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Dec» 3, 1946- . ~J. l-LvPlKu’L 2,411,977 ` SEWING MACHINE ` ' Filed Feb. 21. 1944 '1 sheets-snaai 2 im@ 1NVEN+DRZ _. „4 ».u. ma.. A-Hys _ men 3, 1946. J. H. PlKuL 2,41 1,977 " SEWING “cams Fuga Feb. 21, 1944 '1_ sheets-snaar s „kl 54;@24, 2,411,977 SEWING MACHINE Filed Feb. 21, 1944 '7 sheets-smet 5 Dec. 3, 1946. ` 2,411,977 JQH. PIKUL SEWING- MACHINE Filed Feb. 21, 1944 'I sheets-sheet 6 INVEN‘Ã' da ’ I __ky \' ¿LQ-942. , Patented 3, 1946 I - UNITED `STATES PATENT oFFl-CE j Joseph H. Pikul, West Newton; Mass., assigner to The Reece Corporation, a corporation of Maine Application February 21, 1944,_serial No. 523,113 s claims. _(01. 11a-197) 1 This invention relates to machines for forming stitches in material. . Heretofore, when chain stitches were resorted to in machine sewing, it was necessary to termi nate any group o-f continuous chain stitches with a conventional tying stitch in order to secure ' 2 Fig. 13 is a greatly magnified section through a partly completed, securing stitch obtained withI the modiñed element of Fig. 12,'the section being similar to the section of Fig. 5. Fig. 14 is a, section similar to Fig. 13, showing the secured stitch completed. _ Fig. 15 is a greatly magniñed illustration of a' straight seam of chain stitches secured against the entire group of stitches against unravelling.An example of a sewing machine of this type is unravelling in accordance with'the present in shown and described in my prior Patent No. vention. ' 10 2,131,387, dated September 27, 1938. While a Fig. 16 is another greatly enlarged, fragmen conventional tying stitch secures a group of tary sectional view of a part of the stitch-form chain stitches in a satisfactory manner, its for ing mechanisms of the machine. mation by the same instrumentalities which form ’ Fig. 17 is a fragmentary sectiona1 view similar the chain stitches involves at least a diii’erent « to Fig. 16, showing modified structure for secur 15 operation of these instrumentalities, which com ing chain stitches against unravelling. plicates the machine and accordingly increases Fig. 18 is a fragmentary section taken substan the cost of the same. - tially on the line i8-I 8 of Fig. 17. It is the primary aim and object of the present Fig. 19 is a side elevation, partly broken away, invention to make provision in a sewing machine of the .machine which incorporates the stitch-` 20 for securing a machine-sewn group of continuous securing mechanism of the present invention. chain stitches against unravelling without re-Fig. 20 is a plan view, partly broken away, of sorting to a conventional tying stitch and without the machine as shown in Fig. 19. requiring a different operation of thev stitch Fig. 21 is an end elevation, partly broken away, forming instrumentalities of the machine. of the machine as viewed from the left in Figs. The invention will be vmore clearly understood- 25 19 and 20. Y ~ from the following description in commotion Fig. 22 is an end elevation of themachineas _with the accompanying drawings, in which: viewed from the right in Figs. 19 and 20. Fig, 1 is a. greatly magnified bottom view of an. piece of material holding a series of chain stitches which are secured against unravelling in ac cordance with the present invention. . Fig. 23 is an end elevation similar to Fig. 22,v showing certain parts in a differentv relative posi tion. . , Referring to the drawings, Fig, 1 illustrates Fig. 2 is a section taken substantially on the greatly magniiied the back side of a piece of ma line 2-2 of Fig, l. and illustrates theconven terial W in which successive chain stitches 30 are tional concatenation of the loops of a. chain stitch. formed. By way of example, these stitches are 35 Fig. 3 is a section taken substantially on the shown as arranged in zig-,zag fashion. The for- \ _line 3-3' of Fig. l. and showsan intermediate .step in securing the lastv stitch of a group of . mation of the chain stitches is conventional, the machine which may be used for this purposechain stitches against unravelling. providing a reciprocatory and laterally vibratory Fig. 4 is a section similar to Fig. 3, showing the 40 needle 3| (Fig. 21) and two loopers'32 whichal last stitch completed. ternately cooperate with the needle 3l in the for Figs. 5 and 6 are sections taken substantially mation of successive chain stitches. Fig. 7 il on the lines 5-5 and 6--6. respectively, ot Figs. lustrates a. step in the normal cooperation of the 3 and 4, respectively. needle 3l and one of the loopers 32 in the forma Fig. '7 is a greatly enlarged, fragmentary sec` 45 tion‘of the chain stitches, the looper 32' having tional view of the stitch-securing mechanism of seized the thread loop l cast by the needle 3l a machine embodying the present invention. on its preceding ascent through the hole -h in the Figs. 8 and 9 are fragmentary sectional views material, and deflected it into the position shown similar to Fig.l '7, showing progressive steps in in Fig. 