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Патент USA US2411828

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Nov. 26, 1946.
Filed Feb. 15, 1928
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Patented Nov. 26, 1946
United states PATENT
vJohn Hays Hammond, Jr.,."‘Gl0ucester,‘ Mass.
Application February 15, 1928, Serial No.>254,54>1
10 Claims.
r This invention relates to the control of mov
ing bodies by radiant energy. ,
(Cl. 114—21)
right of Fig. 1. The turbine 25 is supplied with
actuating ?uid from a source of compressed
A principal object of the invention relates to
?uid medium, such as a supply pipe 25.
the provision of means for controlling the course
Horizontal rudders for varying the direction of
of the torpedo or other moving vessel by radiant 0% movement of the torpedo about its horizontal
energy transmitted from a distant point.
transverse axis may also be provided in a well
In accordance with this object a radiant energy
known manner, but as such rudders as well as
responsive device is provided and in order to im
depth control ‘devices for controlling the same are
prove the ei?cacy of the torpedo in attacking an
well known, it is thought that a more detailed
enemy battleship or other target, the energy re
description thereof is unnecessary herein.
sponsive device is maintained inactive until the
For varying the direction of movement of the
torpedo has come into proximity with the target.
torpedo 29 about a vertical axis so as to steer the
The torpedo thus moves at maximum speed over
torpedo in azimuth, there is provided a two blade
most of its course, without being impeded by the
rudder 3U pivotally mounted on a rudder post 3i
trailing energy responsive device.
having operative connection by means of the con
An important feature of the invention relates
necting rod 32 with a stabilizing mechanism 33.
to the provision of automatically operable means
The stabilizing mechanism 33 includes a con-;
controlled by the extent of movement of the
troller or gyroscope as disclosed in my copending
torpedo for releasing an electrically insulated
application, Serial No. 252,716, ?led February 8,
conductor from the moving body. After having
been released the conductor automatically takes
its position outwardly of the moving body so as to
be responsive to radiant energy transmitted
Other objects will appear from the following .
description taken in connection with the accom
panying drawing in which
Fig. 1 is a partial vertical. section of a torpedo
embodying features of the invention;
_ Fig. 2 is a partial sectional view of the distance
gear of Fig. 1 arranged for releasing the antenna;
Fig. 3 is a partial sectional view of the stern
of Fig. 1 showing the antenna bob in its initial
Like reference characters denote like parts in
the several ?gures of the drawing.
7 In the following description and claims, parts,
1928, U. S. Patent No. 1,806,346, Paravane tor
pedo, for automatically controlling the rudders
30 to cause the ‘torpedo to maintain a predeter
mined direction of movement. The course direct
ing means is also controlled bya steering mecha
nism'sll, operatively ‘connected to the stabilizer
33‘by a shaft 35, which corresponds to the shaft
85 of said copending application. The steering
mechanism 36 is in turn controlled by a radio re
ceiver shown diagrammatically as at 36. ‘The
radio receiver 36 may also control a‘desired utility
indicated as at 31. Thus, it will be seen that
the course maintaining means may be automati
cally controlled by the gyroscope, or manually
controlled by radiant energy transmitted from a
distant point.
For receiving radiant ‘energy to operate the
receiver 36 there is provided an insulated antenna
40 a portion of which is initially wound on a stor
age reel or spool ill. The hub of the spool lil
is journaled in a pair of brackets such as 42
secured to the inner surface of the torpedo hull
2|. The inner end of the antenna 40 is ter
minated on a collecting ring 63 with which there
characteristic features and functions will be iden
ti?ed by speci?c means for convenience of ex
pression, but they are intended to be as generic
in their application to similar parts or equivalent
construction as the art will permit.
Referring to Fig. 1, there is shown a water
engages a contact brush is mounted on an in
borne body forming a carrier of explosives, such 45 sulating bracket 45, forming part of the radio
asa torpedo 29, having a water tight torpedo hull
receiver 36. The contact brush 4d thus forms an
2! and arranged to be propelled by a pair of pro
electrical connection from the antenna 13?] to the
pellers 22, 22 rotatably mounted at the stern of
radio receiver 36.
the torpedo hull. The propellers 22, 22 are
For guiding the antenna (19 there is provided
mounted on concentric shafts, respectively, in
a tube 59 extending into the interior of a casing
cluding an outer shaft 23 and an inner shaft 213.
55 positioned within the torpedo hull. Positioned
The shafts are operatively connected to a driving
within the casing 5| there is provided a ?xed
means such as a conventional compressed air tur
block 53 and a relatively movable block 54 form
bine 25, whereby the propellers are rotated to
ing a clutch for engaging the antenna ?ll. The
drive the torpedo forward, that isv towards the
' movable block Ed is mounted on a sliding rod 55
guiding tube || | (see Figs. 2 and 3) and through
a housing “2 preferably positioned at the stern
of the torpedo. The antenna terminates in a bob
extending through the wall of the casing 5| and
through a boss 56 mounted’ on the outer surface
of the casing. The rod 55 also extends through
||3 which preferably includes a mass “4 of in
an aperture in a pivoted arm 51 pivotally
I mounted as at 58 to a lug 59 forming an exten
sulating material for effectively preventing un
desired connection of the antenna to the water
sion of the casing 5|.
