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Патент USA US2411787

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Nov. 26, 1946.
2,411,787
J. H. HAMMOND, JR
RADIO CONTROLLED NINE
Filed Sept. 26, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR
JOHN HgYS HAMMOD.,JE
Nov. 26, 1946.
J, H, HAMMOND, JR
2,411,787
RADIO CONTROLLED MINE
Filed Sept. 26, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR
a‘? JOHN HQYS HANMOND,JR.
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Nov. 26, 1946.
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2,411,787
RADIO CONTROLLED MINE
Filed Sept. 26, 1942
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INVENTOR
JOHN HAYS HAMMOND.,JR.
BY
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EY
2,411,787
Patented Nov. 26, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT - OFFICE
2,411,‘! 87
RADIO CONTROLLED MINE
John Hays Hammond, Jr., Gloucester, Mass,
assignor to Radio Corporation of America
Application September 26, 1942, Serial No. 459,787
8 Claims. (Cl. IMP-3)
I
2
This invention relates to mines which detonate
when approached by moving objects and has for
two of the frequencies preferably is not the same
an object to provide means responsive to radiant
energy signals for rendering the detonating mech
anism inoperative.
The invention also consists in certain new and
as the difference between any other two frequen
cies, and they are preferably within a single
octave. If desired these frequencies may be super
5 or subaudible.
The three tone generators 22, 23 and 24 each
comprise a triode tube 75 the cathode of which is
connected to ground thru a cathode resistor and
a condenser ‘it. The plate circuit of the tube 75
Although the novel features which are believed
to be characteristic of this invention will be par 10 includes an oscillatory circuit 11 with a feed back
‘E8 to the grid. From taps on the feed back coils
tlcularly pointed out in the claims appended
28 energy is fed into the combining circuit thru
hereto, the invention itself, as to its objects and
mixing resistors '59. Plate feed resistors 80 are
advantages, the mode of its operation and the
provided and are adjusted so that approximately
manner of its organization may be better under
the same voltage to the common circuit results
stood by referring to the following description
from the three oscillators 22, 23 and 24.
taken in connection with the accompanying draw
The combining circuit 25 comprises a triode 8!
ings forming a part thereof, in which
with cathode biased by means of the resistor-con
Figure 1 illustrates schematically the radio con
denser circuit 32. The grid of the tube 8| is con
trolled mine in relation to an approaching tank;
nected to the contact of a switch 83, the blade of
Figure 2 shows diagrammatically the circuits
which is ground. The plate circuit'of the tube
employed in one type of radio transmitter on the
53! is coupled to the grids of two modulator tubes
tank; and
34 and 35 by means of a band pass ?lter 86 which
Figure 3 depicts diagrammatically the circuits
transmits the three frequencies produced by the
employed in one type of radio receiver at the mine.
Like reference characters denote like parts in 25 three tone generators 22, 23 and 24. The earth
odes of the tubes 84 and 85 are biased positively
the several ?gures of the drawings.
with respect to ground by the resistor 81. The
In the following description and in the claims
plates of the tubes 84 and 85 are connected to
parts will be identi?ed by speci?c terms for con
the primary winding of a modulation transformer
venience, but they are intended to be as generic
88 the center tap of which is polarized positively
in their application to similar parts as the art will
original features of construction and combina
tions of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed.
permit.
Referring to the accompanying drawings and
with respect to ground by plate battery 89.
The frequency of radiooscillation of the cscil—
lator 25 is determined by a piezo electric crystal
more particularly to Figure 1 a mine ii is shown
as buried in the ground. The mine ll comprises
the connected between the control grid of a
an explosive charge !2, a detonator l3 for ex 3: pehtode 90 and ground and shunted by radio
ploding said charge, a detonating circuit M and a
frequency choke @l and resistor 92. The cathode
of tube 90 is biased positively to ground by cath
radio receiver IS. The detonating circuit l4 may
ode resistor and condenser 93 and is also con
be of any well known construction, such for ex
ample, as a magnetically operated device which is
nected to the third grid. The positive end of a
connected to a relay l6 and which is operated 40 battery 34 is connected to the second grid of the
by the approach of a metallic object such as a
‘tube 90 and thru a circuit 35, tuned to the crys
tal frequency, to the plate of tube 90. The plate
tank ll. The relay I6 is in circuit with the det
onator l3, a battery I8 and relay IS the contacts
is connected to the control grid by condenser
of which are normally closed but are arranged to
96, which may be represented by the internal
45 capacity of the tube 96.