'l in which said loop is in alignment with the operation of the mechanism in securing the last stitch of a series of chain stitches. ‘,Figs. 10 and 11 are fragmentary sections taken substantially on the lines Iii-l0 and |I----l i, re spectively, of Figs, 7 and 9, respectively. i f Fig. 12 shows a modified element of the stitch securing mechanism of the machine. 50 the needle in the left end position of its lateral vibration. A After the machine has sewn a group of con tinuous chain stitches, the needle. 3l and the looper 32' will come to rest in the relative dispo 55 sition shown in Fig. 'l with~ the last loop l held on 2,411,977 said looper. While the last loop l is thus heid on the looper 32', a blade or deñector 33 below the throat plate 34 is linearly moved from the position shown in Figs. 7 and 10 into the position ‘ shown in Figs. 9 and 11 to deflect the diverging legs of said loop l. The defiector 33 is provided with a slot 35 (Fig. 10) of a width substantially equal to the thickness of the needle 'thread t, and a wedge-shaped notch 36 which leads int-o 4 the thread of the preceding loop l' is so great that the thread of said loop l as well as of the loop l' is stretched within the llimit of its resil iency, and the contracted loop l’ draws the loop l against the loopl” with such force that the engaged portions of said loops are considerably deformed and constricted (Figs. 3 and 5). The -thread of the contracted loop l' is in fact stretched to such an extent that the withdrawal the slot 35. Hence, o-n movement of the deflector 10 therefrom of ‘the severed end of the loop l does _ 33 from the position shown in Fig. '7 into that not cause any noticeable relaxation of its ñrm shown in Fig. 9, the two legs of the loop l are grip on the remaining portion of the severed loop guided toward the slot 35 by the notch 35 and l, the loop l' having suflicient resiliency to con enter said slot one behind the other. In the pres tract‘and hold the adjacent portion of the re ent instance, the deñector 33 is so coordinated 15 mainder of the severed loop l deformed and con with the looper 32' that the slot 35 in said de stricted as shown in Figs. 4 and 6. That the loop ñeotor is in line with the rear leg Zx of the loop l. l' is under permanent tension and does not so that, on movement of said deflector from the noticeably relax its firm grip on the severed loop position shown in Figs. 7 and 10 into that shown l, even after the withdrawal of the severed end in Figs. 9 and 11, s‘aid leg Zx enters said slot 35 20 thereof, is evidenced by a very marked cross without engaging a wall of the V-shaped notch sectional constriction of the leg lx between the 36, While the front leg IY of the loop l is cammed loop l' and the material W (Fig. 4) as observed into the slot 35 by the wall 36’ of the V-shaped under a microscope. As also observed under the notch 36. Consequently, the rear leg lx of the microscope, the cross-over leg lz of the last stitch loop Z will enter the slot 35 before the front leg ZY is partly embedded in the material W (Fig. 4) is cammed Athereinto, with the result that the in consequence of the permanent tension in the portions of these legs which extend from the de thread of said last stitch. The tied chain stitch iiector 33 substantially to the material W become shown in Figs. 4 and 6 has deñed all ordinary `superposed with the front leg ly nearest the ma efforts to unravel or even_.loosen the same, terial W (Figs. 8 and 9). Since the loop Z is being 30 wherefore said stitch serves as, and is in fact, dlstended while being deflected, and since- the a novel tying stitch which is as well secured ecdle thread tension devices (to be referred to against unravelling as. a conventional tying hereinafter) of the machine resist with consid stitch. erable force the drawing of needle thread Whereas the described deilector 33 has a provi- « through the needle while the loop Z is being de sion (narrow slotI 35) for forcing the deflected iiected as described, the distending loop Z will, draw thread from the preceding loop l' (Figs. 7 legs of the loop l into superposed relation along the material W (Fig. 9), a modified deflector 45 and 8) until the latter is drawn tight. The rear (Fig. 12) merely forces the diverging legs of the wall 38 of the slot 35 inthe deliector 33 is rounded loop l together. To this end, the defiector 45 has as shown in Figs. 7 to 9 so as to avoid chaiing 40 a wedge-shaped notch 46 the bottom 41 of which. the thread of the distending loop l. In order is rounded. On movement of the defiector 45 in to permit the contracting loop-Z’ to close as the direction of the arrow 48 in Fig. 12, the di tightly as possible about the legs of the loop l verging legs of the loop l on the looper 32' will, when the latter is being distended (Figs. 5 and besides being deñected, also be forced into side 9), the deflector 33 brings the legs of _the loop l 45 by-side engagement with one another by the preferably as closely as possible to the conver rounded bottom 41 of the notch 46, resulting in gence C of the legs of the preceding loop l’ (Figs. the disposition of the legs of loop l in the con 9 and 11).