Патент USA US2411868код для вставки
Dec. 3, 1946. - G. B. BROWN 2,411,868 PARACHUTE Filed June 24, 1943 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 G. B. BROWN Filed June 24, 1945 2,41 1,868 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 B. BROWN 2,411,868 Patented Dec. 3, 1946 UNITED-STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,411,868 PARACHUTE Graham B. Brown, Washington, D. C. Application June 24, 1943, Serial No. 492,071 1 14 Claims. (01. 244-145) (Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757) 1 This invention relates to parachutes and more particularly to that type of parachute employed cured a plurality of shroud lines connected at the lower end thereof to a supporting ring to which for retarding the downward movement and ef the mine or object of merchandise is attached. The canopy is composed of fabric having high tensile strength and high porosity thereby to im prove the stability of the parachute during the fecting the‘safe descent and landing of objects from aeronautical vehicles. In devices of this class heretofore devised it has descent thereof through the air and to eliminate been the general practice to employ a parachute the necessity for a vent hole at the apex of the having a relatively ?at canopy to which is at canopy. ' tached the object to be lowered by means of a The canopy is provided with ?exible reinforc plurality of shroud lines secured to the rim of 10 ing members at the point of emergence of the the canopy at intervals or arranged on the out looped portions of the resilient member from the side of the canopy and generally converging to aforesaid hem and preferably is also provided ward a common point at the apex of the canopy. with an additional reinforcing portion or ?exible Such parachutes have, in general, not proven entirely satisfactory in service for the safe des 15 element secured thereto at the upper central por tion or apex of the canopy to prevent rupture or cent of relatively heavy objects through the air damage thereto as a result of the pressure of in which the objects are to be landed within a the air thereagainst when a violent shock is re relatively small target area for the reason that ceived at the moment of the complete unfolding the shroud lines may be torn loose from the can or full extension of the canopy and during the opy in the case where the shroud lines are secured to the rim thereof as the parachute snaps to open downward ?ight of the object. Furthermore, by providing an arrangement in which the entire force resulting from the pull of the shroud lines the air. In the case of parachutes in which the is applied to the hem of the canopy through the shroud lines are connected to ?exible tension members extending across the top'of the canopy, 25 aforesaid elastic members, the ?exible tensile members of the prior devices extending across the it has been found that the canopy assumes the top of the canopy are not required and thus a shape of a section of an oblate spheroid when in considerable saving in the bulk of the parachute the extended position with the ?attened portion when in a folded condition within the pack is ef thereof in substantial coincidence with the apex of the canopy and for this reason the descent of 30 fected and the parachute is particularly adapted for use with aerial type mines in which the mines the body through the air does not follow a prede are laid from an aircraft in ?ight and in which termined line of ?ight but, on the contrary, the the mine is caused to fall upon a relatively small path of travel of the body through the air may position during the descent of the body through pursue a fortuitous course and the body, there fore, does not fall upon a predetermined relatively small target area but may land anywhere within a relatively large area as the result of the tortu ous path of travel of the body through the air during the downward ?ight thereof. predetermined target area. . One of the objects of the present invention re sides in the provision of a new and improved par achute for causing the safe descent along a pre determined path of travel of a heavy object from an aircraft in ?ight. - ‘ small target area of relatively heavy objects such, Another of the objects is the provision of a parachute of new and improved construction for use with a relatively heavy object having small bulk and in which means are employed for. re-' ducing the shock caused by the opening of the the like discharged from an aeronautical vehicle while in ?ight. In the device of the present in-, by the hemispherical shape of the canopy and by The present invention contemplates the provi sion of a parachute in which the foregoing ‘dis advantages are obviated and which is adapted to ' insure the safe descent and landing within a for example, as explosive mines, merchandise and 45 parachute to the fully extended position thereof and in which stability of ?ight is obtained jointly vention the canopy, when fully extended, is sub-v ' stantially hemispherical in shape and provided the porosity of the material of which the canopy is composed. ' ' ‘ Still another object is the provision of a plu with a circular rim or hem at the lower portion 50' rality of ?exible reinforcing elements respectively thereof. Arranged within this hem is a continu secured to the rim or hem of the canopy adja ous elastic member having looped portions ex cent the upper ends of each of the shroud lines tending downwardly therefrom through suitable and adapted to coact with a continuous resilient apertures provided within the hem and arranged at. regular intervals therealong to-whichare se-. On an element disposed withinthe hem of vthe canopy. 