be opened by the radio receiver l5.
g A tap on the coil of the tune-d circuit 95 is con
Transmitter
nected to the control grid of a doubler tube 91
by coupling condenser 98. The control grid of
In the tank I‘! is mounted a transmitter 25
tube 91 is conductively connected to ground thru
which comprises three tone generators 22, 23 and
24, a modulator 25, a master oscillator 26, a buffer 50 choke 99 and resistor Hill, which is shunted by
condenser ml. The cathode of tube 91 is con
doubler 2'1 and a power ampli?er 28. The tone
nected to the third grid and thru a cathode re
generators 22, 23 and 24 are of well known con
sistor and condenser M2 to ground. The posi
struction and generate three distinct frequencies
tive side of a plate supply battery I03 is con~=
which for example may be of 600, 800 and 1100
cycles respectively. The difference between any 55 nected to the second grid of the tube 91 and thru
2,411,787
3
4
a circuit I04, tuned to double the crystal fre
quency, to the plate of the tube 81.
'
A tap on the coil of the tuned circuit I54 is
connected to the control grid of a pentode I85
by coupling condenser I85. The control grid of
the tube I05 is conductively connected to ground
thru a choke I81 and resistor I 88, which is shunt
ed by condenser I88. The cathode of tube I85 is
connected to the third grid and thru a cathode
nectedtothethirdgridandtoground. The
screen mid of tube I88 is connected to the pos
itive side of a battery I85'and to the negative
side of a battery I81, the positive side of which
is connected thru the primary circuit of a tuned
transformer I88 to the plate of tube I88.
The secondary circuit of the transformer I88
is connected to the diode plate of detector ampli
?er tube “I and to the AVG line. The cathode
resistor and condenser III to ground. The sec 10 of the tube “I is connected thru a cathode re
ond grid of tube I85 is connected thru a resistor
sistor and condenser I42 to ground and also thru
II 2 to the positive side of a plate battery II8 the
tapped resistor I48. shunted by condenser I44,
negative side of which is grounded. The second
to the AVG line. The grid is connected thru con
grid is also connected thru a resistor II4 to the
denser I45 to the tap of resistor I48 and is also
contact of switch III! the blade of which is con 15 connected thru a resistor I48 to ground. The
nected to ground. The switches 88 and Ill may
plate of tube MI is connected thru three tuned
be interconnected so as to be operated in unison.
circuits 53, 52 and 5i to the positive side of a
The positive side of the plate battery H8 is
battery I41 the other side of which is grounded.
connected thru the secondary of the modulation
The three tuned circuits 5i, 52 and 58 are
transformer 88, radio frequency choke H5 and 20 tuned
to the three frequencies of the three tone
oscillatory circuit I I8, tuned to double the crys
generators 22, 28 and 24 of the transmitter de
tal frequency, to the plate of the tube I85. A
plcted in Figure 2. These frequencies for exam
radio frequency bypass condenser I I1 is connected
ple
may be 600, 800 and 1100 cycles respectively.
from the positive side of battery II3 to the junc
tion of the choke H5 and circuit I I5. The oscil 25 The tuned circuit 5| is loosely coupled to a sec
ondary tuned circuit 54 which is tuned to 600
latory circuit H5 is coupled to a coil II8 one end
cycles, the tuned circuit 52 is loosely coupled to
of which is grounded and the other end con
two secondary tuned circuits 55 and 55 both of
nected thru a loading coil H9 and tuning con
which
are tuned to 800 cycles and the tuned cir
denser I2I to an antenna I22.