` To this end, the deiiector 33 is ar tracted loop l' as shown in Fig. 13. After sever ranged to deflect the legs yoi.’ the loop l as closely ance of the 4loop l and withdrawal of the severed as possible to the material W (Fig. 9), the de end thereof from the contracted loop l', the re l'iected legs of the loop being received in a cut maining end of the severed loop is wedged against away portion 39 of the throat plate 34. To the the contracted loop l' (Fig. 14) and against the same end, the deiiector 33 is moved in such a preceding loop l" in much the same fashion as direction that the legs oi' the loop l between the shown in Figs. 4 and 6. deñector and the material (Fig. 11) pass the Fig. 15 shows the novel tying `stitch applied at convergence C of the legs of the loop l' as closely the end of a straight seam of chain stitches 50, as possible so that said loop l' may contract into the contracted loop 5I of the last stitch firmly i'lrm ,wedging engagement with >the legs ,of the wedging the remaining end 52 of the last severed loop l without undue restraint from the latter. loop against the loop 53 which immediately pre The contracting loop l', through intermediation 60 cedes the loop 5i. In view of the preceding, de of the legs lX and ZY of the loop l. also draws the tailed description of the formation of the novel loop l", which immediately precedes the loop l', _ tying stitch at the end of a zig-zag seam of chain ñrmly against the material W (Figs. 3 and 9). stitches, the yformation of the. same tying stitch Shortly before the deflector 33 reaches the most at theend of a straight seam of chain stitches is advanced position shown in Fig. 9, the same too obvious to require further explanation. brings the rear leg lx of the loop l into engage Figs. 16 and 1’7 disclose a modified mode of tying ment with a knife 40 on the looper 32' (Figs. 9 the last one of a series of chain stitches. The and 11), whereupon said leg is severed as at 4|. machine used for forming these stitches may be On subsequent removal of the material W from -like the one used for forming the stitches 30 in the machine, the severed portion of the loop l 70 Fig. l, and comprise a reciprocatory and vibratory which is continuous with the needle thread is needle (not shown) carrying needle thread t, and withdrawn from the material, leaving the severed a pair of alternately operative loopers of which rear leg lx of said loop l anchored between the loops l' and l" (Figs. 4 and 6). one is shown at 55. After the sewing instrumen talities of the -machine come to rest with the The pull exerted by the distending loop l on 75 needle retracted and the looper 55 in the position 2,411,977 f shown in Fig. 16 and holding the last lloop 58, a. deñector 51 unde-neath the throat plate 58 is moved in the direction of the arrowy58 in Fig. 18 to deflect the‘front leg 56’ in the manner best shown in Fig. 17, thereby distending the loop 56. The deflected leg 56' of the distending loop 56 forces the preceding loop 60 against the material W and the convergence of the legs of the loop 56. . The distending loop 56, being unable to draw f 6 , to by a belt 18 alternatively engageable with fast and loose pulleys ~18 and 80 under the control of ' f a'belt shifter 8|. vThe belt shifter 8| constitutes an extension of a stop member or arm 82 carried by an oscillating and longitudinallymovable rock shaft 83, mounted for oscillation and limited ion gitudinai movement in the bed 65. Slidably mounted in the stop arm 82 is a stop element or bolt 84, normally urged toward the right in Figs. 22 and 23 by a springy 85. At its end the bolt 84 ' needle thread‘through the needle thread tension 10 is formed with a nose 86 which, when the shaft ' devices (not shown)l of the machine, must' draw 83 "is in theI longitudinal position to cause the thread from the preceding loops'60 and 6 I. Since belt shifter 8| to engage the belt 18 with the the loop 68 is prevented from contracting by the loose pulley 80, is in the path of movement of deflected leg 56’ of the last loop 56 (Fig. 17), the a'cam 81 (Figs. 22 and 23)»which is fast on the 15 latter will draw thread from the loop 6| which shaft 11, said cam having a concentric portion a, immediately precedes the loop 60. The ensuing contraction of the loop 6| draws the loop 60 into firm wedging engagement with the material W a rise b, a notch c and a stop shoulder d, arranged to-engage the nose 86 in the order named when the shaft is rotated in the direction of the arrow arid the convergence of the legs of the loop 56 88 in Figs. 22 and 23. The