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Патент USA US2411953

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Dec. 3, 1946.
-
w, c, BROWN
2,411,953
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE OF THE MAGNETRON TYPE
Filed Jan. 10, 1944
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Patented Dec. 3,1946
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2,411,953
umrso STATES PATENT OFFICE
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE OF THE
MAGNETRON TYPE
William C. Brown, Watertown, Mass, 'assignor
to Raytheon Manufacturing Company, New
ton, Mass., a corporation of Delaware
Application January 10, 1944, Serial No. 517,756‘
8 Claims. (Cl. 315-5)
1
.
2
to receive electrons emitted from the emitting
This invention relates to an oscillator for the
surfaces of a cathode ‘l. The anode elements 6
are likewise formed'of highly conductive mate
rial, such as copper, and are spaced from each
generation of ultra high frequency oscillations
having wave lengths of the order of a few centi
meters or less.
other to provide intervening cavity resonators
each of which is resonant to the desired output
frequency.
Where a magnetron of the multiple anode type
is used as a generator in systems of the above
kind, it is often desirable, particularly where
The cathode ‘I may be of the indirectly heated
large mounts of power are desired, to provide
thermionic
type comprising a hollow annular
a large number of anode elements interconnected
by resonant cavities. However, in such arrange 10' cathode member 8 formed of suitable conducting
material,‘ such as nickel, and coated on its lower A
ments it is di?icult to propagate the generated
energy throughout the tube structure to the usual
surface with suitable electron emitting oxides.
Within the member 8 is supported a heater ?la
I type of outputcoupling devices-with the result
ment 9. Shielding members l0 may be provided
extending from opposite sides of the cathode
emitting surface to preventelectrons from pass
ing into regions other than the cathode-anode
.that such devices have been relatively less ef
fective as the anode sections have been increased
to large numbers.
In magnetrons of the above type a tendency
discharge space. vA lead-in conductor II is con
nected to the hollow member 8. One end of the
heater 9 is also electrically connected to the mem
ber 8,'the other end of said heater being con
nected to a lead-in conductor l2 which is suit
ably insulated from the member 8. ‘The heater 9
also exists 'for the oscillator to operate not only
at the desired frequency, but at various spurious
frequencies which decrease the ei?ciency and ef
fectiveness of the device.
An object of this-invention is to provide an
oscillator of the foregoing type in which the en
may be suitably coated with insulating material
ergy from ‘each of the oscillating anode sections
25 so as to prevent electric contact with‘ the member
is fed more effectively into the output system,
8, except as above indicated. The lead-in con
Another object is to couple the anode structure
ductors II and I! extend through pipes l3, her
to a common cavity resonator by means of probe
metically sealed through the top member 5. Said
lead-in conductors also pass out through glass
30 seals l4 carried at the outer ends of said pipes Hi.
said common cavity resonator.
In order to generatea large amount of power
Another object is to eliminate the tendency of
a large number of anode elements 6 are provided.
the oscillator to generate spurious oscillations
Sixty such elements are utilized in the embodi- _
whereby substantially all of the oscillating en
ment
shown in the drawing. Although such an
ergy is concentrated in the, desired wave length.
The foregoing and other objects of this inven 35 arrangement might be capable of operating in
various modes, each of which produces a differ
tion will be best understood from the following
ent frequency of oscillation, the desired mode of
‘description of an exempliflcation thereof, refer
oscillation
is that in which alternate anode ele
ence being had to the accompanying drawing
' electrodes at a plurality of points whereby energy
'may be fed from each of said points directly into
ments are of ‘ opposite voltage phase.
wherein:
.
Thus, at
each instant thirty complete Wave lengths of the
oscillations
would exist around the anode struc
ment constructedin accordance withmy inven
ture. In order to couple the generated energy
tion; and
.
into an output device, a plurality of coupling
Fig. 2 is a cross-section taken along line 2-2
conductors ii are connected to predetermined
of Fig. 1.‘
'
The magnetron illustrated in the drawing com 45 anode elements 6 and extend through openings
IS in the bottom wall member 4 into a common
prises a casing l consisting of an outer cylinder
cavity resonator l1. The cavity resonator l1,
2, an inner cylinder 3. a bottom annular wall
likewise is formed of conducting material and is
member 4, and a top annular wall member 5.
