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Патент USA US2411741

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Nav. 26, 1946.
J. L. MICHAEL‘SON
'
2,433,741
COLOR MATCHING APPARATUS
Filed D60. 13, 1939
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AMPLIFIER
‘45
Inventor:
Jesse ‘L. Michaelson,
2.41am
Patented Nov. 26, 1946
2,411,741
COLOR MATCmG arraaa'rus
Jesse L. Michaelson, Schenectady, N. Y" assignor
to General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York
V
Application December 13, 1939, Serial No. 309,013
7 Claims.
1
(Ci. 88-14),
2
.
My invention relates to apparatus adapted for
use in matching colors and particularly to such
apparatus employing photoelectric means.
It is the object of my invention to provide im
proved color matching ‘apparatus with which one
is emitted from the light source.
.
The cam 62
is arranged to be rotated through the gearing
. as from the shaft 39 at a 1:1 speed ratio. That
may observe simultaneously} the spectrophoto
part of each monochromatic beam which passes
the lower openings 68 passes the lens ‘i3 and is’
re?ected by the rocking mirror ‘i into one or the
metric curves of two objects.
other of the two windows ‘it or it of the integrat- _
.
ing sphere ‘16 depending upon the position of the
My invention will be better understood from
the following description taken in connection
mirror. The mirror is shown mounted upon
with the accompanying drawing, and its scope m the rock shaft 'i'l having the arm it which en
will be pointed out in the appended claims.
gages the ?icker cam i l mounted on the shaft
The single ?gure of the drawing is a perspecH2. The integrating sphere is provided with two
tive view of apparatus adapted for use in producwindows opposite the windows ‘it and ‘it which
ing spectrophotometric curves of light re?ected
are adapted to be covered by the objects 8t and
from two surfaces.
single light source is em- 15 hi which may be considered sample and stand
ployed which is dispersed into its separate wave
ard the re?ectances of whose surfaces are to be
lengths and those wave lengths successively procompared. Opposite another window 82 of the
jected upon the surfaces of two ?at objects which
sphere is the photoelectric device 36, the ar
may be termed a sample and a standard, the
rangement being such that the light received
light re?ected therefrom being received by a 20 by the device is limited to that transmitted by'
photoelectric device. The output of that de—
the window from the interior of the sphere.
vice controls the tracing of the re?ectance curves
Coordination of movement of the various mov
by a cathode ray tube.
able parts of the apparatus is secured by inter
The light from the light source or lamp @5 is
connecting the main or drive shaft 38 with the
collected by the lens 58 and illuminates the slit 25 cam F52 through the gearing 53 and with the
' 61 which is for the purpose of providing the de- -
cams as through the shaft 39 and the 1:1 bevel
sired degree of purity in the monochromatic
gears 83. The shaft 30 is also connected with the
light beam ?nally received by the light sensitive
?icker cam shaft it through the Shaft W. the
member 36. The slit comprises two vertical
1:1 bevel gearing 55 ‘and the 1:2 bevel gear
plates each having two light openings 58 there- 30 mg 56.
' in. The two plates are moved simultaneously
The output of the photoelectric device at after
in opposite directions by .the. cams 69 on the
being ampli?ed by the ampli?er 65 is applied to
shaft 39, each plate being held against its cam
the vertical de?ection plates d6 of the cathode
by a spring shown above the plate. .The rock- , ray tube 8. The horizontal de?ection plates M
ing prism 'ltl has a re?ecting rear face where- 35 of the tube are connected with the battery 68
by monochromatic light is directed back on the
slit. Arranged in front of the prism is the
lens ‘H which renders parallel the rays of light
through the potentiometer 69 having the oscil
lating arm 5t controlled by the cam 5'2 on the
shaft 313. During the interval at which the vari
received from the slit Bl. On this lens there is
ous wave lengths are directed upon the object
formed an image of the ?lament of the lamp 65. 40 80 the cathode ray tube will draw a curve shown
The light re?ected by the prism ‘ill passes again
for example. by C which is the re?ectance curve
through the lens ‘H which images the upper light
of that object. Likewise, during that interval
openings 68 of the slit 61 on the slit in the
at which the various wave lengths are directed
vicinity of the lower light openings 68 thereof.
