyslow intensity suchthatlthetuela '~ . fuel-,"whlle atithe'same.timetheplugi?lssuf?é '
' doesrnotltravelacross thejcombustionjispacejto'i-x» yclently'closetqtheglocus offlnjection to ‘prevent! V '
.impingecn. _the3_fa1f wall'inl-liquid form»: At: the ~
' ‘the accumulation’-sw1thin"fthe combustionlspaceg'i'
, same time,~:'the.spray_,formis?attenedaswiewed'_' " ‘of any substantial-amountrof'combustiblemini-i
in the vertical -plane.of\Fig_.-> 2': and directed ‘some; 75' tureprior to ignition" ‘Inthe particularv arrange
_ nient shown, employing a"cylinder havingv a bore
within the combustion space toprovide maximum
- diameter'of 3% inches, 'good results have been.
power and ‘high-‘thermal emciency‘on each'cycle,
thespr'ay: pattern Jshould be designed. to uni-.
secured withan inclined angle Ii of about 30-90‘
and preferably about 30-45‘ between the radii‘
formly impregnate the air‘ inits'swirling move
passing through thenelectrodes 21 and the locus
of ‘injection 65 respectively.- It is to be under-l
" merit. I This requires atgreater proportionoi’ fuel
:stood that the spray pattern, fuel intensity of the ,
jet, and the velocity of air swirl may be altered '
‘ space with progressivelyless'er proportions toward
toward“ thecircumferenceof thev vcombustion
the a center. ‘ Such uniformv ‘impregnation is ac
and correlated for different spacings of the plug
complished in theeconstructionshowniiby arrang
and adapter in order to obtain the desired knock; 10; ing the fan-shaped sprayito o'ne side of the com
~ , free operation. In general, it can be statedthat
‘ the "included
angle 3i" should ' be greater than.
about 20° and less than about 135°.‘
bustion space, so that the outernedge‘ of the fan -
is close to but does ,not impinge directly against
the-cylinder wall, while the inner edge of the fan
It will be understood thatv the. angular-zin
. is off-set? from 1 the‘ center of» the: combustion
clinations of the fuel passage ltandthev nozzle 15 space. The expansion of the products of com
sdcketM-H ‘can be' altered to suit the particular
relationships‘of spacingof the adapter and plug, . ’
> bustion then causes-su?lcient movement of vapor
lzed fuel toward the‘ center toseifect ‘the desired
the. cylinder diameter and the velocity'of ‘air
impregnationiofi the lesser amount of -, air in this
swirl, ‘so that the proper type of? spray; pattern 1 I
region.» -With the'partlcular construction shown,
is ‘formed for‘ each relationship. > Moreover, :in '20 including the ‘180;’ shroud produclnga given've
some cases,‘ the required angular relationship be-'
locity of'air swirl, andtheirelative positioning
vtween the 'directionalaxis of fuel injection from
of the adapter and sparkplug,-region 'l‘ of Fig. 5 '
indicates the zone into which the fuel ‘spray was
injected for. efficient lmock-free operation of the:
' the nozzle and the directional. axis ‘of the spray".
form resulting 'fromr'impin‘gement- can 'bef pro;
ducedby proper inclination of the fuelpas‘sa‘g’e ll
25 present invention: 'while region 2 indicates the
alone,‘ instead of the combination of ., the PnozzIe '
zone in ‘ ‘which ' knocking’, would , occur: when the
socketv inclination and the‘;~ fuel passage jmcuna: ‘ ' fuel was injected insubstantial amount in that
tion as shown In thisl'mann‘er a standard and ' . region; isincexthe outeredgeoffthespray pat-i
conventionaltype ‘of-fuel injection nozzle and a “ vternlshouldbe closeto but spaced slightly from
1 standard cylinder equipped with radially?drilled "
‘bores can" be readily converted to the-present
. the. plug electrodes, so that liquidiuel particles
donot .directlylmpinge on the electrodes, the
positioningpf, the plugin the particularv construe-1
tionrshown is preferably close to, the circumferi
ence' ‘of the; combustion space, so that thev desii’ed'
spray pattern mm. be utilized 'to,.zun_iformlyliin-‘
method oftoperation for vknock-free combustion‘.
