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Nov. 26, 1946. 2,411,787 J. H. HAMMOND, JR RADIO CONTROLLED NINE Filed Sept. 26, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 N N \\\\\\\\\\\\\ \\\\\\\ \ \ \ \\ \ \ \ 02 EXPLOSIV HIiFIa —z+ "-15 0 RAD D I DETONAIG CIRUT ROADI ERCIVER ?? ? 9 :53: £1 TRANSMIE I/ 2.1m INVENTOR JOHN HgYS HAMMOD.,JE Nov. 26, 1946. J, H, HAMMOND, JR 2,411,787 RADIO CONTROLLED MINE Filed Sept. 26, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 my a' -- I___ INVENTOR a‘? JOHN HQYS HANMOND,JR. W Nov. 26, 1946. ‘ _;_ H HAMMOND, JR 2,411,787 RADIO CONTROLLED MINE Filed Sept. 26, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 a 1:2 _ "I'll/147 ,V 51 , N54 8,9,0 52 0 N55 123° 55 Q9054 ‘ii 31,0057 INVENTOR JOHN HAYS HAMMOND.,JR. BY (W EY 2,411,787 Patented Nov. 26, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT - OFFICE 2,411,‘! 87 RADIO CONTROLLED MINE John Hays Hammond, Jr., Gloucester, Mass, assignor to Radio Corporation of America Application September 26, 1942, Serial No. 459,787 8 Claims. (Cl. IMP-3) I 2 This invention relates to mines which detonate when approached by moving objects and has for two of the frequencies preferably is not the same an object to provide means responsive to radiant energy signals for rendering the detonating mech anism inoperative. The invention also consists in certain new and as the difference between any other two frequen cies, and they are preferably within a single octave. If desired these frequencies may be super 5 or subaudible. The three tone generators 22, 23 and 24 each comprise a triode tube 75 the cathode of which is connected to ground thru a cathode resistor and a condenser ‘it. The plate circuit of the tube 75 Although the novel features which are believed to be characteristic of this invention will be par 10 includes an oscillatory circuit 11 with a feed back ‘E8 to the grid. From taps on the feed back coils tlcularly pointed out in the claims appended 28 energy is fed into the combining circuit thru hereto, the invention itself, as to its objects and mixing resistors '59. Plate feed resistors 80 are advantages, the mode of its operation and the provided and are adjusted so that approximately manner of its organization may be better under the same voltage to the common circuit results stood by referring to the following description from the three oscillators 22, 23 and 24. taken in connection with the accompanying draw The combining circuit 25 comprises a triode 8! ings forming a part thereof, in which with cathode biased by means of the resistor-con Figure 1 illustrates schematically the radio con denser circuit 32. The grid of the tube 8| is con trolled mine in relation to an approaching tank; nected to the contact of a switch 83, the blade of Figure 2 shows diagrammatically the circuits which is ground. The plate circuit'of the tube employed in one type of radio transmitter on the 53! is coupled to the grids of two modulator tubes tank; and 34 and 35 by means of a band pass ?lter 86 which Figure 3 depicts diagrammatically the circuits transmits the three frequencies produced by the employed in one type of radio receiver at the mine. Like reference characters denote like parts in 25 three tone generators 22, 23 and 24. The earth odes of the tubes 84 and 85 are biased positively the several ?gures of the drawings. with respect to ground by the resistor 81. The In the following description and in the claims plates of the tubes 84 and 85 are connected to parts will be identi?ed by speci?c terms for con the primary winding of a modulation transformer venience, but they are intended to be as generic 88 the center tap of which is polarized positively in their application to similar parts as the art will original features of construction and combina tions of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed. permit. Referring to the accompanying drawings and with respect to ground by plate battery 89. The frequency of radiooscillation of the cscil— lator 25 is determined by a piezo electric crystal more particularly to Figure 1 a mine ii is shown as buried in the ground. The mine ll comprises the connected between the control grid of a an explosive charge !2, a detonator l3 for ex 3: pehtode 90 and ground and shunted by radio ploding said charge, a detonating circuit M and a frequency choke @l and resistor 92. The cathode of tube 90 is biased positively to ground by cath radio receiver IS. The detonating circuit l4 may ode