2,411,868 3 4 in operative connection with each of the shroud lines thereby to distribute the force applied by the shroud lines through a substantially in creased portion of the canopy adjacent the rim thereof. Still other objects, advantages and improve ments will be apparent from the following de to and to the canopy above the hem portion as at 24, a plurality of rows of stitches 2'5 being provided to secure the hem cord su?iciently to the hem to maintain the looped portions 21 pro jecting through the associated apertures i9 of the hem and to prevent the canopy opening from being drawn together by the pull of the scription taken in connection with the accom shroud lines on the hem cord. panying drawings of which: Whereas in the illustrative embodiment of the Fig. 1 is a view in elevation of a completely 10 invention there is shown a cord having six open parachute according to a preferred embodi teen equally spaced loops 2 i , it will be understood ment of the invention; that, if desired, the number of loops in the cord Fig. 2 is a plan view of the parachute of Fig. 1; may be increased or decreased without depart Fig. 3 shows an arrangement suitable for re ing from the present invention. A plurality of inforcing the crown section of the canopy of shroud lines 26 are looped at the central portion Fig. 1; and 2? thereof and connected at the ends to the Fig. 4 is a fragmentary view of the canopy of looped portions 2i of the hem cord, each shroud Fig. 1 showing a portion of the resilient sup~ line being connected to two adjacent loops in the porting member and one of the shroud lines conhem cord. The looped portions 2'.‘ of the shroud nected thereto and the means for additionally 20 lines are seized at 28 and secured to the mine reinforcing the connection between the resilient 29 as by the shackles 35. member and the canopy at a point of emergence There is also secured to the hem cord as at 32 a static line 33 preferably having a weakened Referring now to the drawings for a more portion 54 at or near the point of connection of complete understanding of the invention in which 25 the static line with the hem cord, the static line like numerals of reference are employed to desig being of suitable length such, for example, as nate like parts throughout the several views, twelve feet and connected at the opposite end there is shown thereon a parachute indicated thereof to the aircraft from which the mine is generally by the numeral H1 comprising a can— launched. The mine 29 is provided with a re opy l I composed of porous fabric of high tensile cessed portion 35 at one end thereof within which the parachute is packed prior to the strength cut in gore and crown sections with the warp and woof thereof at substantially equal launching of the mine from the aircraft and one angles with respect to the outer edge of the end of the static line is secured in any conven canopy substantially as shown and attached to ient manner to the aircraft whereby as the mine gether in any suitable manner as by stitching t is dropped from the aircraft in flight at the the parts together, as is well known in the art proper time to cause the mine to land within to which the present invention pertains. the vpredetermined target area, the movement of The central or crown portion l2 of the canopy the mine away from the aircraft causes the static is preferably composed of fabric having greater line 34 to withdraw the parachute from the rc~ of the member therefrom. tensile strength than the remaining gore sections cessed portion 35 of the mine sufficiently for the parachute to be opened by the pressure of the air as the mine continues to move downward. each thickness of material having substantially When the parachute has been withdrawn from the same tensile strength as the remaining gore the mine the tension on the static lino is suf ficient to break the line at the weakened portion sections of the canopy. In the event that the 34 thereof thereby interrupting a control con crown section is composed of a double thickness nection between the parachute and the aircraft of material, it has been found desirable to em and allowing the mine and parachute to proceed ploy an outer crown section iii of somewhat toward the target area under the guidance and greater size than the inner crown section M whereby a plurality of rows of stitching between 50 control of the parachute. the crown sections and the adjacent portions of By securing the shroud lines at the looped por the canopy are arranged in predetermined space tions 2'! thereof to an annular member such as relation with respect thereto and the possibility the casing of the mine 29 illustrated, the velocity of the mine through the air quickly reaches a of rupture of the canopy at the junction of the crown sections and adjacent portions is greatly value su?icient to cause the parachute to change reduced. This arrangement is shown on Fig. 3 from the squid form to the fully extended shape by reason of the air rushing into the canopy. in which the outer crown section it is shown attached to the remainder of the canopy as by When this occurs, the canopy snaps open and a considerable increase in tension is applied to the the stitching l5 and the inner crown section M is attached to the remainder of the canopy by 60 shroud lines 26 by the falling mine. The shock of the canopy or, if desired, the crown portion may comprise a double thickness of material, the stitching l6. The'lower portion of the canopy H is provided with a reinforced hem ll within which is ar caused by the sudden opening of the parachute is reduced and absorbed by the resilient hem cord su?iciently to prevent damage or injury to the parachute and the devices for connecting the ranged a continuous hem cord is composed of stretchable material suitable for the purpose 65 parachute to the mine. The looped portions El such, for example, as nylon. There is also pro of the hem cord are elongated during this shock“ absorbing process and the shroud lines are caused vided within the lowermost portion of the hem IT a plurality of apertures 59, Fig. 4, spaced at to be somewhat stretched concurrently with the elongation of the hem cord thereby additionally regular intervals about the rim of the canopy l l within which the hem cord extends thereby 70 to relieve the instantaneous strain on the canopy forming a plurality of loops 2| in the hem cord. The apertures iii are each encircled by a rein .forcing'tape 22 stitched to the hem of the canopy .and to a ?exible reinforcing element. 