nose 86, when in the and at the same time forces said loop 6| toward 20 path of movement of the cam 81, is heid in en-‘ the convergence of the legs of the last loop 56 gagement with the periphery of the latter by a (Fig. 17), so that, after-severance of the last loopv spring-pressed plunger 88 carried by the upright 56 and withdrawal of the severed end of said loop from the material, the ,end of the severed loop 66 and engaging the stop arm 82, rsaid `plunger to turn said arm and the rock shaft 83 remaining in the material‘is held fairly securely 25 _tending in a‘clockwise direction as viewed in Figs. 22 and between the loops 60 and 6|. T_he deflector 51 23, and thereby press the nose. 86 against the pe has preferably an inclined cutting edge 62 (Fig. ` riphery of the cam 81. ' 18) which engages and severs the rear leg 56" A buttonhole cutter 80 is carried by a lever 8|.. . of the loop 56 as at 63 when the front leg 56’ journalled on a short stud shaft 82 supported in thereof is deflected as shown in Figs. 17 and 18. 30 the bed, said lever having an arm 83 carrying at A last stitch tied in `this fashion, while not at its end a sleeve'94 in'which is journalleda stud firmly secured as the previously described stitch 95, having at one end a sleeve portion 86 which shown in Fig. 4, for instance, is nevertheless receives a stud 81 extending inwardly from the satisfactory for many purposes. ’ stop arm 82. Figs. 19 and 20 show an example of e. machine ’ The construction, arrangement and mode of which may be equipped with mechanism to form „operation of the parts -above referred to, and cer the novel tying stitch shown in Figs. 4 and 6, for _tain associated parts, are, or may be, substan instance. This machine is a button hole sewing tially as more fully described in the above-men machine of the type known as “straight hole” tioned patents. Associated with the sliding rock machine, described, for example, in Patents Nos. 40 shaft 83 is a spring |00 (Fig. 20) surrounding said 714,284, November 25, 1902; 749.776, January 19, shaft and interposed between a collar |0| thereof 1904; 1,088.652„Februari' 24» 1914; 1.402.073, Jan' and one of the bearing brackets or ears |02 in _ uary 3, 1922; and 1.483.307, February 12, 1924. which said shaft is mounted, said spring tending The machine comprises a bed 65 from which rises a standard 86, carrying an overhanging arm 61 spaced above the bed. The material or work W is carried by a work clamp or holder comprising a clamp plate 68 and cooperating clamping arms 68, said work holder being movable as a unit over the bed, by mechanism not shown, in order to position the stitches along the sides of the'but tonhole. The stitch-forming instrumentalities comprise the previously mentioned, eye-pointed needle 3| above the work and cooperating loopers or equivalent under thread handling devices 32 below the work, the throat plate 34 being .carried by the bed 65 andhaving an opening> 10 through which the needle operates. -The needle 3| is carried by a needle bar 1| which is longitudinally and vertically reciprocated, by means generallyindi cated at 12, in a needle bar guide 13, means (not shown) being provided for oscillating said needle bar alternately in opposite directions transversely to the direction of feed of the work clamp be-r tween successive strokes of the needle to position the depth stitches. The,l thread -t from a suitable source passes, through a take-up 14 and suitable tension -devices 15 and 16, to the needle eye, whence it passes through the work and throat. plate to the loopers 32. The thread tension device 15 may be a thread ~clamp which is- preferably closed during the setting of the laststitch so. as to cause the tying of the last stitch with a maxi mum force. A main shaft 11, journalled in suit able bearings in the bed, has power applied there f 'normally to move said shaft toward the right in ' Fig. 20 into the position shown in the drawings, in v which the belt 18 is engaged with the loose pulley 80 and the nose 86 of the stop bolt 84 is in the pathV of-movement of the cam 81. To start thev machine, a starting lever |08 is operated to move the shaft 83 toward the left in Fig. 20, thereby shifting the belt 18 from the loose pulley 80 to the fast pulley 18 and moving >the nose 86 out of the path of movement of the cam 81, said shaft - being retained in this position by engagement of a detent |04 with a recess- |05 therein. The de tent |04 is lcontrolled by mechanism (not shown) associated with the feeding means for the work clamp and adjustablel in accordance with the length of the button hole to be sewn, the arrange ment being such that just before the conclusion of the sewing cycle, and at about the beginning of the last stitch-forming cycle, the detent |64 is withdrawn from the notch |05, whereupon the »spring |00 causes the shaft 83 to be restored to its normal position, thereby shifting the belt‘18 from the fast pulley 18 to the loose pulley 80 and bringing the’ nose 86 into the path of movement of the cam 81. During the formation of the last> stitch, the machine runs under its own momen 'tum and the nose 86 follows the periphery of the cam 81. ~As said >nose is engaged by the rise y b of said cam, the stop arm 82 is lifted against the action of the spring-pressed plunger 88 into the 75 position shown in Fig. 23. This lifting of the stop 2,41' 1,977. 