resistor and condenser 93 and is also con be of any well known construction, such for ex ample, as a magnetically operated device which is nected to the third grid. The positive end of a connected to a relay l6 and which is operated 40 battery 34 is connected to the second grid of the by the approach of a metallic object such as a ‘tube 90 and thru a circuit 35, tuned to the crys tal frequency, to the plate of tube 90. The plate tank ll. The relay I6 is in circuit with the det onator l3, a battery I8 and relay IS the contacts is connected to the control grid by condenser of which are normally closed but are arranged to 96, which may be represented by the internal 45 capacity of the tube 96. be opened by the radio receiver l5. g A tap on the coil of the tune-d circuit 95 is con Transmitter nected to the control grid of a doubler tube 91 by coupling condenser 98. The control grid of In the tank I‘! is mounted a transmitter 25 tube 91 is conductively connected to ground thru which comprises three tone generators 22, 23 and 24, a modulator 25, a master oscillator 26, a buffer 50 choke 99 and resistor Hill, which is shunted by condenser ml. The cathode of tube 91 is con doubler 2'1 and a power ampli?er 28. The tone nected to the third grid and thru a cathode re generators 22, 23 and 24 are of well known con sistor and condenser M2 to ground. The posi struction and generate three distinct frequencies tive side of a plate supply battery I03 is con~= which for example may be of 600, 800 and 1100 cycles respectively. The difference between any 55 nected to the second grid of the tube 91 and thru 2,411,787 3 4 a circuit I04, tuned to double the crystal fre quency, to the plate of the tube 81. ' A tap on the coil of the tuned circuit I54 is connected to the control grid of a pentode I85 by coupling condenser I85. The control grid of the tube I05 is conductively connected to ground thru a choke I81 and resistor I 88, which is shunt ed by condenser I88. The cathode of tube I85 is connected to the third grid and thru a cathode nectedtothethirdgridandtoground. The screen mid of tube I88 is connected to the pos itive side of a battery I85'and to the negative side of a battery I81, the positive side of which is connected thru the primary circuit of a tuned transformer I88 to the plate of tube I88. The secondary circuit of the transformer I88 is connected to the diode plate of detector ampli ?er tube “I and to the AVG line. The cathode resistor and condenser III to ground. The sec 10 of the tube “I is connected thru a cathode re ond grid of tube I85 is connected thru a resistor sistor and condenser I42 to ground and also thru II 2 to the positive side of a plate battery II8 the tapped resistor I48. shunted by condenser I44, negative side of which is grounded. The second to the AVG line. The grid is connected thru con grid is also connected thru a resistor II4 to the denser I45 to the tap of resistor I48 and is also contact of switch III! the blade of which is con 15 connected thru a resistor I48 to ground. The nected to ground. The switches 88 and Ill may plate of tube MI is connected thru three tuned be interconnected so as to be operated in unison. circuits 53, 52 and 5i to the positive side of a The positive side of the plate battery H8 is battery I41 the other side of which is grounded. connected thru the secondary of the modulation The three tuned circuits 5i, 52 and 58 are transformer 88, radio frequency choke H5 and 20 tuned to the three frequencies of the three tone oscillatory circuit I I8, tuned to double the crys generators 22, 28 and 24 of the transmitter de tal frequency, to the plate of the tube I85. A plcted in Figure 2. These frequencies for exam radio frequency bypass condenser I I1 is connected ple may be 600, 800 and 1100 cycles respectively. from the positive side of battery II3 to the junc tion of the choke H5 and circuit I I5. The oscil 25 The tuned circuit 5| is loosely coupled to a sec ondary tuned circuit 54 which is tuned to 600 latory circuit H5 is coupled to a coil II8 one end cycles, the tuned circuit 52 is loosely coupled to of which is grounded and the other end con two secondary tuned circuits 55 and 55 both of nected thru a loading coil H9 and tuning con which are tuned to 800 cycles and the tuned cir denser I2I to an antenna I22. In the operation of the transmitter depicted 30 cuit 58 is loosely coupled to a secondary tuned circuit 51 which is tuned to 1100 cycles. in Figure 2 high frequency energy will