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Патент USA US2411886

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* Dec.' 3; 1946.
w, A, LEDwlTH
PISTON CONSTRUCTION.
Filed Jjan. 28, 1944
2,411,886
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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ATTORNEY
Dec. 3, 1946.
w. A. LEDwm-l
2,411,8_86
*PISToN'coNsTRUcTIoN
Filed Jan. 28, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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ATTORNEY
- Dec. 3, 1946.
w. A. LEDwrrH
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2,411,886 ,
PISTON CONSTRUCTION
Filed Jan. 28,- 194:14;~
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
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ce» 3, 1946“ I
UNITED "srArEs PATENT ortica
`2,411,886
rrs'roN ooNs'rnUo'rloN>
»assigner to
Walter A. Lcdwlth, Hartford, Conn.,
United Aircraft Corporation, East Hartford,
Conn., -a corporation of Delaware
Application January 28, 1944, Serial No. 520g063 I
14 Claims. (Cl. 123-176)
1
.
-
_
valves 40 through which air alternately enters op
_
This invention relates to a piston construction vï posite ends> of the compressor cylinders. The
particularly adapted for a free-piston 'engine
compressed air leaves the cylinders through dis
and-compressor unit.
charge valves 42, also at opposite ends of the com
Since the rate of reciprocation of the piston as
pressor cylinders and- passes through scavenge
sembly in these -units is partly dependent upon`
manifold 44 and through ports 48 and 48 which
the weight of the piston assembly, high-speed
'are uncovered .by pistons I2 and i4 at the end>
units require extremely light weight pistons. A
of the >power stroke, thereby permitting air to be '
feature of this invention is a piston assembly
-which not only has the desired light weight but
blown through the engine cylinder and exhaust ,
ports 50 and 52 into exhaust manifold 54.
The piston assembly shown in Fig. 2 includes
a base 58 to which the lair spring sleeve 26 is at
tached as by cooperating threads 58 on sleeve and
> which is strong enough to withstand the stresses 10
on the parts of the piston. These piston assem
blies generally include an engine piston and an
attached compressor piston with, in some cases,
base. Base 56 has an integral disc 60 forming one
an attached sleeve forming a part of the air
side surface of the compressor piston I8. A co
15
spring. Another feature of the invention is an
operating disc 82 is fastened to disc 6B by bolts 84
arrangement for connecting these parts into an
integral structure.
to form the other side wall ci the compressor pis'
ton. Disc 60 has a rim 88 Within which disc 82 is
iitted, this rim having a groove 68 for one or more
, .
The engine piston of these units may be in
ternally cooled to control the operating tempera
ture.
A , feature of this invention is the ar
20.
rangement oi the piston assembly to provide for
piston rings..
_
~
=
Base 56 has a projecting hub 10 to the end o!
.which a cup 12 is attached as by cooperating
circulation of cooling fiuid through the engine
threads 14, This cup is positioned within ‘and
piston and theadmission of cooling iluid to the
spaced from the hollow shell 18 which lis held on
piston. This arrangement may include an in-=
the hubby interengagina threads 18 on hub and »
ner cup within the engine piston for keeping the 25
shell. The end of shell 18, which is adiacent
fluid in contact with the inner wall of the piston
the compressor piston. clamps the edge of disc 62
or to minimize the volume of cooling fluid in the
which has a central opening 88 through which
piston.
'
hub 10 extends. Discs 60 and 62 may have inter
Other objects and advantages will be apparent 30 vengaging shear serrations 82 on bosses 84 and
'_ from the specification and claims and from the
ribs 88 to resist bending of the piston.
accompanying drawings which illustrate an em
_Sleeves 28, cup 12, and shell 18 may all be
bodir'nent of the invention.
shrink tits on the base to hold the parts on as
through
the
engine
Fig. 1 is a sectional view
sembled relations and to form a permanent as_
and-compressor unit.
`Fig. 2 is a sectional view through one piston 35 sembly. The space 88 between cup 12 and shell
'I6 may be used for circulating coolant for the en
assembly on a larger scale.
.