The outer end of the rod 55 is provided with a
of the sea. The bob “3 is secured to the an
tenna 49 so that it will be pulled apart there
collar 19 secured thereto. The free end of the
from by a force less than the tensile strength of
pivoted arm 51 is engaged by one arm of a bell
crank lever 1|, pivoted as at 12 to a bracket 13 10 the antenna. The bob “3 is positioned initially
in a recess H5 formed in the housing “2 and
secured to the torpedo hull. A compression
_ there is provided a conducting passage H6 in the
spring ‘i4 is mounted on the boss 59 and serves
housing H2 for the ?ow of ?uid into the recess
to maintain the pivoted arm 51 in engagement
with the end of the bell crank lever ‘H. A second
spring 15 is mounted within the casing 5| on 15
the rod 55 for initially maintaining the movable
clutch member 54 against the antenna 49 thus’
effectively securing the antenna against longi
I I5 when the torpedo 29 is moved forwardly.
In operation, when it is desired to discharge
the torpedo, the key I96 is adjusted as may ap
pear to be necessary to secure the best results.
This adjustment will usually be made in accord
ance with instructions received from the plotting
tudinal movement. Thus it will be seen that the
bell crank lever 7| serves as a latch for the piv 20 room and will be such as to permit the operation
of the torpedo through a desired distance be
oted arm 51. The pivoted bell crank lever TI is
normally held in the position shown in Fig. 2 by
a cam wheel 19 forming part of a distance gear
fore the cam 16 causes the notch 96 to register
with the tooth 9'1.
controlled by movement of the torpedo. A spring
Upon the torpedo being discharged, the
11 is secured at one end to one arm of the bell
source of ?uid medium 26 is connected to the
crank lever 7| and at the other end to the bracket
For actuating the distance gear a pinion 89 is
rigidly secured to a rotatable shaft 8| in posi
tion to mesh continually with a driving gear 82
secured to the outer drive shaft 23. Thus the
shaft 8| is rotated in proportion to the extent of
movement of the torpedo through the water.
One end portion of the shaft 8| is journaled in
bearings in thebracket 13 and there is secured
driving turbine 35 and the torpedo is accordingly
propelled through the water by the propellers 22,
22 operating at high speed. The shaft 9| is cor
respondingly rotated, and this movement is com
municated at a reduced speed to the shaft 85 and
thereto a worm 83 for driving the worm wheel
84 at a reduced rate of speed. The worm wheel
returns at a still greater reduced speed to the
shafts 88, 9| in sequence and to the shaft 94 thus
turning the cam wheel 16.
When the torpedo starts upon its course, it is
automatically maintained thereon by means of
the gyroscopic stabilizer 33 and any deviation
therefrom causes a corrective movement of the
vertical rudders 39 so as to cause the torpedo to
84 is mounted on a shaft 85 having a second
resume its original direction of movement.
worm 86 for engaging a second worm wheel 91.
The cam wheel ‘It continues to turn until the
The Worm wheel 8'l is mounted on a rotatable 40
tooth 9| registers with the notch 96. The bell
shaft 98 having a third worm 89 for engaging a
crank lever ‘H is then rotated in a clockwise di
third worm wheel 99. The last-mentioned worm
rection as seen in Fig. 2 under control of the
wheel 99 is mounted on a rotatable. shaft 9|
which terminates in a di?erential ring wheel 92
forming part of a differential gear 93. The dif
spring ‘H. The pivoted arm 51 is unlatched and
> is forced by the compression spring 14 into en
ferential 93 serves as an operative connection
gagement with the collar 10, thus moving the rod
between the drive shaft 9| and a driven shaft
55 and the movable clutch member 54 in a down
ward direction. This movement releases the an
94, the latter being mounted for rotationv in a
tenna 49. As the torpedo is moving forward a
bearing mounted in a lateral extension 95'inte
gral with the bracket 13. The cam 16 is secured 50 pressure of the water in which the torpedo is sub
merged is exerted through the passage ||6 upon
to the shaft 94 as by being keyed thereto and is
the bob H3. As the antenna 49 is now released
provided with a notch or depression 96. vThe re
the bob H3 is disengaged from the housing ||2
spective end of the bell crank lever ‘H is pro
carrying with it the antenna 49 which is unreeled
vided with a tooth 91 for engaging the notch 95
from the storage wheel 4|. Thus the antenna is
of the cam wheel 19 after the cam wheel has
paid out and takes its position behind the tor
been rotated a predetermined distance by the
pedo. The bob ||3 thus forms a trailer for the
action of the distance gear.
torpedo and the antenna 49 serves to tow the bob
For adjusting the cam wheel 16 to a prede
through the water at the same time serving to
termined position independently of the distance
gear so as to cause operation of the antenna re
lease mechanism after a predetermined variable
extent of movement of the torpedo, the differen
tial gear 93 is connected through a pair of bevel
gears |9|, I92 and thus to a rotatable shaft N13.