In the operation of the transmitter depicted 30 cuit 58 is loosely coupled to a secondary tuned
circuit 51 which is tuned to 1100 cycles.
in Figure 2 high frequency energy will be gen
The tuned circuits 54 and 51 are connected thru
erated by the master oscillator 28 the frequency
recti?ers 58 and 58 to two tuned circuits 8i and
of which will be determined and held constant
52 which are tuned to frequencies of 200 and 300
by the piezo-electric crystal 88a. The frequency
cycles respectively. The combining and ampli
of this energy will be doubled by the bu?er dou
bier 21 and will be impressed upon the power ' fying circuits 45 comprise two ampli?ers 58 and
54 the output circuits of which are. connected
ampli?er 28. With the switch IIIl closed the
to the primary of a transformer-85 both the pri
power ampli?er 28 will be inoperative so that no
mary and secondary of which are broadly tuned
energy will be radiated by the antenna I22.
The three tone generators 22, 28 and 24 each 40 to 200 to 300 cycles. The secondary of the trans
former 55 is connected to the rectifying and de
generate a di?’erent frequency, which for exam
tecting circuit 45. This circuit includes a rec
ple may be 600, 800 and 1100 cycles respectively.
ti?er 55 and the primary of a transformer 51
When the switch 88 is closed the tone generators
which is tuned. to a frequency of 100 cycles by
22, 28 and 24 do not affect the modulator 25.
When the switch 88 is open, however, energy of 4.3 means of a condenser 51a.
The secondary of the transformer 51 is tuned
600, 800 and 1100 cycles is impressed upon the
to 100 cycles by means of a condenser 18 and is
modulator 25, so that modulating energy is im
connected to the rectifying and detecting cir
pressed upon the plate of the tube I 85. When
cuit 41 which includes a recti?er 58 and a re
the switch III! is opened the power ampli?er 28
becomes operative and causes high frequency en- ; sistor 58. The rectifying circuit 41 is connected
thru a time delay circuit H to the relay tube
ergy, modulated at 600, 800 and 1100 cycles, to be
circuit 48 the output circuit of which includes
radiated from the antenna I22. The switches 88
the winding of the relay I8.
_
and H8 may be interconnected so that the two
In the operation of the receiver shown in Fig
operations occur simultaneously or switch IIII
ure 3, the radio signal is received by the antenna
may be opened to produce radiations prior to
42 and is ampli?ed by the radiofrequency am
opening switch 88 to cause modulation of the ra
pli?er U. The ampli?ed signal is detected and
diations.
further ampli?ed by the detector and audio am
Receiver
pli?er 43. The output of the audio ampli?er 48
Referring to Figure 3 a receiver is shown for
is
fed to the three tuned circuits 5i, 52 and 58
receiving the energy radiated by the antenna I22 60
where the three frequencies of 600, 800 and 1100
of the transmitter. This receiver comprises a
cycles are selected by the three circuits 5 I, 52 and
radio frequency ampli?er 4| connected to an
58 respectfully.
antenna-42, a detector and audio ampli?er 48, a
Currents of 600 cycles are induced in the tuned
plurality of tuned circuits 44, combining and
amplifying circuits 45, two rectifying and de
tecting circuits 48 and 41 and a relay tube cir
cuit 48.
The antenna 42 is connected thru a condenser
I8I to a tap on a radio tuning coil I82 one ter
minal of which is connected to the AVG line and
the other to the grid of a radio ampli?er tube
I88. A condenser I84 is connected between the
AVG line and ground and a tuning condenser
I85 is connected between the control grid of tube
I88 and ground. The cathode of tube I88 is con 75
circuit 54 as the circuits 5| and 54 are su?lciently
loosely coupled so that they transmit 600 cycles
and not the other two frequencies of 800 and
1100 cycles. Currents of 800 cycles are induced
in the tuned circuit 55 as the circuits 52 and 55
su?iciently loosely coupled so that they trans
mit 800 cycles and not the other two frequencies.
