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Патент USA US2411818

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Patented Na. 26, 1946
‘ 2,411,818'
Ernst Weiss, Wattwil, Switzerland, assignor to
Heberlein Patent Corporation, New York, N. Y.,
a corporation of New York
No Drawing. Application January 8, 1944, Serial
No. 517,580. In Switzerland October 20, 1941
(Cl. 8—115.6)
6 Claims.
eral the water-absorbing capacity of the ?bers is
This invention relates to processes for treating
cellulose-containing textiles and is a continu
. ation in part of my U. S. A. application Ser. No.
further reduced. Another advantage consists
therelnthat at the same time a good laundry
resisting ?nish is produced on the goods. Fur
re the properties which are due to the
459,842 ?led September 26, 1942. More particu
larly the invention provides a process for render
actio -' of formaldehyde on the cellulose, as for
ing such textiles stable as to dimensions and at
instance the improved shrink resistance and the
the same time giving them a good laundry
reduction of the stretch of textiles made from
resisting ?nish. The process is especially useful
regenerated cellulose are maintained to their full
in treating fabrics consisting of or containing
This was the more surprising as it was
a substantial percentage of regenerated cellulose 10 extent.
known from practical operation that the pres
arti?cial silk ?bers such for example as viscose
ence of ?nishing agents, as for instance starch,
and cuprammonium silk ?bers, including staple
on the ?ber rendered the action of formalde
?bers thereof and mixtures of such ?bers.
hyde on the cellulose more di?lcult.
It is known that textiles made of natural or
Suitable for the treatment are cellulose-con
regenerated cellulose can be treated with formal 15 taining
textiles of any description such as fab
dehyde at high temperatures in the presence of
spun yarns and ?ber material of natu
acid acting catalysts. This manner of treatment
ral or regenerated cellulose either alone or mixed
brings about mainly a reduction of the swelling
with other ?bers.
property of the cellulose and an improvement of
As acid catalysts one can use organic or inor
the shrinking resistance whereby these effects 20
ganic acids of any kind which have a dissociation
withstand many launderings. At the same time
constant of at least about 10-4 to about 3x10-1,
the high and often undesired stretching of rayon
and where such quantities are used as will not
and staple ?ber is reduced which e?ect is also
cause injury to the cellulose by disintegration
permanent, so that these processes offer inter
(split-up of chemical structure); for instance
esting possibilities especially for the treatment of 25 depending
on the strength of the acid, one may
rayon and staple ?ber made of regenerated cel
use up to 10 grams or more per liter of the
impregnating liquid. Also acid salts of such acids
A disadvantage of this shrink-resistant ?nish
can be used or salts which, on account of their
is the limp feel or hand of the goods which can
dissociation in the presence of heat or their reac
only be eliminated by a subsequent ?nish which, 30 tion
with formaldehyde, have an acid reaction;
however, would not only entail an additional
such for instance as ammonium salts. Also mix
operation but furthermore would cause di?icul
tures of various catalysts can be used, for in
ties with respect to the stabilizing of fabrics to
stance one may add buffer substances or sub
maintain their dimensions. A further disadvan
tage of these processes is that the resistance to 35 stances which have a swelling action on cellulose
as for instance zinc chloride.
abrasion of the textiles is considerably reduced
The expression “acid catalyst” will be used
as a result of the treatment with formaldehyde
herein to cover or de?ne not onlycatalysts which
under the said conditions.
are acids, but also substances which are acid
It has now been found that in both of these
or which liberate acid in solution or
respects a considerable improvement can be ob 40 reacting
when exposed to the reaction conditions herein
tained if the treatment of the cellulose-contain
ing textiles is effected with formaldehyde solu
As ?nishing agents having a stiffening or
tions having a formaldehyde content of less than
action for the carrying out of the
10% but more than about 2%, in the presence
of acid acting catalysts, at temperatures between 45 process, there can be used the customary Vege
table or animal colloidal substances or their tech
about '70°-160° C. and in the presence of ?nish
nically produced derivatives, as for instance, solu
ing agents having a stiffening or weighting ac
ble starch, starch of every description, carob meal,
tion and consisting of vegetable or animal col
gum tragacanth, gum arabic, dextrln, sugar and
loids or their colloidal ?lm-forming conversion
gelatin. It is also possible to add textile ?nish
products, which are capable of reacting with
ing agents, as for instance, softeners. The ?nish
formaldehyde to form condensation products
ing agents are used in practical operation in
which either swell only with di?iculty in water
quantities of for instance a few grams up to 100 r
or areinsoluble therein.