. During]v the continuancejof that portion of the
compression or combustion stroke or both, which " -
falls wlthin?the period-10f fuel injection, addi-}
tional fuel is :Qinjected ‘,toward the ?ame front ‘ll ‘
, pregnate' the'swirling air across; iradiussofithe‘
and is mixed with‘fresh'quantiti'es of the swirling- ~ , combustidnspace, ‘and atthe samej'time- combus
air vto form combustible ifuel'vapor-airlj mixture " tible fuel; vaporé'air, mixture di?lises'sinto contact
that is ignited and burned as it reaches vthe ?ame ' _"with1;the‘electrodes; ‘While the; plug; electrodes
front. It will be noted that the-?amefronttendsf. to can {bepositioned 'adiacen'tvthe inner edge. of the
to travel toward the .locus' of fueliniection; vbut
fan-shaped spray, that 'iislth'e edge closer-‘to the
the high swirling movement of the air and other " ‘center-of the combustion space; this requires more
gases within Ythe,.~_combustion,‘ coupled with the‘. I ; critical _,correlation.1o_fithe positioningof'theelec
trodes with’, respect; to ‘the-ssprayi‘pattern, since "
fact that the mixture
within the “diffused spray
{69 is \incombustibly rich‘,v tends’ to counteract? 145 the swirling all'then tend!» toiblomhfe formedfuel
actual relative movement of the flame front‘ with a p; ‘vapor, away, vfrom the electrodes; Co'nsequently,:
respect tqthe cylinder wall,‘ so that that-?ame”, . the outer‘ positioning of the-electrodes: in ‘the, arr-l
front ‘may remain. comparatively; stationary or
Vran'gement- “ShOWlli is preferred Moreover,“ 'the
in a ?xed location with respect »to_ the cylinder
I wall, ignition‘ plug, and adapter“ '
v Xouter=~edé?‘ztofthe spray pattern can
The combinationcftakes place'alrnost
"additional formed,
sothat no opportunitylsgiven.for'unburned fuel
to become disseminatedwldely‘throughout ‘the
'properignition. a,
., _'
:. ,
, While the adapter construction shown,’ which
combustion space. Theffirstportions, of fuel-air 5515 designed“) de?ect the spray in ‘the ‘direction
mixture, which were rapidly‘|2,
become lncornbustible exhaust gases ,whiché'fcom‘ _'
‘ tinueithe swirling movementaro'und the'cylinde'r
_ments*.can ‘be-:employed.»
may befijde?ecte
example,;the fuel
{the air, swirl ' or > against
as indicated at", Following thepowéri’stroke; “the, ,air .zswlrl‘ Such modi?cations require a
the exhaust gases are dischargedlxthrough'the.‘m proper correlation iofjithe‘ fuck-‘injection rate and
port ill on the exhaust stroke ofthe piston, and"? 3ysprityv pattern
r-theivelocity of air ,swirl, the
thecycle is then ‘repeated.
I ‘
While the spark :plug is shown mounted vwith
"'cylinderadiameteljgand. ‘the. relative positioning of
I e v ‘the ‘adapter :and'fspark £111.08" in accordance with
' the electrodes 21, at the circumference -oi’__v the:
combustion space and-at the upper ‘end thereof, _ '65
. ‘th'egeneral
'~ While itheipresentinventionprinciples 'setforthabove.»
can be operated
it should be. pointed out" that the plug can‘be
mounted in otherfpqsitions with an adapter cor-_
‘_ With:a substantially ‘instantaneous spark at the
-, plugelectrodea-this. requires a criticalFcoordina
, tion- of; the . spark», advance with: the injection ad
particular location {chosenr , For" example-“the; ‘vanceiif. For example, i in the ‘construction? shown
related to produce‘a proper: spray pattern for the I
electrodes may belocated ‘about 1/z'""to'1_f!.vfrom 7()3 inlthe' drawings employing injection» in" vthe vdirec
the circumferenoeYoff the combustion wetland v tioni'of air ‘swirl, > the instantaneous spark 5 should
the elevation of the‘ electrodes may he shifted-toy » occur at- the, plugiele'ctrodes at an instant within
bring them'down to- or below thehorizontal'plane “
the range .ofabout 4:40‘, ‘and-preferably about , 5° ‘
of the locus of: injection.