The currents of 600 and 800 cycles are detected
by the recti?er 58 and a current having their
diilerence frequency. namely 200 cycles, is in
duced in the tuned circuit 8| which is tuned to
2,411,787
this frequency. In a similar manner, currents of
800 and 1100 cycles are induced in the tuned
circuits 56 and 51 respectively. These currents
are detected by the recti?er 59 and a current hav
ing their difference frequency, namely 300 cycles
is induced in the tuned circuit 62 which is tuned
to this frequency.
The currents of 200 and 300 cycles are ampli
In this way it is possible to have a mine ?eld
normally inactive, so that it may be crossed by
tanks without danger, On the approach of the
enemy, however, the appropriate radio signal is
sent out and the relays IQ of all the mines in
the ?eld are energized, so that the whole mine
?eld becomes active and any tank passing over a
mine will cause its detonation.
Although only a few of the various forms in
are combined in the tuned circuit which includes 10 which this invention may be embodied have been
the primary of the transformer 65, which is suf
shown herein, it is to be understood that the in
?ciently closely coupled so that the transformer
vention is not limited to any speci?c construc
as a whole transmits 200 and 300 cycles. Cur
tion but may be embodied in various forms with
rentsiof 200 and 300 cycles are induced in the
out departing from the spirit of the invention or
secondary of the transformer 85 and are detected 15 the scope of the appended claims.
by the recti?er 66 and a current having their
What is claimed is:
difference frequency, namely 100 cycles, is fed to
l. A mine comprising a detonator, a detonator
the tuned circuit which includes the primary of
circuit including a normally closed relay £9, a
the transformer 61, which is tuned to- this
radio receiver having means to receive radiant
frequency.
20 energy, means controlled by said receiver in re
Current of 100 cycles is induced in the sec
sponse to received energy to open said relay and
?ed by the ampli?ers 63 and 64 respectively, and
ondary of the transformer 61, is recti?ed by the
recti?er 68 and flows thru the resistor 69 in the
thereby render said detonating‘ circuit inopera
tive, said radio receiver comprising detector and
direction of the arrow. Under normal condi
ampli?er means to receive, detect and amplify
tions the relay tube 48 operates with no bias on 25 a radio wave modulated by at least three different
the grid so that a steady current ?ows thru the
signals, the frequency difference between any two
winding of the relay l9 keeping it energized.
When, however, current ?ows thru the resistor
of said signals being different selector circuits
individually selective of the different signals,
69 in the direction of the arrow a negative bias
combining circuits having means to combine and
will be applied to the grid of the tube 48 thus 30 obtain the beat frequencies between two pairs of
decreasing the current ?owing in the winding of
said signals, a second combining circuit having
the relay I!) which will cause this relay to open.
Referring to Figure 1 it is seen that under nor
mal conditions when no radio signal is received
means to combine said ?rst beat frequencies and
derive therefrom a secondary beat frequency,
and means actuating said relay in response to
by the receiver IS the relay l9 will be closed and 35 energy of said secondary beat frequency.
the relay l6 open. If a tank or other object ap
2. A mine comprising a detonator, a detonator
proaches the mine H the detonating circuit 14
circuit including a normally closed relay l9, a
will be activated causing the relay IE to close.
radio receiver having means to receive radiant
This will complete a circuit from the battery l8
energy, means controlled by said receiver in re
thru the relays I9 and Hi to the detonator l3 40 sponse to received energy to open said relay and
which will be detonated causing the ?ring of the
thereby render said detonating circuit inopera
explosive charge [2.
tive, said radio receiver comprising detector and
If, however, the tank I‘! is transmitting a radio
ampli?er means to receive, detect and amplify
signal in a manner described in connection with
a radio wave modulated by at least three differ
Figure 2 the receiver l5 will be operated to cause 45 ent signals, the frequency difference between
the relay l9 to be deenergized, as described in
any two of said signals being different selector
connection with Figure 3. This will make the
circuits individually selective of the different
detonating circuit inoperative so that when the
signals, combining circuits having means to com
tank passes over the mine II and causes the en
bine and obtain the beat frequencies between two
ergization of the relay IS the explosive charge
will not be ?red and the tank will pass safely over
the mine. If the batteries of the receiver l5 be
come run down the relay l9 will become de
energized thus making the detonating circuit in
operative and the mine will become “dead.”