By‘ this process, not only is the abrasive re—
Y gramsand more per liter of impregnation liquid.
sistance considerably improved but also in gen 55
For formaldehyde it is most advantageous to
use the 40% technical or commercial formalde
_ only slightly soluble in water, drying and subject
hyde solution or compounds which split off form
ing the ?bers to a formaldehyde treatment (the
aldehyde during the reaction, such as its polymers
formaldehyde'being of the above content in the
or hexamethylenetetramine. Quantitatively, the
solution) in presence of an “acid” catalyst, hav
formaldehyde content of the impregnating bath
ing a dissociation constant of at least about 10-4
should be below 10% but more than about 2%.
to about 3><10-1 at a temperature of from about
A higher concentration causes a higher reaction
70° C. to 160° C. for a sumclent time toproduce
speed, and furthermore a crease-resistant effect,
said reaction product and another reaction
which is not intended or desired in connection
product between formaldehyde and cellulose
with the present invention, since a diminution 10 thus giving to the ?bers said properties of
of the abrasive resistance is caused thereby.
reduced shrinkage and a laundry resistant ?nish.
Preferably the formaldehyde, catalyst and ?n
The “colloids” may be applied to the textile
ishing agent are added to the same impregnating
materials by means of a slop padding machine or
bath and the goods are immersed therein at
a padding mangle or e. g. by a starching mangle
ordinary or elevated temperature. After a thor 15 with a starch-doctor. Filling materials and ?n
ough soaking the excess liquid is removed, such
‘ ishing agents, such as softeners may be added to
for instance as by squeezing and the goods are
the “colloids." Mostly it is of importance that
pre-dried at about 60° C. After the pre-dry
the fabrics are brought to de?nite dimensions ap
ing, which may be carried out at a higher or
proximating those as customary in the trade after
lower temperature, the actual condensation takes 20 impregnation with the formaldehyde solution by
place between about 70-160“ 0., most preferably
tensioning them on a stenter frame. The fabrics
in a drying chamber or on a perforated drying
are then dried and condensed maintaining those
drum, by strongly agitated air currents.
other drying equipment which assures uniform
The following examples serve to illustrate only
heat is suitable, such for instance as drying with 25 some of the many embodiments of the invention.
infra-red rays.
Example 1.—A cretonne-like fabric, in warp
For the treatment of fabrics it is most impor
and ?lling consisting of spun viscose yarn, was
tant that these are brought to de?nite dimensions
cleansed by customary methods, slightly bleached
approximating those as customary in the trade,
and dried. Thereafter, it was impregnated on 8.
since the fabrics are to be stabilized or made 30 padding machine with a solution containing per
shrink-proof at these dimensions, 1. e., ?xed to
these dimensions. It is therefore essential that
Solubia (soluble starch) _____________ __gr__ 100
these dimensions are maintained during the
Formaldehyde 40% commercial ______ __cc__ 100
heating or condensation treatment. For this
purpose one can proceed so that the impregnated 35' Zinc chloride pulverized _____________ __gr__ 20
Potash alum _______________________ __gr__ 1o
fabrics, after squeezing them out, are tensioned
Thereupon it was well squeezed (wrung out),
and pre-dried on a stenter frame to predeter
tensioned in warp and ?lling directions to 5%
mined dimensions, i. e., to the length and width
desired for the ?nished product, or suitably ten
below gray dimensions and while at such _dimen
sioned somewhat in excess of these dimensions, 40 sions pre-dried at a temperature of ‘70° C. There
and then pre-dried. Thereafter with the fabric
upon the goods were exposed in a heating cham
at these predetermined dimensions, the conden—
ber for 2 minutes to a_ temperature of 130° C.,
sation is eifected as described above. After rins
acidi?ed with very dilute acetic acid, thoroughly
ing the goods they are ?nished in the usual man
washed, and tensioned in length and width to 6%
below the gray dimensions and dried.