23 arranged about; the .hem of. .the canopy and stitched there as the parachute snaps to open position. Whereas the parachute has been described with reference to launching a mine from an air craft in flight such that the mine will land with ina relatively small target area, it» will, of course, 2,411,868 5 , be understood thatthe device of the present in vention is also adapted for use with any heavy object such, for example, as an article of mer chandise or freight composing an air-borne cargo or other article of commerce in whichthe cargo may be discharged from the aircraft in ?ight and safely landed at a receiving station. Whereas the invention has been described with respect to a preferred embodiment thereof which gives satisfactory results, it will be. understood by those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains, after understanding the invention, that 6 crown section surrounded by a plurality of gores, an outer crown section stitched to said inner crown section along the periphery thereof for reinforcing said inner crown section, a continu ous circular hem along the edge of said canopy, reinforcing means in said hem, and a plurality of shroud lines attached to said reinforcing means, said shroud lines being adapted to support said object. a ' 6. A parachute of the character disclosed adapted to retard a falling object, a hemispheri cal canopy comprising an inner porous crown sectionsurrounded by a plurality of porous gore various changes and modi?cations may be made . sections and having a circular rim,‘ said gore sec without departing from the spirit and scope of tions being arranged with the warp and woof the invention and it is my intention, therefore, 15 thereof at substantially equal angles with respect in the accompanying claims to cover all such to said rim, an outer porous crown section changes and modi?cations. stitched to said inner crown section along the The invention herein described and claimed periphery thereof for reinforcing said inner may be manufactured and used by or for the crown section, a continuous reinforced circular 20 Government of the United States of America for hem along said rim, a plurality of shroud lines governmental purposes without payment of any adapted to support said object, and extensible royalties thereon or therefor. means for, connecting the shroud lines to said What is claimed as new and desired to be se hem. cured by Letters Patent of the United States is: ' 7; Ina parachute, of the character disclosed l. A parachute of the character disclosed adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi adapted to retard the fall of an object released spherical canopy comprising a crown portion from an aircraft in ?ight, a hemispherical canopy composed of a double thickness of material, said having a continuous circular hem along the edge crown portion comprising an inner crown sec thereof, reinforcing means composed of extensi and an outer crown section stitched thereto ble material arranged in said hem and stitched 30 tion along the periphery thereof, a continuous circu thereto at intervals, and a plurality of shroud lar hem along the edge of said canopy, reinforc lines having loops formed in the ends thereof and ing means disposed within said hem and stitched the loops respectively secured to said reinforcing thereto, and a plurality of shroud lines secured to means, said shroud lines beingadapted to support ~ said reinforcing means, said shroud lines being 35 said object. adapted to support said object. 2. A parachute of the character disclosed com 8. In a parachute of the character disclosed prising a hemispherical canopy, an object adapt adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi ed to be supported by said parachute, a continu , spherical canopy comprising a crown portion ous circular hem along the edge of said canopy composed of a double thickness of material, said 40 having a plurality of apertures spaced at regular crown portion comprising an inner crown section intervals therein, a continuous cord disposed and an outer crown section of greater size than within said hem and stitched thereto at intervals the inner crown section and stitched thereto ‘ adjacent to and on opposite sides of said aper- ' along the periphery thereof,,a continuous circu tures, said cord having looped portions which ex tend through said apertures, means for reinforc ing said hem about said apertures, and a plu lar hem along the edge of said canopy, reinforc ing means disposed within said hem and stitched thereto, and a plurality of shroud lines secured to said reinforcing means, said shroud lines being rality of shroud lines having loops formed in the. . ends thereof and the loops respectively secured to said looped portions, said shroud lines being adapted to support said object. 3. A parachute of the character disclosed adapted to support said object. 