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Патент USA US2411990

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Dec. 3, 1946.
w. c. EDMUNDSON
2, 1,990
BRUSH HOLDER FOR DYNAMOELECTRIC MACHINES
7 Filed May 15, 194.4
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[1117/2572 [3 fiiizzmisalz
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BY
‘2,411,990
Patented Dec. 3, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE
£411,990?
BRUSH HOLDER FOR DXNAMOELECT-RIC.
MACHINES"
William C. Edmundson, Anderson, Ind}, assignor.
to General‘ Motors Corporation, Detroit,.Mich.,
aioorporation of Delaware
Application.May 13, 1944, Serial No; 535,483
3 Claims. (Cl..17.1--324c)’
l
Thisinvention relates‘to'brush rigging holders
and; more particularly to brush holders for'elec
triciunits‘having a rotatable part;
"An object‘ of. the. present' invention‘ is- to pro
vide‘a structure‘which not onlyholds' two standard
Width brushes ?rmly~ in a‘ receptacle but also al
lows the‘ brushes to‘ be fed? gradually and evenly
through‘ the receptacle and‘ against the commu
later as the ends of" the brushes are worn- away;
2
As is well known a» motor or generate; isz-pror
vided With current-carrying brushes to conduct
current. Referring toFigs. 1 and 2-. the brush
holder assembly embodying the present inven
tion supports and guides‘ a plurality. of carbon
brushes 22 which are arranged side by side to=en.
gage the outer periphery of the commutator
which, in this instance, is extra wide. These
blushes are slidably guided in a, brush holder as
Another'object of‘ the-invention is’ to‘ provide a 10 sembly indicated generally by the numeral 25.
The brush’ holder assembly is ?xed to the-casing
brush‘ holder for a plurality of brushes which is
2!) by screws 25.
sov designed that attention or manual'a'djustment
The brush holder assembly 25- comprises-a plu
ofthebrush'es is entirel'yeliminated‘until' the use
rality of members punched from- ?at sheet metal
ful" lengths have been utilized and the replace
ment'of the brushes is'n'ecessary.
15 and then bent bydies to the desired formations‘.
One of the members comprises a U-shaped' frame
Another. object' of' the invention is to provide
member 21 including side arms 28 andv a yoke 29.
a'brush holder‘assembly which is easily attached
The arms 28 are deformed or offset from their
to 'orremoved as, a unit? from an‘. electrical unit‘,
normal planes, as at 33, to-provide opposed chan
but allows a part of the unit'to bev easily'moved
so as to facilitate. replacement. of brushes when 20 nels 3| and 32. The webora bottom wall'of» chan
necessary‘ while theunit is attached; thus elimi
hating the necessity 'of‘rem‘oving'the brush holder
assembly‘from‘the"electrical‘unit;
nel 3 l. is extended. and bent outwardly tor/form‘ an
ear or support 33 for a conducting strap, not
shown. The ear 33 is provided? with a tapped
opening to receive a screw for clamping anon
Further‘ objects and‘ advantages of the‘ present
invention-willlbe'apparent from the following de 25 ducting strap upon the ear; The free end of each
scriptionreference being hadto the accompanying
drawing'whereirrthe preferred embodiment of the
present invention is-clearly shown.
Inthe/drawing‘:
Fig: 1' is a planview of‘ a: brush holder embody- _
ingthepresentinvention:
'
Fig. 2 is av sectional view’ taken on- the line
arm is also extended' and bent outwardly to pro.
vide ears 34 by which the frame member is
mounted in positiontolthe casing 20. The yoke
29 is cut away at its upper edge to form notches
35 to-form a lug 3'5 intermediate-the length of-‘the
yoke.
A lever stop 31 may be formed as illustrated in
2'-2-'- of Fig; 1' and showing a fragment- of alhous
Figs. 7 and 8. This stop comprises wings 38 which
i'nglin doteand-dashlines.
are so spaced that they will straddle the arms 28
and the wings are secured to the arms 28; in: any
Fig; 3 i‘sa view lookinginthe direction» of arrow
3iinv Fig’; 2.