Fabrics thus treated will also, after repeated
The fabric is considerably stiffened, and even
laundering, shrink only very little and have a
after repeated laundering the stiffening is not
durable full hand; they retain these character
materially reduced and the tendency of the goods
istics also during further manufacturing manipu
to shrink is very slight. The resistance to abra
lations and in the made up garment. The re
sion is 62% higher than for similar goods analo
sistance to abrasion is good and the swelling
gously treated, but without the addition of So~
property, 1. e., swelling in water, is very much re
lubia to the formaldehyde. By reason of the
duced. For arti?cial silk, including spun rayon
addition of soluble starch the swelling property
fabrics, made from regenerated cellulose, the ten
of the ?ber material was further dimenished, as
sile strength of the wet material as well as the 55 is proven by the following ?gures. The water
boiling fastness are improved. Simultaneously,
absorption, in percent, based on the water ab
the stretching property of these fabrics, which is
sorption by similar goods which were only sub
troublesome during the manufacturing and while
jected to a preliminary cleaning, is as follows:
wearing the garment, is considerably reduced.
Per cent
We have also found that a considerable amelio 60
Fabrics treated according to the above ex
ration especially of the abrasive resistance of the
ample ___
treated goods is obtained, if “colloids” are _not
Fabrics treated analogously, but without the
added to the formaldehyde solution, but are ?rst
addition of Solubia ___________________ .._ 73
applied to the goods and the ?nished goods are
then subjected to the formaldehyde treatment. 65 The determination of the water absorption was
It was surprising that this manner of proceeding
carried out by the centrifuge method.
would be e?icient, because it was known, that
Example 2.—Mercerized, bleached cotton mar
the formaldehyde treatment requires thoroughly
cleansed goods, to enable reaction between form
aldehyde and cellulose.
Thus my process for treating cellulose contain
ing ?bers to reduce shrinkage and give a laundry
quislette was impregnated on a padding machine
70 Wheat starch _
Formaldehyde 40% com _________ __litres__
Aluminium rhodanide solution 17° Bé.._do___ 4
resistant ?nish comprises, treating the ?bers with
Water, su?lcient to make up to ______ 100
"col1oids” capable, when heated to react with.
formaldehyde to render the ?bers insoluble or 75 In making up the impregnating solution the
to goods similarly treated without the addition
starch was made into a paste with a part of the
' of gum arabic is improved by more than 30%.
water by strong stirring at boiling temperature,
Example‘ 5.-Viscose voile was passed through
cooled off and then mixed in with the other com
an aqueous solution containing:
Per cent
The goods after being well squeezed out were
pre-dried at 60° C. while maintaining strong
length and width tension therein; followed by
heating for 20 minutes at 110° C.; thoroughly
Potato starch ___________________________ __
Formaldehyde __________________________ __ 4.8
Soromin BS (a cation active softener) ____ -_ 1.0
Ammonium chloride _____________________ -_ 0.4
washed with cold water and soaped for a short
time. The fabric is then dried while tensioned 10 squeezed out, tensioned to approximately the gray
in both directions to about 4% below the gray
dimensions and while so tensioned dried at 40-50“
C. and thereafter heated at 120° C. for 2 minutes.
By this treatment a good, materially stiffened
The heating in this instance can be carried out
to advantage on a so-called Airlay dryer. After
marquisette ?nish is obtained which does not lose
thorough washing and a short subsequent soap
its character after laundering, and the tendency
of the goods to shrink is very slight. The resist
' ing the goods were tensioned on a hand stenter
ance to abrasion is considerably greater than in
frame to about 5% ‘below the gray width and
theycase of goods treated similarly, but without
length and dried.
For the preparation of the impregnating ?uid
the addition of Wheat starch.
Example 3.—Spun rayon gabardine, dyed with 20 the potato starch was boiled with a part of the
water for one hour while stirring vigorously. The
dye-stuffs fast against the action of formalde
hyde, was impregnated with a solution prepared
paste thus obtained was allowed to cool off and
according to the following directions: A 10% gum
thereupon there were stirred‘ into it the other
components such as formaldehyde, Soromin and
tragacanth solution was diluted with water with
the addition of formaldehyde and hydrochloric
ammonium chloride which were dissolved in the
acid to twice its original volume. The ?nal solu
remaining part of the water.
The viscose voile was considerably stiffened by
tion contains per liter:
this treatment. The ?nished effect is quite laun
Gum tragacanth _____________________ __g__ 50
dry-proof. The swelling property of the ?ber
Formaldehyde 40% commercial ______ __cc__ 150 30 material is reduced to a far-reaching extent,
Hydrochloric acid conc ______________ __cc__
which has an especially favorable effect on the
wet strength.