The above members are preferably made of high- r hermetically soldered to the bottom wall member
4. The lower end of the conductors l5 thus ex
ly conductive material, such as copper, and are
tend into thecavity resonator I ‘l and form probes
soldered together so as to form a hermetically
which excite the same to oscillate at the desired
sealed annular discharge chamber. Within the
output frequency. In order that energy may be
discharge chamber the upper surface of the bot
fed from the probes l5 into the cavity resonator
tom wall member 4 supports a plurality of anode
II in the proper way, said probes ii are spaced.
55
elements 6, the upper faces of which are adapted
Fig. 1 is a vertical cross-section of an arrange
40
2,411,958
from each other by a distance equal to the length
of the high frequency wave which is set up within
the resonator ll. This wave length will depend
upon the physical dimensions of the cavity reso
nator I1 and thus by proper design thereof said
wave length can be adjusted-to the spacing be-
envelope enclosing a cathode and an anode struc
ture; said anode structure including a plurality
of anode elements forming a plurality of cavity
resonators each of-which is adapted to ‘resonate
at a predetermined output frequency; a common
cavity resonator adapted to resonate at said pre
tween the probes l5 within certain limits. Also'" determined
output frequency; a plurality of
in order for the probes llto feed energy into
the cavity resonator II in the proper way, each
said probes I5 should be of the same voltage
phase. By spacing the probes ll an even num
ber of anode elements apart it will be seen that
the above condition is satis?ed particularly when
spacedrprobe electrodes projecting into said com
mon cavity resonator; said probe electrodes be
ing connected, respectively, to anode elements
which are spaced from each other by a distance
1 equal to an integral number of wave lengthsjcor
responding to , said predetermined output fre
the device is oscillating in the desired mode as
quency; and output means coupled to said com
above described. Thus in the embodiment illus 15 mon
cavity resonator.
trated in the drawing the probes l5 are'spaced
3.
An
electron-discharge device comprising: an
twelve anode elements apart.
envelope enclosing a cathode and an anode struc
The energy which is propagated through the
ture; said anode structure including a plurality
cavity resonator I1 is led off by means of a suit
of
anode elements forming a plurality of cavity
able loop l8, one end of which is electricallycon~
resonators each of which is adapted to resonate
nected to a pipe 19 hermetically sealed through 20 at
a predetermined output frequency; a common
[a side wall of the cavity resonator I]. The other
cavity resonator adapted to resonate at said pre
end of said coupling loop 18 extends through said
determined output frequency; and a plurality of
pipe‘ [9 and passes out through a glass seal 20
spaced probe electrodes projecting into said com
carried at the outer end of said pipe l9.-A magnet 2| provides the magnetic ?eld for the 25 mon cavity resonator; said probe electrodes being
connected, respectively‘, to anode elements, which
magnetron. This magnet is formed with a cen-v
are spaced from each other by an even number
tral circular pole piece 22 and an outer annular
of the same and by a distance equal to an integral
pole piece 23 concentrically disposed with respect
number of vwave lengths corresponding to said
to the pole ‘piece 22. In this way a radial mag 30 predetermined
output frequency.
netic field is created transverse to the discharge
4.
An
electron-discharge
device comprising: an
path between the cathode 1 and the anode ‘ele
envelope enclosing a cathode and an anode struc
ments 6. The magnet 2| is cut away at 24 in
ture; said anode structure including an even
order to allow the pipe 19 and its seal 20 to pro
number of circularly-disposed anode elements
ject therethrough, while the pole pieces 22' and
23 may be attached separately to allow for ready 3.5 forming an» even- number of cavity resonators
eachof which is adapted to resonate at a. prede
assembly of the tube with the magnet structure.