It is thus seen that a radio controlled mine is
provided which will explode by the passage of
any tank or other metal object, which is not
pairs of said signals, a second combining circuit
having means to combine said ?rst beat frequen
cies and derive therefrom a secondary beat fre
quency, a selector circuit selective of said sec
ondary beat frequency, a detector circuit actuated
by energy in said last selector circuit, said relay
being actuated by said last detector circuit.
3. In combination, a mine having a detonator,
a detonator circuit including a normally open
transmitting a particular type of radio signal,
relay and a normally closed relay in series, means
but which will be made “dead” or inoperative 60 responsive to the passage of a vehicle to close
when a tank transmitting the particular type of
said normally open relay, an energizing circuit
radio signal passes over it. The triple modula
normally maintaining said normally closed relay
tion and various selective circuits reduce the
closed, a radio receiver having an output circuit
possibility of the enemy ?nding the correct com
adapted to de-energize said energizing circuit
bination for operating the receiver.
65 for opening said last relay, said radio receiver
It is to be understood that the system may be
being responsive to a carrier wave modulated by.
so designed that it operates in the opposite sense.
a plurality of different signals, and a vehicle
That is the radio receiver [5 may be so con
structed that normally, in the absence of any
borne transmitter having means to radiate a car
rier wave modulated by said signals, whereby
radio signal being received by the antenna 42, the 70 when said transmitter is operated even though
relay I9 will be de-energized and its contact open
so that the mine is “dead.” On receipt of the
proper signal, however, the relay [9 will be en
ergized and its contact closed so that the mine
then becomes “alive.”
the mine is approached by a vehicle, said radio
receiver is energized to release said last relay
and render said detonating circuit inoperative,
whereas when said transmitter is inoperative and
75 the mine is approached by a vehicle, said relays
9,41 1,787
are both closed to render said detonating circuit
operative.
4. A radio receiver comprising detector and
amplifier means to receive, detect and amplify a
radio wave modulated by at least three diiferent
signals, the frequency difference between any
two of said signals being different, selector circuits
individually selective of the different signals,
adapted to set 0! said detonator, means adapted
to normally maintain one of the said relays
energized, additional means operative upon the
approach of a moving metallic object to energils
the other of said relays, and radio receiving
means operative upon receipt of a pre-arrangad
signal to de-energize the normally energised
relay.
7. A mine having a detonator, means including
combining circuits having means to combine and
obtain the beat frequencies between two pairs 10 a pair of relays which, upon energization. are
adapted to set oi! said detonator, radio receiving
of said signals, a second combining circuit having
means adapted to energize one of the said relays
means to combine said first beat frequencies
upon receipt of a pre-arranged signal, and addi
and derive therefrom a secondary beat fre
tional means adapted to energize the other of said
quency, a selector circuit selective of said second
relays upon the approach of a moving metallic
ary beat frequency, a detector circuit actuated
object.
by energy in said last selector circuit, and a work
8. A mine having a detonator, and means for
circuit actuated by said last detector circuit.
operating said detonator including a pair of cir
5. A mine having a detonator, and means for
cuits and radio receiving means, said detonator
operating said detonator including a pair of cir
cuits and radio receiving means, said detonator 20 operating-means requiring for its operation the
operating-means requiring for its operation the
energization, substantially simultaneously, of said
energization, substantially simultaneously, of said
of said radio receiving means.
6. A mine having a detonator, means including
arranged signal.
two circuits, one of said circuits being energized
by the approach of a moving metallic object, and
two circuits, one of said circuits being energized
the other of said circuits being energized upon
by the approach of a moving metallic object, and
the other of said circuits being under the control 25 receipt by said radio receiving means of a pre
a pair of relays, which, upon energization, are
JOHN HAYS HAMMOND, Jl.
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