be gen The tuned circuits 54 and 51 are connected thru erated by the master oscillator 28 the frequency recti?ers 58 and 58 to two tuned circuits 8i and of which will be determined and held constant 52 which are tuned to frequencies of 200 and 300 by the piezo-electric crystal 88a. The frequency cycles respectively. The combining and ampli of this energy will be doubled by the bu?er dou bier 21 and will be impressed upon the power ' fying circuits 45 comprise two ampli?ers 58 and 54 the output circuits of which are. connected ampli?er 28. With the switch IIIl closed the to the primary of a transformer-85 both the pri power ampli?er 28 will be inoperative so that no mary and secondary of which are broadly tuned energy will be radiated by the antenna I22. The three tone generators 22, 28 and 24 each 40 to 200 to 300 cycles. The secondary of the trans former 55 is connected to the rectifying and de generate a di?’erent frequency, which for exam tecting circuit 45. This circuit includes a rec ple may be 600, 800 and 1100 cycles respectively. ti?er 55 and the primary of a transformer 51 When the switch 88 is closed the tone generators which is tuned. to a frequency of 100 cycles by 22, 28 and 24 do not affect the modulator 25. When the switch 88 is open, however, energy of 4.3 means of a condenser 51a. The secondary of the transformer 51 is tuned 600, 800 and 1100 cycles is impressed upon the to 100 cycles by means of a condenser 18 and is modulator 25, so that modulating energy is im connected to the rectifying and detecting cir pressed upon the plate of the tube I 85. When cuit 41 which includes a recti?er 58 and a re the switch III! is opened the power ampli?er 28 becomes operative and causes high frequency en- ; sistor 58. The rectifying circuit 41 is connected thru a time delay circuit H to the relay tube ergy, modulated at 600, 800 and 1100 cycles, to be circuit 48 the output circuit of which includes radiated from the antenna I22. The switches 88 the winding of the relay I8. _ and H8 may be interconnected so that the two In the operation of the receiver shown in Fig operations occur simultaneously or switch IIII ure 3, the radio signal is received by the antenna may be opened to produce radiations prior to 42 and is ampli?ed by the radiofrequency am opening switch 88 to cause modulation of the ra pli?er U. The ampli?ed signal is detected and diations. further ampli?ed by the detector and audio am Receiver pli?er 43. The output of the audio ampli?er 48 Referring to Figure 3 a receiver is shown for is fed to the three tuned circuits 5i, 52 and 58 receiving the energy radiated by the antenna I22 60 where the three frequencies of 600, 800 and 1100 of the transmitter. This receiver comprises a cycles are selected by the three circuits 5 I, 52 and radio frequency ampli?er 4| connected to an 58 respectfully. antenna-42, a detector and audio ampli?er 48, a Currents of 600 cycles are induced in the tuned plurality of tuned circuits 44, combining and amplifying circuits 45, two rectifying and de tecting circuits 48 and 41 and a relay tube cir cuit 48. The antenna 42 is connected thru a condenser I8I to a tap on a radio tuning coil I82 one ter minal of which is connected to the AVG line and the other to the grid of a radio ampli?er tube I88. A condenser I84 is connected between the AVG line and ground and a tuning condenser I85 is connected between the control grid of tube I88 and ground. The cathode of tube I88 is con 75 circuit 54 as the circuits 5| and 54 are su?lciently loosely coupled so that they transmit 600 cycles and not the other two frequencies of 800 and 1100 cycles. Currents of 800 cycles are induced in the tuned circuit 55 as the circuits 52 and 55 su?iciently loosely coupled so that they trans mit 800 cycles and not the other two frequencies. The currents of 600 and 800 cycles are detected by the recti?er 58 and a current having their diilerence frequency. namely 200 cycles, is in duced in the tuned circuit 8| which is tuned to 2,411,787 this frequency. In a similar manner, currents of 800 and 1100 cycles are induced in the tuned circuits 56 and 51 respectively. These currents are detected by the recti?er 59 and a current hav ing their difference frequency, namely 300 cycles is induced in the tuned circuit 62 which is tuned to this frequency. The currents of 200 and 300 cycles are ampli In this way it is possible to have a mine ?eld normally inactive, so that it may be crossed by tanks without danger, On the approach