However, inorder, to efficientlyv
crank: angle movement" following‘ the‘start of
‘.thc‘air v7s offuelxiniectionxl
induction‘, iracrouor
the-endwall 53. ‘,The adapterwas further drilled
against the air swirl, then the spark; advance is
vto providethe flaring fuelpassage 63, having a
usually within the‘range'of about 510520‘? after-the
, port “of-abouts’: of an inch diameter at the
Y innernend and ~?aring outwardly at a 20°. in
injection advance for‘ theinstantaneous spark; ,
"However, it ‘has been found that the convene
tional magneto ignition system has a spark dura
cluded angle ,to give anopening 65v of about %"
‘diameter atits outer end. ‘The said ?aring fuel
tion‘ of about 5-30 crank angle degrees ,atan
engine speed of 1800 R. 13. M.‘ ,While not» all of
passageways ‘inclinedat, an angle of about 20°
this spark'duration‘may-be of sufficient intensity ‘
to the vertical axis of ‘the ‘adapter. *
. Thesaid‘adapter, wasmountedin the bore 30
to ignite the mixture, ‘a, considerable spark toler
‘ a'nce is ‘provided and varies with the particular 10 of ‘the CFR engine so that the axis-of the‘ ?aring
fuel passage ?ii'inthehori'zontalplane of Fig. 1
circuit and the size of thefspa'i'k'gap employed.
In general, such conventional automotiveignltion a extended at an:.acute._,angle,to the, radius of the
combustion space. in I the general direction of the
circuits v"of the mag-netotype fwill‘a?ord a spark
spark plug-electrodes,’ and extended in the verti
tolerance "ofifab‘out 5-159; such thatithe' spark
I advance may be setto precede thestart of ,injec& 1.: cal plane offFigl-nz at a smaller angle upwardly
toward the :head‘of ' the cylinder, so that ‘the
' center 'of.~port1'65 was approximately V4?’ above
tion by as much asfabout‘] 5510?, while thfe-full
retard- settingiof the; spark advance ‘maybe as
much as" 7° orv more after thestai‘t of ‘fuel ‘injec
tion; ' The proper setting for any ‘particular: ignl-_
the horizontal centerline. of bore 30. j'l'his con
struction' produced the soft fan-shaped and?at
tenedr fuel spray viii! -as shown ‘in’ Figs 1 and 2, “
tion circuit for a given enginehconstruction‘ can
be readily-'determinedby those skilledwin thejart’ 20 and gave very ‘satisfactory knock-free, combus
in accordanceiwith the principles“ set forth above, '
bearing inimind that a sp'arkof ‘ignitible‘ inten
tion at compression ratios as high as 170:1 with
manifold pressures as high as 112" of mercury
sity should be present-‘at the plug‘elec'trodes ‘at
absolute with fuels \froml0 to 100 CFRM octane.
e the time the?rst'increment' of?'inj'ectedffuel in 25 fsObviously?malny' modifications and variations
the form? of ‘combustible fuel vapor-‘airmixture
{of thelinvention, as hereinbefore'set forth,- may
reaches‘ the plug electrodes, Moreoveiga con-1 : .be made without departingefrom the spirit and
scope; thereof, ‘and only; such limitations should
tinuous spark or" semi-continuousfjspark ‘which
stays on for a predetermined portionuof thécycle _, be imposed _asy;are indicated in‘ the, appended
1 While ‘ the - invention “has been described l‘above
~l‘.' An-adapterfora fuel-injection ‘nozzle'tq be
as applied to four-cyclej‘operation, itis tobe uri
derstood'th'at the invention is also. applicable to
used in an ,intemal,~,.combustion engine oi’, the
character described, comprising a heat? absorb‘
‘two-cycle operation: ‘For example, a'_ two-‘cycle
engine maybe’ equippedlwith, airintake ports‘ for
ingmember:havingvangextension-adapted to be '
mounted in tight; engagement within an opening
' directionalintroduction Ofth'eair just, above the ~
bottom of 'piston'travel, whereby aswirnng move:
ment of the air can be"impart_ed,fand'the fuel y.
