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Патент USA US2411779

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' Nov. 26, 1946.
2,411,779
E. I. DILLON ETAL
snocx ABSORBING MEANS FOR TENSION TESTING MACHINES
Filed Feb. 14, 1944
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.BY
?aberill?dlwk
Patented Nov. 26,1946
2,411,779
"711‘. ';
"it::UNITED :STATES PATENT .YOFFICE'
- 2,411,779
,
MEANS FORTENSION
‘ SHOCK ABsoRBrNo
TESTING MACHINES
.
"
p
.
‘Edwin I. Dillon and Robert ‘E. Dillon, Chicago,
111., assignors to WBC; Dillon & Company, Inc.,
Chicago, 111., a corporation of Illinois
Application'Februarylll, 1944, serial No. 522,252
9 Claims. (01. 73-95)
.
Our present invention relates to a shock ab
sorberg- particularly adapted for a tensile tester
although it is applicablegwherever a developed
stress or load is to be released-so as to prevent
immediate'unloading of such stress upon an indi
cating device-or the like such as'a‘ dynamometer.
1 One object of the invention is to provide a
_ shock-absorber assembly which is very simple in
construction, is easy to manufacture and install,
is inexpensive, and is ‘fool-proof in its operation.
?nnother ‘object is to provide a shock absorber
2'
The operative connection between the shaft of
the hand- wheel and the load screw it is'believed
obviousf‘and is'not part of our present invention.
Accordingly‘ the details thereof have not been
illustrated.
‘
'
‘
"
Extending upwardlyv and slidable through the
upper platen it is a load carrying element 22in
the form of a shaft having threads 213 and 26
on its lower 'andupperends, and intermediate
its'ends; a relatively coarse thread 28; Specimen
gripsSil and 32 are connected with the threaded
shaft 58 and the load carrying element 22 respec
which permits free movement of a load carrying
tively for the purpose of holding a specimen“.
element relative to an abutment'so that accurate
The threads 26 of the load carrying element 22
dynainometer readings ‘can be taken, but which
connect it with a movable stud 36 of a dynamome
15
automatically takes up the play between the load
terj38 whereby the tension on the specimen 34
carrying element and the abutment so that in
as applied thereto by the hand wheel 20 and the
case of breakage of the specimen and the conse
loadingscrew 58 may be measured and indi
'quent sudden release of the load, the dynamome
ter is not violently‘ brought back to zero posi 20 Our shock absorber assembly will now be de
tion or on-ipast‘such position by’ momentum.
scribed: It includes a nut 40 preferably of steel
cated;
Thereby, any damage to the dynamometer is
eliminated and its life is lengthened many times
.
-
s
7
having a bearing insert, 42, as of bronze, in
ternally threaded to coact with the threads 23
of the load carrying element 22. Ordinarily, the
'7 More-particularly, it is ourv object to provide a
25 element 22 is not provided with the threads 28,
shock absorber in the ,form‘of a nut that takes
but where we apply our shock, absorber to the
up any developed play, the nut being automati
tensilettester, the threads are provided. A nut
cally-rotated by a flexible element wound around
40 is mounted below the upper platen l6 and
the, nut and a weight connected with the ?exible
between them a suitable thrust bearing is inter
while its accuracy remains unimpaired.
element.
~
'
,
With these and other objects in view, our in
vention consists in the construction, arrangement
and combination of the various parts of our shock
absorber structure whereby thevobjects contem
plated‘ are attained, vasmhereinafter more fully
setgforth, pointed outin our claims, and illus
trated in the accompanying drawing, wherein:
' ,Figure 1 isa front elevation of a tensile tester
with?ourfshock absorber mounted thereon.
;, Eigure__2,is a vertical sectional view, on an en
larged scalewshowing ,details of the shock “ab
30 posed. This hearing may be of ball or roller type,
it being illustrated as constructed of two ?at
washers 44 and 46 with balls 48 between them,
the balls, being held in a retainer plate 50.
' .The nut 40 ‘has a plurality of openings 52 into
which a handle 54 may be inserted for leverage
in turning the nut as will hereinafter appear.
The nut also has a drum-like portion 55 around
which a ?exible element such as a cable 58 is
wound, and anchored at one point as indicated
at Bil. The cable 58 extends over a pulley 62
supported by one of theuprights l1! and then
sorber. when, no load ,isimposed ‘thereon; and,
downwardly. A weight 64 is secured to its lower
[Figure 3 is' a similar sectional view of the
end to keep it taut and impose a continuous bias
absorberuafterload has been applied and has
on the nut 48 tending to rotate it.
thereby changed the position of the parts of the 45
Practical operation
shock absorber.