upon the object 8|, the cathode ray tube will
As the prism is rocked the monochromatic light ‘it draw the curve represented by D which is the
of the various wave lengths passes the lower openre?ectance curve of that object. The apparatus
ings and is controlled thereby. The prism is
is operated at such a speed‘ that the two curves ‘
mounted on the shaft 26 having the arm 21 which
are drawn so rapidly that they appear to the ob
engages the wave length .cam 29 on the shaft
server as being continuous.
‘
30. Between the lens ‘H and the slit, 6‘! I have 50
In order that the observer may better be able
shown the cam 52 for controlling the transto distinguish one curve from the other particu
mission of the monochromator in such a manner
larly when the curves lie close to each other I
as to give a uniform de?ection of the beam of
may cause one curve‘to have some distinguish
the cathode ray tube 3 over the whole wave‘.
ing characteristic, for example one curve may be
length range of the prism ‘ll! when white light 55} caused to have short lines projecting therefrom
I 2,411,741
at intervals. For this purpose I have shown
at 85 a device for producing small intermittent
voltage impulses connected in circuit with the
photoelectric device. In order that only one
curve may be so marked the arm ‘II by which
the mirror is rocked is provided with the com
tacts 88 which during one halt oi the rotation
of the ?icker cam H are separated and during
the other halt rotation are in contact and are
connected to short circuit the impulse genera
tor 85.
‘
The operation of the apparatus is 'as fol
lows: During each short interval when the
4
.
?ectance curve of the one object with respect
to that of the other object, the moving parts 01
the apparatus being operated at such a speed
that the two curves appear to be continuous.
It is sometimes desirable to observe the spectro
photometric curve of the light transmitted by
an' object rather than that oi’ the light re?ected
thereby. In that case I employ identical objects
80 and BI, preferably white, to cover the lower
windows or the integrating sphere and in front
of one of the windows, either 14 or 15, I ar
range the object whose transmission is to be
observed. Such an object is represented by dotted
mirror arm 18 is in engagement with that por
lines at 83.
>
tion of the cam ll having the larger radius 15
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
whereby the light beam dispersed and re?ected
Letters Patent of the United States is:
by the prism 10 is re?ected by the mirror. 1
1. In combination, a photoelectric device ar
toward the object 80, the prism is rocked by
ranged to receive light re?ected from a plural
the cam 29 from one limiting position thereof
ity of objects having different re?ectance, means
to the other so that the object receives’ mono 20 for alternately illuminating said objects each for
chromatic light successively oi the various wave
a short interval, means operative during each
' lengths of the light emitted by the lamp. This
.interval for limiting the illuminating light to a
projection of monochromatic light 01 various
group oi.’ adjacent wave lengths and for vary
wave lengths on the sample is produced by the
' ing the ,wave lengths comprising said group
scanning action of the 'lower opening 88 in the 25 through a predetermined range, and means op
right-handrplate as a result of the relative mo
erating synchronously with said wave length
tion of the opening and the spectrum which is
varying means and controlled by the output of
produced by the rocking oi the prism 10. During
said photoelectric ‘device for producing a plural
this interval also the potentiometer arm 50 is .
ity of curves each representing the energy re
moved from one limiting position thereof to'the 30 ?ected by one of said objects at the various wave
other by the cam 52, the slit 81 is adjusted to
lengths.