_
'
ginepiston. A tube Sii extending centrally from
Fig. 3 is a sectional view on line 3_3 oi Fig. 2.
base 66 to the end of the cup is held in the base
The unit shown includes an engine cylinder l@
by a hollow bolt 92 and adm ts coolant into space
having reciprocating pistons l2 and It to which
compressor pistons i6 and I8 in cylinders 2G and 40 88. Passage 94 in base Se a d integral disc 88 oro
22 are integrally connected. . Sleeves 24 and 2t
vides iiuid connection from tube 90 to one hollow
attached to the compressor pistons complete the
reciprocating piston assemblies. The sleeves in
combination with stationary pistons 28 _and Sii
form air spring cylinders. ,
_
_rack 34 into which fluid is pumped and through
which coolant rea-chesthe inside of shell 18;
45
The piston assemblies are moved apart by
» the burning of vfuel injectedfinto engine cylin
dei= it as by a pump 32. A11-.compressed in thc _
`air spring cylinders on the power stroke returns
the piston assemblies.
The assemblies are al
waysmaintained at equal distances from the cen
s of fluid from space 88 through the rack. Space
_8a is connected with groovel lill! by small passages
50 |02, Fig. 2' in hub 10. All the fluid passages are in
the base and integral hub. and may be formed
ter of the enginecylinder by a linkage, vwhich may
include racks 34 on the compressor pistons mesh
ing with ‘ a pinion 3B.
'
'
-Base 5B has intersecting passages et and 98,
Fig. 3. extending from a groove Illû Fig. 2. in the
hub 10 to the other hollow rack 34. for discharge
55
Intake manifold 38 conducts ain to intake
before the parts are assembled.
.
It is to be understood that the invention is not
.limited to the specific embodiment herein illus-v
trated and described, but may be used in other
v `
2,411,886
ways without departure from its spirit as deñned
by the following claims.
I claim:
-
9. A piston construction including opposed discs
forming a piston, one of said discs having ahub
extending through the other disc, a second piston
1. A piston construction including a compressor
piston comprising opposed discs and an engine
' attached to said hub and clamping said other
piston attached to one of saiddiscs and clamp
ing the discs together.
projection on its opposite side on which a sleeve
2. A piston construction including a compressor
disc, said disc with the hub having a threaded
is mounted.
Y
10. A pistonconstruction including avhase, a
piston comprising opposed discs, andX an engine
liner mounted on said base, and a hollow pistonpiston threaded on one of said discs, and clamping 10 _mounted on said base around and out of contact
the discs together.
,
with said liner.
.
11. A piston construction including a base, a
liner mounted on said base, a tube extending
piston comprising opposed discs, one of which has
from vthe outer end of the liner to a passage in
a hub extending through the other disc, and an
engine piston threaded on said huh and clamping 15 the base, and a hollow piston mounted on said
base around and out of contact with said liner.
said other disc.
12. A piston yconstruction vincluding _opposed
4. A piston construction including a compressor
discs forming a piston, one of said discs having a
piston comprising opposed discs, one of which hashub extending through the other disc, a passage
a hub extending through the other disc, and an
engine piston threaded on said hub and clamping' 20 in said hub, a liner mounted on'said hub and hav
, 3. A piston construction including a compressor
said other disc, said hub having shoulders against ,
ing a connection with said passage, and a hollow
which said other disc is clamped.
5. A piston construction includ-ing a compressor
piston mounted on the hub around saidv liner and
spaced therefrom to form a cooling space there
`ioetween.
v
piston comprising opposed discs, one oi’ which has
13. A piston construction including opposed<
a hub extending through the other disc, and an 25
engine piston mounted on said hub and clamping \ discs forming a piston, one of saiddiscs having
a hub extending through the other disc, a passage
said other disc.
_
6. A piston construction including opposed
in said hub, a liner mounted on. said hub and
discs forming "a piston, one of said discs `having>
having a connection with said passage, and a
a hub extending through the other disc, and 30 hollow piston mounted on the hub around said
liner and spaced therefrom t`o form a cooling
means threaded on said hub for clamping said
other disc.
yspace therebetween, said hub having a passage
7. A piston construction including opposed discs _ from said cooling space to an opening in one of
said discs.
forming a piston, one of said discs having a hub
14. A piston construction including opposed '
extending through the other disc, a second piston 35
.discs forming a piston, one of said discs having
attached to said hub and clamping said other
a hub extending through the other disc, a passage
disc, and a Sleeve on said hub on the side opposite
to said second piston.
vin said hub, a liner mounted onsaid hub and
8. A piston construction including opposed discs
having a connection with said passage, and a hol
forming a piston, one of said discs having a hub 40 low piston mounted on the hub around said liner
extending through the other disc, a second pistonv
and spaced therefrom to form a cooling space
attached to said hub and clamping said other
therebetween said piston clamping said discs to
disc, said disc with the hub'having a threaded ` gether.
projection on its opposite side to which another
WALTER A. LEDWITH.
part of the piston construction may be attached.
45
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