injected into the compressed-swirling air and
ignited in‘ the mannerv described. above; While
through the wall-q of the internal combustion‘ ‘en
ginecylinder to receive heat from the cylinder
‘ combustion‘ space, anda body portionhavin'g a ~
socket adaptedv ‘to receive ,said'tfuel' injection
the invention in its simplest form dispensesf‘with
nozzle ; in tight‘ engagement-with the tipof said
the conventional'carburetors and manifolds of“
present-dayiengines, fit-“is to be understood that Y
the end of said extension, said adapter having a
a system of- carbureti'on can also be employed‘
conjunction with the fuel injection systemoi'tlie».
presentinvention, provided the initial'carbureted, =
nozzlev located within "the adapter» rearwardly of
bore opening atthe ‘inner end thereof lintalign-l‘
Iment 'withsaid nozzle" tip when positioned within
said socket, andextending through saidextenV-I ‘
sion inform a fuel discharge port adapted to open
7 intothefcombustion space when'said adapter is"
mounted within said cylinder opening,‘thefaxis_
-’ while the air drawn into the cylinder‘ on‘ each 50 of said bore'being inclined with'respect to the
axis of fuel injection from said nozzle at an
' cycle is preferably unthrottled, the invention is :
applicable to an engineoperating with throttling
1 angle so that a fuel jet from said nozzleis adapt
of the air on each cycle in accordance with the I ed to vimpinge on the wall of said bore and be‘
fuel vapor-air‘. mixture drawn intosthe engine
cylinders-contains‘ insuilicient fuel to support
vcombustion or to be spark-ignited. Moreover,
power required.
de?ected in the form .of a soft spray of low in
By way of speci?c example, very.‘ satisfactory
55 tensity through said discharge port into the com
operation in accordance with the present inven
tion has been secured with a conventional CFR
bustion space.
- 2. An adapter according to claim 1,> wherein
engine, equipped with'a multi-port cylinder, by
mounting, the spark pluglili in the conventional
‘the said bore ?ares outwardly from‘ a relatively
smaller port at the inner end thereof to a rela
_ hot plug port, and the adapter’ of the'present' 60 tively larger port constituting said fuel discharge
port, said ?are and said angular inclination be
invention in the conventional accessory or micro
phone port. This provided the “construction 11-’ I ingfsuch as to prevent any substantial reim
pingement of ‘the de?ected soft spray ‘on ‘the
lustrated, wherein the included'a'ngle 3| was ap
proximately 30°. _ The intake ‘valve l5 was
equipped with a 180° shroud as shown. The
adapter was constructed from brass stock which
was drilledand tapped to provide a socket 5.4‘—-51 . -
bore wall of said adapter.
3. An adapter, according to claim 1, wherein
the central axis of said socket adapted to receive
the fuel injection‘ nozzle is inclined with respect
~to the central axis of said extension‘ which is
for the'injectionnozzle, the axis of the socket
‘adapted to be received; within’said cylinder openhaving about an 8—9° angle to’the verticalcen
ter‘line of the adapter. A‘ cam-operated .fuel ,70 ing, the said axis of the bore also being inclined
with respect to said central axis of the extension.
pump having a 6 mm. pump plunge'r'controlled
4. An adapter for a ‘fuel injection‘nozzle to be
the supply of fuel to a standard Bosch injection
used in an internal combustion engine and hav
nozzle having a zero cone angle mountedin the
ing a tip with a fuel injection port and an ex
adapter, so that the fuel discharge port of the
nozzle tip was immediately behind the inside of 76 ternally threaded portion rearwardly of said tip,
2,411,740‘ r
comprising a member having a body of larger “- diameter and an externally threaded extension’ .
of smaller diameter adapted to be received in gas
tight relationship withina threaded opening in.
_ '6. An ‘adapter in ‘accordance with claim '4,
wherein the central axis of the said socketi's in;
‘clined to the central
or the ‘adapter body
‘ and. extension‘, and:the.__axisof- the ‘fuel passage
- is also inclined to the central axis-of the adapter
the wall of a cylinder ofisaid internal combustion.