produce the desired purity of the monochromatic
2. In combination, an integrating sphere hav
light reaching the object 80, and the cam 42v
ing openings for receiving light re?ecting mate
is varied. Owing to the 1:2 ratio of the gears
rials, a photoelectric device associated with said
56 between the drive shaft 30 and the shaft 54 35 sphere, a source of light, means for re?ecting
and the 1:1 ratio oi the gears 55 between shaft
light therefrom for short intervals alternately
54 and the ?icker cam shaft I2, the contact arm
on said materials, means for dispersing light
50 is moved back and forth across the poten
from said source and directing the wave lengths
tiometer. 49 twice during each complete cycle of
of the dispersed light successively on said re
operation of the scanning means; once when the 40 ?ecting means during each of said intervals and
arm 18 is in engagement with the high portion
a cathode ray tube having de?ecting means re
of the cam II and once when it is in engage
sponsive to the output of said device and to the
ment with the low portion. As a result of the
position of said directing means.
varying potential differences applied between the
3. A method of comparing a plurality of color
de?ecting plates 46 and between the de?ecting
specimens which includes the steps of creating a
plates 41 of the cathode ray tube, during the in
spectrum, passing successive bands of said spec
terval in which arm 18 is on the high portion
trum ?rst over one of said specimens and then
of the cam the beam thereof is caused to trace
over another of said specimens, impressing the
on the end of the tube the spectrophotometric
light re?ected by said specimens on a photosen
curve due to the re?ectance of the- object 80 50 sitive surface to produce for each specimen an
since the displacement of the beam horizontally
electrical value of a magnitude varying with the
is proportional to the‘ movement of prism 10
magnitude of the wave length of light re?ected
which changes the wave length and the displace
by said specimen, amplifying said value produc
ment of the beam vertically is proportional to
.ing a beam of radiant energy, projecting said
the various factors comprising the product of 55 beam on a screen to produce a visible trace there
the light intensity, monochromator transmission,
on when the beam and the screen are moved
the response of the photoelectric device, and
relative to one another, effecting relative move
the characteristics of the voltage ampli?er and,
the cathode ray tube. The curve so traced may,
for example, be that represented at C. In like
manner while the arm 18 is in engagement with
that part of the cam I I having the smaller radius
ment between said beam and said screen in one
' direction in response to said ampli?ed value, pc
riodically effecting relative movement .between
said beam and said screen at an angle to said
?rst direction, and synchronizing said last men
the light beam is re?ected by the mirror ‘I won
tioned movement with the cycle of production of
the object 8| while the prism is rocked from
said electrical value, the period of said cycle ap
. one extreme position to the other whereby the 65 proximating the period of persistence of vision.
curve D is drawn on the end of the cathode ray ~
4. An instrument for evaluating color compris
tube.
ing, in combination, means for projecting the
’ From the foregoing it is seen that during a
spectrum of a light beam, means for supporting
complete cycle 101 operation oi the scanning
a plurality of color specimens, means including a
means light from the scanned spectrum is pro 70 scanning device for projecting ?rst on one of
jected on both specimens, 1. e., the sample and
said specimens and then on another successive
i the standard and that separate curves represent
ing the re?ectance of each specimen appear on
the screen of the cathode ray tube. One is able
to observe any difference in the form of the re
bands of monochromatic light from said‘spec
trum, a photoelectric device so positioned with
respect to said color specimens as to receive there
75 from light re?ected thereby, whereby there is
2,411,741
5
created by. said photoelectric device electrical
values of varying magnitudes, the variations of
which correspond respectively to the variations
of light intensity re?ected by said specimens,‘
means for cyclically operating said scanning de
vice, means connected to said photoelectric de
vice for amplifying said values, a screen, elec
trical means for projecting a beam on said screen
to produce a visible trace thereon as the beam
bands of monochromatic light from said spec
trum, a photoelectric device so positioned with
respect to said color specimens as to receive
therefrom light re?ected thereby, whereby there
is created by said photoelectric device electrical
values of varying magnitudes, the variations of
which correspond respectively to the variations
of light intensity re?ected by said specimens,
means for cyclically operating said scanning de
and screen move relative to one another, means 10 vice, means connected to said photoelectric de- I
responsive to said ampli?ed values for effecting
relative movement between said beam and said
screen in one direction, cyclically operated means
for effecting relative movement between said
beam and said screen at an angle to said ?rst
direction whereby said beam forms visible curves
on said screen representative of said electrical
values, and means for synchronizing said last
' mentioned means with said scanning device oper
ating means, the period of operation of said scan 20
ning device operating means and of said cycli
cally operated means approximating the period
of perisistence of vision.