_
. .()__n the “accompanying drawing we have used
‘In the‘ operation of our shock absorber, with
the parts in the position of Figure 1 and the han
a tensilev tester which has mounted thereon a
dle 54 removed, the wheel 20 is rotated for test
' relatively heavy lower platen l2. Rod-like up
ing‘v the specimen 34 under tension and the pull
50
rights'__l4"rise from the platen l2 and are sur
thereon is indicated on the dial of the dynamo
mounted by a second and upper platen IS.
meter 38. As soon‘ as the nut Ml moves down
"'A threaded loading rod 18 extends upwardly
wardly relative to the platen IS, the weight 64;
from the platen l2, and through suitable step
due to its continuous exertion of pull on the cable
downgearing and a ‘rotating nut, may be pro
58, rotates the nut in a counter-clockwise direc
the reference numeral [0 toindicate the base of
pelledslowly‘iritoithe-base by a hand wheel 20.
2,411,779
tion (viewed from above) thereby crowding the
nut against the thrust bearing 44-—4E—48 and
the thrust bearing against the platen I6.
The size of the weight and the diameter of the
drum 56 are calculated so that there is just
enough turning bias On the nut. to cause it to
smoothly follow the thrust bearing and take up
the play with neither lag nor rush to the normal
action, and thereby accuracy of the dynamometer
reading is not impaired by use of the shock ab.
sorber. The thrust bearing is always pressed
firmly against the underside of the platen l 6 and
4
instead of the weight 64 to provide a rotating
bias on the nut 40 and many others may be made
without departing from the real spirit and pur
pose of our invention, and it is our intention to
cover by our claims any modi?ed forms of struc
ture or use of mechanical equivalents which may
be reasonably included within their-scope with
outsacri?cing any of the advantages thereof.
We claim as our invention:
1. In a testing apparatus having a stationary
abutment and a screw threaded load carrying
element movable in response to the test load ap
plied
thereto and freely slidable in one direction
from the time the load starts until the specimen
in said abutment; shock absorbing means com
ruptures.
15 prising a nut cooperating with the threads of
When the specimen 34 does break, or when the
said element, a single one-direction thrust bear
load upon it is released by rotating the wheel 2!!
ing between said nut and said abutment, and
backwards, the load carrying element 22 would
means biasing said nut to rotate in a direction
move upwardly through the platen iii if there
were no shock absorber provided. In the case of 20 toward said abutment, said means comprising a
?exible element wrapped around the nut, and
rupture of the specimen, movement would be
a weight connected with the ?exible element to
quite violent, and would have great velocity of
exert a pull thereon, said nut limiting reverse
equal or greater power than initially applied by
sliding of said load carrying element relative to
the screw [8 to rupture the specimen. This vio
said abutment whereby sudden release of the
lent movement is detrimental to the life and ac
this action continues automatically and steadily
curacy of the dynamometer whereas with our 25 load causes such movement of the load carrying
shock absorber the movement is minimized.
When rupture occurs in a tensile tester to
element to be absorbed by the abutment.
2. In a testing apparatus having a stationary
abutment and a screw threaded load carrying
which our shock absorber has been applied, the
element movable in response to the test load
play has been taken up by the nut 5.0 so that the
sudden release of the load merely lets the up 30 applied thereto and freely slidable in one direc
tion in said abutment; shock absorbing means
ward movement of the load carrying element 22
comprising a nut cooperating with the threads
be dissipated through the frame of the tensile
on said element, a thrust bearing between said
tester by imposing the load on the platen l6 in
stead of letting it discharge into the dynamome 35 nut and said abutment, and means biasing said
nut to rotate in a direction toward said abut—
ter. The load is arrested and dissipation through
the platen I6 is harmless to the tensile tester as
3. For use with a tension tester having a pair
it is transmitted through the rods I 4 to the platen
of
platens with tie members connecting the
l2 and the load thrown on the relatively rugged
platens together, a load applying element slid
frame instead of the more delicate dynamometer.
Only a small part of the load is able to reach the 4.0 ably movable through one of said platens, a load
carrying element slidably movable through the
dynamometer~that part represented by a very
other of said platens, a dynamometer carried by
slight upward movement of the element 22 before
said tension tester to indicate the movement of
the frame of the tensile tester absorbs the load.
said lead carrying element relative to said other
This small load transmitted to the dynamometer
is only that which is able to bend the platens and , platen, grips associated with each of said ele
ment.
they are heavy and reinforced against bending
so that there is but very slight movement.