of the enemy, however, the appropriate radio signal is sent out and the relays IQ of all the mines in the ?eld are energized, so that the whole mine ?eld becomes active and any tank passing over a mine will cause its detonation. Although only a few of the various forms in are combined in the tuned circuit which includes 10 which this invention may be embodied have been the primary of the transformer 65, which is suf shown herein, it is to be understood that the in ?ciently closely coupled so that the transformer vention is not limited to any speci?c construc as a whole transmits 200 and 300 cycles. Cur tion but may be embodied in various forms with rentsiof 200 and 300 cycles are induced in the out departing from the spirit of the invention or secondary of the transformer 85 and are detected 15 the scope of the appended claims. by the recti?er 66 and a current having their What is claimed is: difference frequency, namely 100 cycles, is fed to l. A mine comprising a detonator, a detonator the tuned circuit which includes the primary of circuit including a normally closed relay £9, a the transformer 61, which is tuned to- this radio receiver having means to receive radiant frequency. 20 energy, means controlled by said receiver in re Current of 100 cycles is induced in the sec sponse to received energy to open said relay and ?ed by the ampli?ers 63 and 64 respectively, and ondary of the transformer 61, is recti?ed by the recti?er 68 and flows thru the resistor 69 in the thereby render said detonating‘ circuit inopera tive, said radio receiver comprising detector and direction of the arrow. Under normal condi ampli?er means to receive, detect and amplify tions the relay tube 48 operates with no bias on 25 a radio wave modulated by at least three different the grid so that a steady current ?ows thru the signals, the frequency difference between any two winding of the relay l9 keeping it energized. When, however, current ?ows thru the resistor of said signals being different selector circuits individually selective of the different signals, 69 in the direction of the arrow a negative bias combining circuits having means to combine and will be applied to the grid of the tube 48 thus 30 obtain the beat frequencies between two pairs of decreasing the current ?owing in the winding of said signals, a second combining circuit having the relay I!) which will cause this relay to open. Referring to Figure 1 it is seen that under nor mal conditions when no radio signal is received means to combine said ?rst beat frequencies and derive therefrom a secondary beat frequency, and means actuating said relay in response to by the receiver IS the relay l9 will be closed and 35 energy of said secondary beat frequency. the relay l6 open. If a tank or other object ap 2. A mine comprising a detonator, a detonator proaches the mine H the detonating circuit 14 circuit including a normally closed relay l9, a will be activated causing the relay IE to close. radio receiver having means to receive radiant This will complete a circuit from the battery l8 energy, means controlled by said receiver in re thru the relays I9 and Hi to the detonator l3 40 sponse to received energy to open said relay and which will be detonated causing the ?ring of the thereby render said detonating circuit inopera explosive charge [2. tive, said radio receiver comprising detector and If, however, the tank I‘! is transmitting a radio ampli?er means to receive, detect and amplify signal in a manner described in connection with a radio wave modulated by at least three differ Figure 2 the receiver l5 will be operated to cause 45 ent signals, the frequency difference between the relay l9 to be deenergized, as described in any two of said signals being different selector connection with Figure 3. This will make the circuits individually selective of the different detonating circuit inoperative so that when the signals, combining circuits having means to com tank passes over the mine II and causes the en bine and obtain the beat frequencies between two ergization of the relay IS the explosive charge will not be ?red and the tank will pass safely over the mine. If the batteries of the receiver l5 be come run down the relay l9 will become de energized thus making the detonating circuit in operative and the mine will become “dead.” It is thus seen that a radio controlled mine is provided which will explode by the passage of any tank or other metal object, which is not pairs of said signals, a second combining circuit having means to combine said ?rst beat frequen cies and derive therefrom a secondary beat fre quency, a selector circuit selective of said sec ondary beat frequency, a detector circuit actuated by energy in said last selector circuit, said relay being actuated by said last detector circuit. 