The goods were than tensioned in both directions
The resistance to abrasion is 65% of that of the
to about 1% in excess of the commercially cus
tomary ?nal dimensions and while so tensloned, 35 original goods. A sample of the same good-s treat
ed in the same manner, but only with the form
dried at 60-70". C., thereupon heated in a heating
aldehyde and the catalyst, shows a resistance to
chamber without tension for 8 minutes at 120° C.,
washed with cold water, passed for 10 minutes
through a warm bath (40° C.) containing 0.1%
abrasion of only 32%.
Example 6.-A dyed lining material of viscose
satin was impregnated with a solution having the
of a commercial fatty alcohol sulphonate plus
0.05% sodium carbonate and after again'rinsing 40 following composition:
with cold water, dried. This drying was carried
Carob kernel meal 2% aqueous solution__cc__ 500
out on a stenter frame maintaining a slight lon
gitudinal pull whilst in the width the goods were
Formaldehyde 40% commercial ______ __cc__' 90
Tartaric acid _______________________ __gr__
tensioned to 6% below the width of the gray 45
The goods were squeezed out and then subjected
,to a preliminary drying at 60-650 C. while main
The goods obtained by this treatment have,
tained under a good tension in warp and ?lling
characteristically, a fuller or more voluminous
directions, then calendered under strong pressure
and ?rmer hand, the ?nished effect is not lost
on a multi-roller calender, heated for 2 minutes
‘by laundering, and the tendency to shrink is con
siderably reduced. The resistance to abrasion 50 at 140° C., washed well with cold water, lightly
soaped and again dried under tension.
is materially improved as compared with similar
The goods thus treated attained a ?rm hand;
goods analogously treated with formaldehyde, but
more resistant to the action of moisture and
without the addition of gum tragacanth. Also in
in subsequent use did not materially change their
this instance the swelling properties of the ?ber
; dimensions. The resistance to abrasion of goods
material are further diminished.
thus treated as compared to that of similar goods
Example 4.-—A well desized rayon taffeta of
in customary manner (i. e., without any
copper ammonium silk was treated with a solution
formaldehyde treatment) is only very slightly de
containing per liter:
Gum arabic
creased from a practical point of view (i. e., only
gr" 100 60 about 2 to 3%) while similar goods treated ac
Formaldehyde 40% comm __________ __'_cc__ 200
Zinc chloride _______________________ __gr__ 16
Acetic acid concentrated _____________ __cc__.
and then squeezed out. The goods were then pre
liminarily dried at 65° C. while well stretched in
length and width and then heated for 5 minutes
at 135° C. Thereupon they were given a subse
cording to this example but without the addition
of the carob kernel meal, showed a decrease of
nearly 50% in the resistance to abrasion.
Example 7.—Crépe Georgette, consisting of vis
cose yarn both in the warp and ?lling, was de
sized in the customary manner, boiled, bleached
and dried. Thereupon it was impregnated with
a solution consisting of:
quent treatment with diluted acetic acid, washed,
Gelatin _______________________ _-grams__. 20
lightly soaped and again dried under tension. 70 Formaldehyde 40% commercial ______ __cc__ 130
The ?nal dimensions were ?xed at about 1%
Ammonium sulfate ______________ __grams__
below those dimensions obtained during the pre
Water _____________________________ -_cc__ 970
liminary drying.
The result was a stiff ta?eta
The fabric was squeezed out and preliminarily
fabric which did not materially shrink after laun
dering. The resistance to abrasion as compared 75 dried at 40 to 50° 0.; while stretched in the di
rection of the warp and ?lling to about 10% below
the gray dimensions. Thereafter the fabric was
heated for 45 minutes at 120° C., thoroughly rinsed
with cold water and lightly soaped, and ?nally
Formaldehyde conc. technical (40%)____cc__ 100
dried under tension. As compared with the gray
goods, the ?nished goods showed a shrinkage of
Water _____________________________ __cc..- 900
a stenter frame at a temperature of 80°'-90° C.
Subsequently the fabric is impregnated withv
Aluminium chloride cryst _____________ __g__
12% in length and width.
This treatment imparted to the goods a clear
dried at 60° C. under tension in the direction of
?lling and warp so that the fabric is stretched to
stiffening. Furthermore, they became, more
4% below the original gray dimensions and there
translucent and clearer and obtained thereby a 10 upon heated during 4 minutes at 140° C., washed
character similar to a transparent—like crepe.
well with cold water, lightly soaped and dried
This effect was not lost after several launder
ings and the usual strong tendency of crepe
The fabric shows a linen-like stiffening‘ and
fabrics to shrink was in this instance greatly re
only slightly shrinks on laundering. The ?nish
duced. The resistance to abrasion of goods thus
resists to repeated laundering and the resistance
treated is 86% of that of ‘the original goods, as
to abrasion is the same as the untreated‘fabric,
compared to 58% for a sample of the same goods
whilst a fabric not pretreated with the colloid
treated in the same manner but without the addi
shows a diminution of the resistance to abrasion
tion of gelatin.
of about 60%.