The load on the nut lill may then be released
manually by turning the nut in the opposite di~ ,
rection to its initial position by using the handle
.
r
ments for gripping aspecimen, said loadcarry
ing element being threaded with the threads
thereof normally located adjacent‘ said other
platen, a nut screwed thereon, a single thrust
bearing between said nut and said other platen,
and means to bias said nut to rotate ina, direction
54 until the nut is loose. When the handle is
towards said. other platen, said nut being freely
taken out the weight 64 rotates the nut to a tight
movable with said load carrying element away
position again for the beginning of another test.
from said other platen and limiting reverse move
Where only light test loads are involved, the nut
49 may be rotated by hand without the necessity ,I ment of said load carrying element relative to said
other platen, whereby sudden release of the load
of using the handle 54.
causes such movement of the load carrying ele
From the foregoing it will be obvious that our
ment ‘to be. absorbed by the tension tester in
device is. quite simple in construction and will
stead of being transmitted to the dynamometer.
operate efficiently for the purpose intended. It
4. For use with a tension tester having a pair
has been shown only by way of illustration in 60
of platens with tie members connecting the
connection with atensile tester whereas it might
platens together, a load applying-element slid
be utilized in connection with any stress or load
ably movable through one of said platens, a load
which must be released so as to prevent a full
carrying
element slidably movable through to
immediate unloading of the stress upon an in
the other of said platens, a dynamometer carried
dicating or other device that might be damaged
by said tension tester to indicate the movement
thereby. The load is continuously snubbed by the
of
said load carrying elementrelative to said
nut at so that dissipation of the load when sud
other platen, grips associated with each of said
elements
for gripping a specimen, said load car
against which the nut rotates as distinguished 70
rying element being threaded with the threads
from being transmitted to a dynamometer or‘ the
thereof normally located adjacent said other
like. The device‘ is thereby a safety feature
platen,
a nut-screwed thereoma thrust, bearing
against injuring or destroying the accuracy of
between said nut and said other‘ platen, said
the dynamometer.
_
denly released is transmitted to an abutment
. Certain changes such as the useof a spring
thrust bearing and said nut being freely movable
with said load carrying element away from said
2,411,779
of said load carrying element relative to said
other platen, and means to bias said nut to ro
tate in a direction toward said other platen, said
last means comprising a ?exible element wrapped
around the nut, and a weight connected with
said ?exible element to exert pull thereon.
5. In a testing apparatus having a stationary
abutment and a screw threadedload carrying
element slidable therethrough and movable in
response to the test load applied to said load
abutment whereby sudden release of the load
causes any reverse movement of the load carry
ing element to be absorbed by the abutment.
8. In a testing apparatus having a stationary
abutment and a screw threaded load carrying
element slidable therethrough and movable in
response to the test load applied to said load
carrying element, the threaded portion of said
load carrying element being normally located '
carrying element, the threaded portion of said 10 adjacent said abutment; shock absorbing means
load carrying element being normally located
comprising a nut cooperating with the threads
adjacent said abutment; shock absorbing means
on said element, a dynamometer connected with
comprising a nut cooperating with the threads on
said load carrying element to indicate the move
said element, and means biasing said nut to
ment thereof, and means for continuously
rotate in a direction toward said abutment, said 15 tating said nut so that it remains against
means comprising a flexible element wrapped
side of said abutment in the direction that
around the nut, and a weight connected with
load moves said load carrying element, said
ro
the
the
nut
said flexible element to exert pull thereon, said
limiting reverse movement of said load carrying
nut being freely movable away from said abut
element relative to said abutment whereby re
ment upon the application of a load to said load 20 verse movement of said load carrying element
carrying element at a faster rate than the take
relative to said abutment caused by sudden re
up rate of said flexible element and weight on
lease of the load is absorbed by the abutment
instead of being transmitted to said dynamom
said nut.
5. In a testinrr apparatus having a stationary
eter, said nut being at all times free to move
abutment and a screw threaded load carrying
with said load carrying element and away from
element slidable therethrough and movable in
said abutment.
9. In a testing apparatus having a stationary
response to the test load applied to said load
carrying element, the threaded portion of said
abutment, a screw threaded load carrying ele
load carrying element being normally located
ment slidable therethrough and movable in re
adjacent said abutment; shock absorbing means 30 sponse to the test load applied to said load car
comprising a nut cooperating with the threads
rying element, the threaded portion of said load
on said element, and means biasing said'nut to
carrying element being normally located adja
rotate in a direction towards said abutment, said
cent said abutment, and an indicator connected
nut being non-restricted in its movement away
with said load carrying element to indicate the
movement thereof; shock absorbing means com
from said abutment.
'7. In a testing apparatus having a stationary
prising a nut cooperating with the threads of
abutment and a screw threaded load carrying‘
said element, a single thrust bearing for said nut
element slidable therethrough and movable in
and located between said nut and said abutment,
response to the test load applied to said load
and means biasing said nut to rotate in a direc
carrying element, the threaded portion of said 40 tion toward said abutment to limit reverse move
load carrying element being normally located
ment of said load carrying element relative to
adjacent said abutment; shock absorbing means
said abutment whereby sudden release of the load
comprising ‘a nut cooperating with the threads
causes such movement to be'absorbed by the
on said element, and means for continuously
abutment instead of being transmitted to said
rotating said nut so that it remains against the 45
indicator.
‘
EDWIN I. DILLON.
side of said abutment in the direction that the
ROBERT E. DILLON.
load moves said load carrying element, said nut
being freely movable away from said side of
said abutment, and limiting reverse movement
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