3. In combination, a mine having a detonator, a detonator circuit including a normally open transmitting a particular type of radio signal, relay and a normally closed relay in series, means but which will be made “dead” or inoperative 60 responsive to the passage of a vehicle to close when a tank transmitting the particular type of said normally open relay, an energizing circuit radio signal passes over it. The triple modula normally maintaining said normally closed relay tion and various selective circuits reduce the closed, a radio receiver having an output circuit possibility of the enemy ?nding the correct com adapted to de-energize said energizing circuit bination for operating the receiver. 65 for opening said last relay, said radio receiver It is to be understood that the system may be being responsive to a carrier wave modulated by. so designed that it operates in the opposite sense. a plurality of different signals, and a vehicle That is the radio receiver [5 may be so con structed that normally, in the absence of any borne transmitter having means to radiate a car rier wave modulated by said signals, whereby radio signal being received by the antenna 42, the 70 when said transmitter is operated even though relay I9 will be de-energized and its contact open so that the mine is “dead.” On receipt of the proper signal, however, the relay [9 will be en ergized and its contact closed so that the mine then becomes “alive.” the mine is approached by a vehicle, said radio receiver is energized to release said last relay and render said detonating circuit inoperative, whereas when said transmitter is inoperative and 75 the mine is approached by a vehicle, said relays 9,41 1,787 are both closed to render said detonating circuit operative. 4. A radio receiver comprising detector and amplifier means to receive, detect and amplify a radio wave modulated by at least three diiferent signals, the frequency difference between any two of said signals being different, selector circuits individually selective of the different signals, adapted to set 0! said detonator, means adapted to normally maintain one of the said relays energized, additional means operative upon the approach of a moving metallic object to energils the other of said relays, and radio receiving means operative upon receipt of a pre-arrangad signal to de-energize the normally energised relay. 7. A mine having a detonator, means including combining circuits having means to combine and obtain the beat frequencies between two pairs 10 a pair of relays which, upon energization. are adapted to set oi! said detonator, radio receiving of said signals, a second combining circuit having means adapted to energize one of the said relays means to combine said first beat frequencies upon receipt of a pre-arranged signal, and addi and derive therefrom a secondary beat fre tional means adapted to energize the other of said quency, a selector circuit selective of said second relays upon the approach of a moving metallic ary beat frequency, a detector circuit actuated object. by energy in said last selector circuit, and a work 8. A mine having a detonator, and means for circuit actuated by said last detector circuit. operating said detonator including a pair of cir 5. A mine having a detonator, and means for cuits and radio receiving means, said detonator operating said detonator including a pair of cir cuits and radio receiving means, said detonator 20 operating-means requiring for its operation the operating-means requiring for its operation the energization, substantially simultaneously, of said energization, substantially simultaneously, of said of said radio receiving means. 6. A mine having a detonator, means including arranged signal. two circuits, one of said circuits being energized by the approach of a moving metallic object, and two circuits, one of said circuits being energized the other of said circuits being energized upon by the approach of a moving metallic object, and the other of said circuits being under the control 25 receipt by said radio receiving means of a pre a pair of relays, which, upon energization, are JOHN HAYS HAMMOND, Jl.