5. An instrument for evaluating color compris
ing, in combination, means for projecting the 25
spectrum of a light beam, means for supporting
a plurality of color specimens, means including
a scanning device for projecting ?rst on one of
said specimens and then on another successive
bands of monochromatic light from said spec 30
trum, a photoelectric device so positioned with
respect to said color specimens as to receive there
vice for amplifying said values, a screen, elec
trical means for projecting a beam on said screen
to produce a visible trace thereon as the beam
moves relative to the screen, means responsive to
said ampli?ed values for de?ecting said beam
in one direction, cylically operated means for
de?ecting said beam at an angle to said ?rst
direction, the frequency of curve producing oper
ation of said last-mentioned means being a mul
tiple of that of said scanning device operating
means equal to the number of specimens being
evaluated, whereby the trace on said screen forms
a plurality of superimposed curves equal in num
ber to the number of specimens being evaluated,
and means for synchronizing said last-mentioned
means with said scanning device operating means.
7. An instrument for evaluating color compris
ing, in combination, means for projecting the
spectrum of a light beam, means for supporting
a plurality of color specimens, means including a
scanning device for projecting ?rst on one of
said specimens and then on another successive
bands of monochromatic light from said spec
trum, a photoelectric device so positioned with
respect to said color specimens as to receive there
from light reflected thereby, whereby there is
created by said photoelectric device electrical
values of varying magnitudes. the variations of 35
from light re?ected thereby, whereby there is
which correspond respectively to the variations
created by said photoelectric device electrical
of light intensity re?ected by said specimens,
means for cyclically operating said scanning de
vice, means connected to said photoelectric de
values of varying magnitudes, the variations of
which correspond respectively to the variations
vice for amplifying said values, a screen, electri 40 of light intensity re?ected by said specimens,
means for cyclically operating said scanning de
cal means for projecting a beam on said screen
vice, means connected to said photoelectric de
to produce a visible trace thereon as the beam
vice for amplifying said values, a screen, elec
moves relative to the screen, means responsive
tronic means for projecting a beam on said
to said ampli?ed values for de?ecting said beam
screen to produce a visible trace thereon as the
in one direction, cyclically operated means for
beam moves relative to the screen, a pair of de
'de?ecting said beam at an angle to said first di
?ecting plates connected to said amplifying means
rection, the frequency of curve producing oper
and responsive to said ampli?ed values for de
ation of said last-mentioned means being so re
?ecting said beam in one ‘direction, cyclically
lated to the frequency of said scanning device
operated means including a second set of de?ect
operating means that the trace on said screen
ing plates associated with said ?rst-mentioned
forms a plurality of superimposed curves equal in
plates and with said electronic beam projecting
number to the number of specimens being evalu
means for de?ecting said beam at an angle to
ated, and means for synchronizing said last
said ?rst direction, and means for synchronizing
mentioned means with said scanning device oper
said last-mentioned means with said scanning
ating means.
6. An instrument for evaluating color compris
ing, in combination, means for projecting the
spectrum of a light beam, means for supporting
a plurality of color specimens, means including a
scanning device for projecting ?rst on one of 60
said specimens and then on another successive
device operating means, the period of operation
of said scanning device operating means and of
said cyclically operated means approximating the
period of persistence of vision.
JESSE L. MICHAELSON.
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