Example 8.--A cretonne-(linen-)like fabric 20 With respect to the carrying out of this process,
composed of regenerated cellulose staple ?ber is
as a general rule, the amount of the impregnating
boiled in the known manner, bleached, dried and
liquid retained in the fabric after squeezing should
v treated with a starch paste of 20 g. potato-starch
be about 80 to 100% compared to the weight of
per kg. on a slop padding machine and dried.
the dry goods. Also the drying of the fabric after
The so ?nished fabric is impregnated on the 25 the impregnation and prior to the baking should
padding machine with a solution containing per
be uniform.
The products obtained following Examples 1-10
are characterized by the inherent quality of be
Formaldehyde conc. technical (40%) ____cc__ 75
ing insoluble but swellable in the usual cupram
monium hydroxide solutions and being recognized
by the well known analytical methods as cellu
squeezed and then predried at a temperature of
lose chemically combined with formaldehyde.
‘70° C. while tensioning the fabric in both direc
As stated above, a crease-resistant effect is
tions (weft and warp) at 4-5% below the original
not intended or desired to be'produced by my
dimensions. The fabric is then heated in a heat
process and, accordingly, the process is carried
ing room during 2 minutes at 140° C., acidi?ed
out until the ?bers are proof against shrinkage
with strongly diluted acetic acid, washed out,
and discontinued before they have been ren
stretched in length and width at 6% below the
dered substantially crease-proof and before they
original dimensions and dried.
show any substantial resistance to swelling in the
Fabrics so ?nished are distinctly stiffened. The 40 usual cuprammonium hydroxide solution. Con
stiffening resists repeated laundering and the
ditions of time, temperature and concentration of
Zinc chloride technical ________________ __g__ 15
Potash alum _________________________ __g_._ 7.5 30
tendency of the fabric to shrink on laundering is
considerably reduced. The d'minution of swelling .
is 33%, the diminution of the resistance to abra
sion is only 37% relatively to the untreated fab
ric. A corresponding fabric, not pretreated with
“colloids” shows a diminution vof swelling of 35%
the materials used are set forth speci?cally in
Examples 1 to 10 to accomplish this end.
In the claims, where the expression “formalde
hyde" is used, it is intended to include polymers
of formaldehyde and compounds splitting off
formaldehyde. Also. where the expression "col
loid” is used, it is intended to include vegetable
and a diminution of the resistance to abrasion of
59%. The fastness to abrasion appears to be
or animal colloids or their conversion products
improved by more than 50%.
suitable as ?nishing agents and having a stiffen
Example 9.—-A coloured lining fabric of viscose 50 ing or weighting effect.
satin is padded with a solution containing 10 g.
It may be mentioned that in most cases it is
carob kernel meal per liter and predried. Subse
possible to treat fabrics ?nished in accordance
quently the fabric is impregnated with the follow
with the foregoing examples, by a suitable me
ing solution:
Formaldehyde conc. technical (40%) ____cc__ 180
chanical shrinking process, for instance by “san
forizing" in such a way that even upon repeated
washings, the ‘changes in dimensions do not
exceed 1%.
While the invention has been described in de
and driedat 60-70" C. under remarkable tension
tail according to the preferred manner of carry
in the directions of ?lling and warp, calendered, 60 ing out the same, it will be obvious to those skilled
heated during 8 minutes at 130° C., washed out
in the art after understanding the invention, that
with cold water. after treated with 1 g./liter of
changes and modi?cations may be made therein
a known fatty alcohol sulphonate at 30° C. during
without departing from the spirit or scope of the
10 minutes, rinsed and dried under tension. The
and it is intended in the appended
fabric acquires a ?rm hand. It is more resistant 65 claims to cover all such changes and modi?ca
to the in?uence of moisture and only slightly
changes its dimensions on wearing. The fastness
Having thus described the invention, what is
to abrasion of the fabric is improved by about
claimed as new and desired to be secured by Let
60% when compared witha fabric, showing about
ters Patent, is:
the same diminution of swelling, but not pre 70
1. A process for treating cellulose ?bres, which
treated with the “colloids.”
comprises, impregnating the ?bres with a form
Example 10.—A regenerated cellulose staple
aldehyde solution having 8. formaldehyde content
?ber fabric, colour-printed in the well known
of less than 10% but more than about 2% in the
manner is impregnated on a two-bowl-padding
presence of an acid catalyst having a dissocia
mangle with 20 g. gelatine per liter and dried on 76 tion constant of at least 1x10-4 to about 3X10-1
Tartaric acid ________________________ __g__
Water ..