8 arm 82 operates, through the stud 31 and its con nection with thearm' 93 of the lever 9|, to ad vance or depress the button hole cutter Il 'and cause the same to cut the button hole slit. There after, the nose 36 drops on of the rise b oi' the cam 31 and, under the influence of the spring-pressed plunger 89, enters the notch c as shown inFig. 22, .iournalled in suitable bearings in the bed Il and having secured to _its opposite end an arm Hl (Figs. >ilo and 22). Pivotally connected to the 4arm III lsallnk III guided on the outer side of to be retracted or raised to its original normal po the bed 6l on a screw I I'I projecting from said bed and received in a slot lll in said link. At its other end the link Iltis formed with a' notch Ile adapted to be enteredby a ngse |29 on a collar by a yielding of the bolt 84 toward the left in as shown in Fig. 22, the nose |20 enters the notch ' this movement causing the button hole cutter 90 sition. The nose 36 is thereupon 'immediately 10' ill secured to the stop bolt l . When the nose 88 of the stop bolt I4 enters the engaged by the stop shoulder d, thereby positively notch c in the cam 31 under the iniluence or the stopping the machine at the completion oi' the spring-pressed plunger 89, as -above explained and final stitch, the stopping impact being cushioned Fig. 22 against the compression (ä the spring BI. 15 H9. Thereafter, when the stop bolt 84 yields under the impact of the shoulder d onthe nose ' In accordance with the present invention, a I6, the link H6 is moved toward the left as viewed loop deflector such as the deñector 33 in Figs. 9 in Fig. 22, thereby turning the` shaft IM and op and 10, for instance, is guided in ways in the bed erating the defiector 33 as described. 65 immediately below the throat plate 34 and be The above described tying stitch and method tween the latter and the loopers 32 (Figs. 19 and 21). `>At the completion oi’ the last stitch-form 20 of making the same are not claimed herein, being covered by the claims of a divisional application ing cycle, and substantially coincidentally with Seriaìl No. 553,527, tiled September 11, 1944. ` the stopping of themachine, said deflector 33 is I c aim: moved, by means to be described, from its normal retracted position shown in Fig. 20 in the direc tion of the arrow I I0 in said ñgure to deflect, and ' thereby distend, the last loop l which. at this time is held by one of the loopers 32 and extends from the work W about said looper to the needle 3| as , shown in Fig. 21. 25 1. In a. sewing machine, the combination with a work support, a reciprocatory needle and a ` looper cooperating? therewith in the formation oi’ chain stitches in material, of a member be tween said looper and the work support mov able from adjacent a first thread loop held on:r The deilection and simultane ous distention of the loop l_ by the deilector 33 30 said looper toward and beyond the immediately preceding, spaced thread loop in the material and results in the setting of the last stitch in the adapted Aengage and deflect both legs of said manner previously described and shown in Figs. 3 first loopto distend the same so that said im and 5. The looper which holds the last loop l mediately preceding thread loop is drawn toward also preferably carries a knife or cutter 40’ which the material and into wedging engagement with may be like the cutter 40 on the looper 32? in the legs of said ñrst loop. Fig. 9 and severs the rear leg of the loop l toward 2. 'I'he combination in a sewing machine as the end of its distention by the deilector 33. On set forth in claim l, in which said member has subsequent removal of the material W from the a. V~shaped notch to engage and force together machine and according withdrawal of the sev ered end of the loop l from the material, the last 40 the diverging legs of said first loop. stitch is completed, and this stitch is the same as, and has all the`described characteristics of, the novel tying stitch shown in Figs. 4 and 6. The deilector 33 is provided with a socket III (Fig. 21) to receive a rounded end H2 of an arm H3 which is fast on one end of a rock shaft III, 3. The combination in a sewing machine as set` . forth in claim 1, in which said member has a slot of a width substantially equal to the thickness of the thread and a V-shaped notch leading into said slot _and adapted to engage and force the diverging legs of said first loop into said slot. ' I JOSEPH H. PlKUL.