The shaft I93 is journaled in a lateral extension
I94 forming part of the bracket 13 and extends
through a fluid pipe packing gland I95 in the
wall of the torpedo hull 2|. The outboard end
of the shaft I93 terminates in a manually opera
ble key I96. By adjusting the key I99 into de
sired position before the torpedo» is discharged
the antenna release mechanism may be caused
to be actuated at any desired point in the travel
receive radiant energy transmitted from a distant
The signal energy may preferably be of high
frequency and may be transmitted from a radio
transmitting station of conventional form. By
transmitting a succession of signals the receiver
39 may ‘be controlled to actuate the steering
mechanism 34 selectively so as to cause the course
of the torpedo to be modi?ed in a desired manner
under the control of a distant operator.
Should the bob I I3 become snarled in seaweed
or other foreign object, it will be pulled loose
before suf?cient force has been developed to break
the antenna.
The torpedo may be thus directed with great
of the torpedo.
The antenna 49 extends through an additional 75 accuracy into contact with an enemy battleship
or other target and upon coming in contact there
with the explosive charge is detonated in a con
ventional manner well-known in the art.
Thus it will be seen that I have provided an ef?
cient radio-dynamic torpedo which may be
caused to move at high speed until it is in close
proximity to the enemy’s battle line and then the
antenna is automatically positioned so as to be
responsive to radiant energy. Radiant energy im
pulses are thereafter utilized for registering accu
rate hits upon the target.
The invention upon which this application is
based is broader than the speci?c embodiment
shown and described for the purpose of illustrat
ing at least one of the ways in which it may be
employed. The scope of the invention is there
fore to be understood as not being limited by the
present speci?c description. I intend no limita
tions other than those imposed by the claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In combination with an antenna for vessels,
a storage reel upon which the antenna is initially
positioned, and means for releasing said antenna
at a predetermined time and means for adjusting
said last mentioned means whereby said predeter
mined time may be varied.
driving means for said vessel, means operatively
connected to said driving‘means for releasing
said clutch, a differential gear interposed in the
connection between said clutch and said releas
ing means, and means for variably adjusting said
diiferential to modify the action of the releasing
'7. In combination a self propelled craft, an
antenna, a bob attached to one end of said an
tenna, a rearwardly open recess on said craft for
initially holding said bob and a fluid conducting
passage extending from said recess to the outside
of said craft in such a direction as to cause the
forward motion of said craft to tend to urge fluid
through said ?uid conducting passage in such a
direction as to release said bob.
8, In a self propelled craft, an antenna, means
for initially maintaining said antenna wholly
within said craft, a buoyant element attached to
the outer end of said antenna and initially par
tially exposed throughout its length to the action
of the medium through which the craft is mov
ing, means to direct a stream of said medium
against the forward portion of said element to
separate said element from said craft and means
acting directly on said antenna to prevent pay
2. The combination with a torpedo, of an an
ing out said antenna.
tenna responsive to radiant energy, clamping
9. The combination with a self-propelled craft,
means including a movable jaw for initially
of an antenna, means for supporting said an
maintaining said antenna wholly within the con 30 tenna wholly within said craft, clutch means to
?nes of said torpedo, and means controlled by the
grip said antenna to hold it against paying out,
extent of movement of said torpedo for releasing
a bob attached to the end of said antenna, an
said jaw means.
externally streamlined receptacle open on its up
3. In a vessel adapted to be controlled by ra
per side to receive said bob, said antenna con
diant energy, the combination with a movable 35 stituting the sole means for retaining said bob in
element responsive to radiant energy, a clutch
said receptacle, propelling means for said craft,
including a movable jaw for initially holding said
means actuated by the propelling means to re
element in ?xed position, driving means for said
lease said clutch means a predetermined time
vessel, and means operatively connected to said
after said propelling means starts to operate, and
driving means for releasing said clutch.
40 a forwardly extending passage to direct upon said
4. In combination with an antenna for vessels,
bob a stream of the medium through which said
a storage reel upon which the antenna is initially
craft moves to dislodge said bob when said clutch
positioned, means for restraining the movement
is released.
of said antenna from said reel, and manually ad
10. The combination with a self-propelled
justable means to modify the action of said re 45 craft, of an antenna carried thereby, means to
straining means.
support said antenna within said craft, clutch
5. The combination with a torpedo, of an an
means to grip said antenna, a bob attached to the
tenna responsive to radiant energy, means for in
end of said antenna and exposed throughout its
itially maintaining said antenna Wholly within
length to the medium through which the craft
the con?nes of said torpedo, means controlled by
passes but not subjected to dislodging pressure by
the extent of movement of said torpedo for releas
such exposure, said antenna constituting the
ing said maintaining means, and a key arranged
sole means to retain said bob in position, propel
to be adjusted in advance of the discharge of the
ling means for said craft, means driven by said
torpedo to modify the action of said releasing
propelling means to release said clutch, and
means to apply ?uid pressure directly to the front
6. In a vessel adapted to be controlled by radi
of said bob to dislodge said bob when said clutch
ant energy, the combination with a movable ele
is released.
ment responsive to radiant energy, a clutch for
initially holding said element in ?xed position,
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