9. In a parachute of the character disclosed adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi spherical canopy composed of a porous fabric of high tensile strength and comprising a crown portion, said crown portion having an inner adapted to retard the fall of a heavy object re leased from an aircraft in ?ight, a hemispherical canopy having a continuous circular hem along the edge thereof, a continuous elastic cord dis posed within said hem and stitched thereto at intervals, a plurality of shroud lines secured at both ends thereof to said cord at regular inter vals, and means for connecting said shroud lines to said heavy object. , 4. In a parachute of the character disclosed adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi spherical canopy comprising an inner crown sec tion surrounded by a plurality of gores, an outer ' crown section stitched to said inner crown section along the periphery thereof for reinforcing said inner crown section, a continuous circular hem alongv the edge‘ of said canopy, reinforcing means in said hem, and a plurality of shroud lines at tached to said reinforcing means, said shroud lines being adapted to support said object. 5. In a parachute of the character disclosed adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi spherical canopy composed of a porous fabric ' of high tensilev strength and comprising an inner crown section and an outer crown section, a plu ;rality of rows of stitching for securing the crown ‘ sections together along the outer periphery there of and ‘to the remaining portion of the canopy, a continuous circular hem along the edge of said 60 canopy, reinforcing means disposed within said hem and stitched thereto, and a plurality of shroud lines secured to said reinforcing means and adapted to support said object. 10. A parachute of the character disclosed adapted to retard the fall of a heavy object re leased from an aircraft in ?ight, a hemispherical canopy having a continuous circular hem along the edge thereof, an extensible hem cord disposed within said hem and having a plurality of looped portions extending therefrom, a plurality of ‘shroud lines respectively secured to each of said looped portions and to said object, means includ ing a plurality of reinforcing members stitched to said hem andto the hem cord for additionally 75 reinforcing the canopy at the point of emergence 7 2,411,868 of each of said looped portions of the hem cord from the hem, and a plurality of rows of stitches for securing the hem cord to the hem at regular intervals thereby to prevent the canopy from be 8 in flight, a ?exibie hemispherical canopy com prising a plurality of gore sections and having a circular hem, a plurality of rows of stitching for joining adjacent pairs of said gore sections, ing drawn together by the pull of the shroud each of said rows of stitching intersecting said lines on the hem cord as the Parachute snaps to hem, a continuous extensible cord disposed with open position. in the hem and stitched thereto, said cord hav 11. In a parachute of the character disclosed ing a plurality of looped portions spaced at reg adapted to retard the fall of an object, a hemi ular intervals thereon and extending through spherical canopy comprising an inner crown sec 10 the hem in predetermined relation with respect tion surrounded by a plurality of gores and to said rows of stitching, a plurality of shroud stitched thereto, an outer crown section for re lines having loops at each of the ends thereof, inforcing said inner crown section and stitched said loops being respectively secured to said thereto along the periphery thereof, a continu looped portions, and means connected to said ous circular hem along the edge of said canopy, 15 shroud lines for attaching the object thereto. an extensible hem cord arranged within said hem 14. A parachute of the character disclosed and having a plurality of looped portions extend adapted to retard the fall of a heavy object re ing therefrom, a piurality of shroud lines less in leased from an aircraft in ?ight, a hemispherical number than the number of said looped por canopy having a continuous circular hem along tions, each of said shroud lines having a looped the edge thereof, an extensible hem cord disposed portion at the center thereof and secured at each within said hem and having a plurality of looped end to each pair of adjacent looped portions of portions extending therefrom, a plurality of the hem cord, an annular support on said body, shroud lines respectively secured to each of said and means for connecting the looped portions looped portions and to said object, means includ of the shroud lines at regular intervals to said 25 ing a plurality of reinforcing members stitched support. to said hem and to the hem cord for additionally 12. In a device for retarding the downward reinforcing the canopy at the point of emergence movement of an object dropped from an aircraft of each of said looped portions of the hem cord in ?ight, a ?exible hemispherical canopy having from the hem, a plurality of rows of stitches for a circular rim, a continuous resilient stretchable 30 securing the hem cord to the hem at regular in member secured to said rim by stitching and tervals ‘thereby to prevent the canopy from being having a plurality of uniformly spaced looped portions adapted to be momentarily elongated drawn together by the pull of the shroud lines on the hem cord as the parachute snaps to open at the moment the parachute snaps open, a plu position, and a plurality of reinforcing tapes, rality of shroud lines having loops at each of the 35 each of said tapes being respectively stitched to ends thereof, said loops being respectively secured each of said reinforcing members and encircling to said looped portions, and means connected to each of said looped portions, said reinforcing said shroud lines for attaching said object thereto. tapes being also stitched to said hem. 13. In a device for retarding the downward movement of an object dropped from an aircraft GRAHAM B. BROWN.