_ 820
and showing substantially no resistance to swell- I
' and in the presence of an aldehyde-reactive agent
selected from the group consisting of animal and
iilig in the usual cuprammonium hydroxide solu
t on.
vegetable colloids and their colloidal film-form
ing conversion products'capable, when heated,
with formaldehyde, of forming reaction products
insoluble or_ slightly soluble in water, heating
the so-treated ?bres at about 70°-160° C. until
5. A process for treating fabrics containing cel
lulose whichcomprises, preliminarily impregnat
ing the fabrics with an‘ aldehyde-reactive agent
selected from the group consisting of animal and
vegetable colloids and their colloidal ?lm-form
ing conversion products capable when heated with ‘,
the ?bres are proof against. shrinkage, and dis
continuing the treatment before the ?bres have
of forming reaction products in
been rendered substantially crease-proof and be 10 formaldehyde
soluble or slightly soluble in water, drying the
fore they show any substantial resistance to swell
fabric so treated and subjecting the same to a
ing in the usual cuprammonium hydroxide solu
formaldehyde solution having a formaldehyde
2. A process for treating a fabric containing
cellulose ?bres, ‘which comprises,_impregnating
content of less than 10% but more than about
15 2% in the presence of an acid catalyst having a
dissociation constant of at least 1X10-4 to about
3><l0-1, heatingthe so-treated fabric at about
formaldehyde content of less than 10% but more
70°-160° C. until the fabric is proof against
than about 2% in the presence of an acid cata
shrinkage, and discontinuing the treatment be
lyst having a dissociation constant of at least
fore the fabric has been rendered substantially
1X 10-4 to about 3X10‘1 and in the presence of an
crease-proof and before‘ it shows any substantial
aldehyde-reactive agent selected from-the group
resistance to swelling in the usual cuprammonium
consisting of animal and vegetable colloids and
hydroxide solution.
their colloidal ?lm-forming conversion products
6. A process for treating fabrics containing cel
the fabric with a formaldehyde solution having a
capable, when heated with formaldehyde, of
forming reaction products insoluble or slightly
, ' lulose which comprises, preliminarily impregnat
ing the ‘fabrics with an aldehyde-reactive agent
soluble in water, removing the excess liquid, ad-‘ _ I selected from the group consisting of animal and
justing the fabric to predetermined dimensions
and, with the fabric at approximately said di
vegetable colloids and their colloidal ?lm-form
‘ ing- conversion products capable when heated with
mensions, heating the so-treated fabric at about
formaldehyde of forming reaction products in
soluble or slightly soluble in water, drying the
- 70—160° C. until the fabric is proof against shrink
age, and discontinuing the treatment before the _
fabric so treated and subjecting the same to a
fabric has been rendered substantially crease
proof and before it shows any substantial resist
ance to swelling in the usual cuprammonium hy
droxide solution.
formaldehyde solution having a formaldehyde
content of less than 10% but more than about 2%
in the presence of an acid catalyst having a dis
sociation constant of at least 1X10.-4 to about
3. Cellulose ?bers, chemically combined with
3x10-1, removing the excess liquid. adjusting the
fabric to predetermined dimensions and, with the
formaldehyde coated with a formaldehyde starch
compound and which are shrink-resistant but
have no substantial crease-proof’ character, but
showing substantially no resistance to swelling in
the usual cuprammonium hydroxide solution.
4. Cellulose fibres combined with formaldehyde
coated with reaction products of formaldehyde
- fabric at approximately said dimensions, subject
ing it in dry condition to a ‘temperature of from
about 70°-160° C. until the fabric isproof against
shrinkage, and discontinuing the treatment be
fore the fabric has been rendered substantially
crease-proof and before it shows any substantial
with an aldehyde-reactive agent selected . from
the group consisting of animal and vegetable col = resistance to swelling in the usual cuprammonium
hydroxide solution.
loids and their colloidal ?lm-forming conversion
products, said coated ?bres being shrinkeresistant
but having no substantial crease-proof character
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