Figs; 4v and‘ Bare plan'and'side views, respec
tively', of- av ‘brushv frame utilized in the'present
suitablemanner, for example, spot welding. The
upper edge of the yoke of‘ lever stop is cut away
to provide stops 39’ disposed on opposite sides of
an extension or lug 48. When the lever stop‘ 3'!
invention,
'
' Fig. ?'isaplan view'ofaspacer.
40 is secured in position thestops 39'will be opposite
the notches 35 or“ yoke 29 and lug 40‘ will be on
Figs. 7 ‘and 8 are ‘plan an'd'front views of a stop
posite the lug 36. The yoke of the lever stop. is
member used in-the-present- invention.
'
spaced a substantial distance from. the yoke 29
Figs. grand‘ 101' are ’ side and plan- views respec
andextends across from one. arm 28 to‘ the1 other
tively- of" an arm used in- the present invention.
Referring toFig: 2" a fragment‘ of- a‘ casing 20 45 in parallelism with the yoke. 29 to form a box.
like. or an elongated or rectangular receptacle.
of’arr electric unit‘ (‘motor or'generator) is shown.
This receptacle is preferably divided by a. spacer
'A'lcommuta-tor for ‘the unit is‘ designated by‘ the
4| provided with tangs Ma. on opposite edges
reference-character 2|. The elements 20- and- 2|
‘are-indicatedbydot-and- dash lines.
thereof which project through aligned openings
The electrical circuits‘ and connections are not 50 formed in. the lugs 36 and. 40. When the wings
38 are secured to arms 28- of. the member 21', the
shown; or described in the'present invention in
spacer M is securely held in position with respect
view'of the‘ fact they‘ will" be readily understood
to the members‘ 21 and 31. The tangs 41a on'both
'by'tho'seskilledin the art. The’circuits or connec
sides of the spacer 4| are staked» and spot welded
tions; are not necessarily any‘ different from‘ the
to
their'respective members.
65
invention"disclosed‘herein.
2,411,990
3
4
Rotatably secured between the arms 28 to pivot
?ngers are moved in a counterclockwise direction
against the action of springs 60 until the free
end of the ?ngers is passed the inner yoke 31 to
permit easy removal of the worn brushes and
new brushes to be inserted in the receptacle.
on studs 50 is a lever 5| which has a pair of
spaced ?ngers 52 extending from one side
thereof, said ?ngers extend over the stops 39
and into the rectangular receptacle. When
brushes are on opposite sides of the spacer 4|
Thus, the necessity of detaching any part of the
brush holder assembly to replace vthe. brushes is
each arm engages the top surface of a brush 22
which isslidably supported in the rectangular
eliminated.
_
=
-
‘
e
'
Y
,
receptacle. The lever 5| is actuated by a pair of
While the embodiment of the present invention
springs 69, each spring having one end hooked‘ IOI as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form,
over an eye in the lever while the other end is ,
it is to be understood that other forms might
hooked over two lugs provided by a spring vsup- . - ; be adopted, all coming within the scope of the
port Bl attached to the ears 34 by spot welding.
claims which follow.
Any desired number of springs or tension-mem-. .
, What is claimed is as follows:
bers may be used and it is preferable thattthere .
1. A brush holder assembly for a dynamo elec
should be at least one for each brush if more » ' tric machine having a frame and a commutator
than one brush is used. The springs 60 operate
to rotate the lever in a clockwise direction as
viewed in Fig. 2. Due to the tendency. of the .
lever 5| to rotate in a clockwise direction, as 20
viewed in Fig. 2, the ?ngers 52 engage the tops
of the brushes to exert aradial pressure on the
brushes so as to press them ?rmly against the
wide commutator 2| and the brushes can move
to and from the commutator relative to each 25
other. As the brushes wear off the ?ngers grad
ually, move in a clockwise direction until one or
both ‘of the ?ngers engage their respective stops
39 whereby further movement of the brush by
the?nger is prevented.
In this way proper en- .
‘gagement of all the brushes with the commu
tator surface can‘ be assured anddisengagement
off-"all the-brushes from the surface can be avoid
ied.> :Since the brushes are capable of moving rel
ative to “each other it is important that the .
brushes are prevented from chattering.