In such an arrangement as described above,
the energy which is generated within each cavity
resonator between adjacent anode elements 8 is
readily propagated through a relatively short dis
tance to a probe l5 and thus is e?ectively and"
e?lciently transferred into the common cavity
resonator i1, and thus into the output. In addi
termined output frequency; a common cavity res
onator adapted to resonate at said- predeter
mined output frequency; and a plurality of spaced
probe electrodes projecting into said common
cavity resonator; said probe electrodes being con
nected, respectively, to anode elements-which are
spaced from each other by an even number of the
tion, the presence of the common cavity resonator 45 same and by a distance equal to an integral num
ber of wave lengths corresponding to said prede~
ll has a frequency stabilizing effect upon the en
termined output frequency.
tire device and tends to cause the tube to oscillate
5. A magnetron comprising: an envelope en
only in the desired mode described above, other
closing a cathode and an anode structure; said
undesired modes tending to be suppressed. Thus
oscillators built in accordance with my invention 50. anode structure including a plurality of anode
elements forming a plurality of cavity resonators
can deliver large amounts of power’in an cili
each of which is adapted to resonate at a prede- '
cient and e?ective manner.
termined output frequency; a common cavity res
Of course it is to be understood that this in
onator adapted to resonate at said predetermined
vention is not limited to the particular details as
output frequency; a plurality of spaced ‘probe
described above as many equivalents will suggest
themselves to those skilled in‘ the art. It is ac 55 electrodes projecting into said common cavity
resonator; said probe electrodes being connected,
cordingly desired that the appended claims be
respectively, to anode elements which are spaced
given a broad interpretation commensurate with
from each other by a distance equal to an integral
the scope of the invention within the art.
number of wave lengths corresponding to said
What is claimed is:
predetermined output frequency; and means ad- 1. An electron-discharge device comprising: an
jacent said cathode and said anode structure for
envelope enclosing a cathode and an anode struc
producing a magnetic ?eld transverse to the dis
ture; said anode structure including a plurality.
charge path therebetween.
v
of anode elements forming a plurality of cavity
6. A magnetron comprising: an envelope en
resonators each of which is adapted to resonate at 65
closing a cathode and an anode structure; said
a predetermined output frequency; a common
anode structure including a plurality of anode
cavity resonator adapted to resonate at said pre=
determined output frequency; and a plurality of
elements forming a plurality of cavity resonators
each of which is adapted to resonate at a prede
spaced probe electrodes projecting into said come
mon cavity resonator; said probe electrodes being 70 termined output frequency; a common cavity res
onator adapted to resonate at said predetermined
connected, respectively, to anode elements which
output frequency; a plurality of spaced probe
are spaced-from each other by a distance equal
electrodes projecting into said common cavity
to an integral number of wave lengths correspond
resonator; said-probeelectrodes being connected,
ing to said predetermined output frequency.
2. An electron-mscharge device comprising: an 75 respectively, to anode elements which are spaced \
from each other by a distance equal to an integral
2,411,953
5
number of wave lengths corresponding to said
predetermined output frequency; output means
coupled to said common cavity resonator; and
means adjacent said cathode and said anode
structure for producing a magnetic ?eld trans
verse to the discharge path therebetween.
'7. A magnetron comprising: an envelope en
6
producing a magnetic ?eld transverse to the dis
charge path therebetween.
8. A magnetron vcomprising: an envelope en
closing a cathode and an anode structure; said
anode structure including an even number of cir
cularly-disposed anode elements forming an even
number of cavity resonators each of which is
adapted to resonate at a predetermined output
frequency; a common cavity resonator adapted
elements forming a plurality of cavity resonators 10 .to resonate at said predetermined output fre
quency; a plurality of spaced probe electrodes
each of which is adapted to resonate at a prede
projecting into said common cavity resonator;
termined output frequency; a common cavity res
said probe electrodes being connected, respec
onator adapted to resonate at said predetermined
tively, to anode elements which are spaced from
output frequency; a plurality of spaced probe
electrodes projecting into said common cavity 15 each other by an even number of the same and
by a distance equal to an integral number of
resonator; said probe electrodes being connected,
Wave lengths corresponding to said predetermined
respectively, to anode elements which are spaced
output frequency; and means adjacent said cath
> from each other by an even number of the same
ode and said anode structure for producing a
and by a distance equal to an integral number
of wave lengths correspondingv to said predeter 20 magnetic ?eld transverse to the discharge path
therebetween.
mined output frequency; output means coupled
WILLIAM 0. BROWN.
to said common cavity resonator; and means ad
jacent said cathode and said anode structure for
closing a cathode and an anode structure; said
anode structure including a plurality of anode
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