‘engine. said extension having a wallat' the end
thereof, an'external shoulder between said body
_ .bodyand extension. 1-,‘.
_ _'7; In an internal combustion ‘(engineer the
and said extension adapted ‘to limit threaded
character described ‘having a vpower cylinder
movement of said adapter into said cylinder open
providing ‘a'jcornbustion space, '"and a spark‘ plug
ing so that the end of said extension wall is sub 10 having electrodes positioned 'withinssaid com- '
stantially flush with. the wall of the combustion
space of, said cylinder, said‘ adapter having av
‘bustion‘spac'e: the "combination ‘o1’ ' an impinge
merit and heat absorbing member of high heat
socket formed with an internally‘threaded portion ~
conductivity mounted in an opening‘ through
of large diameter formed inv the bodyportion.
said cylinder, wall adjacent said spark plug elec_~
adapted toreceive theexternally threaded por 15 vtrodes and/so that the inner endv wall or said
tion of the nozzle in gas tight relationship,‘ and
a smaller diameter portion formed within the
member is substantially ?ush with thewall of
said‘ combustion space, said member 1' having ; an‘
said extension adapted to receive the nozzle tip;
opening socket, a fuel injection nozzle
an internal shoulder between said socket por
said" socket ,with' ‘the nozzle tip
tions adapted to limit ‘threaded engagement of
behind saidinner end wall,‘ said member'hav
said nozzle into the said adapter socket so that. ‘ ing
a ?aring ibore through-said end wall, the‘
the said injectionv port of the] nozzletip is epo
end of said bore beingi'in 'alignment‘with
sitioned near but‘ behind the fsaid'end wall of
said nozzle‘ tip and-‘the larger end _ '01’ -' said bore
said extension, said end wall havin‘g'a fuel pas- ~
openingv into .the’. combustion space; in 'and- said
sage extending therethrough, the inner end “at
bore being angularlyn inclined with respectto the
said passage being adapted to be directly oppo
site the said injection port of the nozzle tip and
the outer end of said passage being adapted to‘
of vinjection "from said _ nozzle
tip andtoward said spark plug electrodes, where
by the iuelletifrom ‘said nozzle "tip impinges on
open into the combustion spaceor said cylinder, '
?aring borew'all'and? isther'ebyheatttd and
the axis of‘ saidpfueLp‘assa-ge being -inclined to 80 de?ected
into the said combustion spacer-"inthe
the longitudinal axisoi' the nozzle whenposi
form ‘of, a'highly atomized spray ot‘lowintensity,
tioned' within said socket and ‘consequently in
clined to the direction of fuel injection from said
the relative " positioning of said member and
nozzle, whereby the fuel jet irom said nozzleris
adapted to impinge on the’wall of said-fuel pass
sage and be de?ected in theform of a soft spray
an outer edge of said spray vform passes close to
said spark plug electrodes without direct impinge
finent of liquid fuel thereon and combustible i'uel
of low intensity into‘v the cylinder combustion
spark plug electrodes and the angular inclina
tion oi'_ said ?aring bore being‘ correlated so that
vapor-airxjmixture rapidlyiormed along» said
5. An adapter in accordance with ‘claimfri,
edg’agmoves into 1; contact with said elec
wherein the said fuel passage ?ares outwardly: or outer
trodes.‘ , .
from an opening of smaller diameter at the in?
8.;-'I'_hv'e" combination according to , claim 7,
ner end adjacent the nozzle tip position tofan
opening of ~ larger diameter at 'the"puter
hereinthe' fuel iniection'nozzle tip has a sub-_
which is'adapted to i'acethe?cylinder cornbusi " -' l'v'stantially .zero, cone angle‘, and vthe ?are vof the ._
tion space, the extent‘oglsaid ?are‘ being cibordia I. said boreiscorrelated to substantially avoid re-‘
nated‘ with the said inclination thereof-such
that reimpingement or de?ected fuel spray on
the wall or said fuel passage isrsubstan’tlally v
de?ected spray ‘on the bore‘
JAY 13.1“
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