Furthermore, it also is important that the
comprising in combination; a pair of sheet metal
stampings having a yoke and branches attached
thereto, one of said stampings having long
branches while the other has short branches, said
short branches ‘being hooked under the long
branches and secured thereto in a manner so
that the yokes are spaced apart to form an elon
gated opening; a plurality of brushes slidably
mounted in the opening and capable of moving
relative to each other; ears secured to the long
branches at'their free ends; a cross-piece at
tached to the long branches; a lever pivotally
mounted to the long branches and beyond the
yokes, said lever including ?ngers extending above
the yoke nearest the pivotal point of the lever
and into the opening; spring means having one
end anchored to the cross-piece and having the
other end attached to the lever to'move the lever
in one direction urging the ?ngers into engage
ment with respective brushes to move same
against the commutator; and means for attach
ing the ears to the frame to hold the brush holder
that the wear to the brushes is equalized. This
assembly in a ?xed relation relative to the com
is‘ accomplished by the lever, 5! with its spaced 40 mutator.
?ngers 52'which is sturdy enough to apply greater
2. A brush holder assembly for an electric mo
tor having a frame and a rotating part, compris
‘pressure to a longer brush, but ?exible enough to
apply this pressure dilferentially. Thus, when
ing in combination; a pair of sheet metal stamp
one of the two‘ brushes, in a receptacle is longer
ings having a yoke and branches attached there
than the other, the longer brush will receive the .
to, one of the stampings having long branches de
greater pressure and consequently take _ the
formed to provide opposed channels, while the
greater proportion of the load current. When
other stamping has short branches which are
this action occurs the longer brush will wear
formed to hook under the long branches so that
more rapidly. This wear of the longer brush will
its yoke will close the gap between the channels
continue until its length is such as to equalize 50 of the long branches to provide an elongated
the pressure and the load between the two
opening; means for securing two branches to
gether; means attached to the yokes for dividing
- One. important advantage of the, construction
the opening into a plurality of brush receiving
is to correct unequal wear of brushes in a heav
sockets; a brush mounted in each pocket; a cross
ily loaded generator when an unequal heat distri 55 piece attached to the long branches beyond the
bution is present. The present invention contin
yokes; a lever pivotally mounted to the long
uously corrects unequalized wear of the brushes
branches beyond the yokes; said lever including
by the action of the lever as described andthe
integral ?ngers extending above the yoke nearest
useful lives of the ‘brushes: are prolonged.‘ It
the pivoted point of the lever and into respective
has been found that such action of the. lever ex 60 pockets, said lever characterized by the fact that
tends‘the useful life of a brush, not in the ratio
the lever is rigid enough to apply greater pres
of ijust two toone, but ?ve or. ten to one, since
sure to the brush ‘that is longer. than another
the brush,‘ in the usual instance of independent
but flexible enough to apply the pressurediffer
brush ?ngers, which. ?rst assumes'the greater
entially; spring means having one end anchored
portion of. the load will heat up enough to con 65 to the cross-piece and having the other end at
tinue to carry. the greaterload. This will re
tached to the lever to move ‘same in onedirection
sult in rapid‘ wear tov destruction; since the
urging the ?ngers into engagement; with their
brushes are moved toward the commutator so
brushes.
,
~
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,
_
.
brushes are loaded to - capacity when. sharing
respective brushes tov move same into engagement
with the rotating part; and means-for attaching
It will be seen that, by using a biased pivoted 70 the longer branches to the frame of the motor.
equally.
lever having spaced ?ngers, each ?nger engag
ing, respectively, the wear of the brushes will be
equalized.’ This arrangement also makes it pos
3. A brush holder'assembly for adynamo elec7
trio machine having a frame and a commutator
‘comprising in combination; a pair of sheet'met'al
sible to change the brushes veryeasily. In order
stampings having a yoke and brancheslattached
to remove the brushes 22 from the'receptacle ‘the 75 thereto, one of said stampingshaving its branches
2,411,990
6
straddling the branches of the other stamping
yokes cooperating with the ?ngers to limit the
and secured in a manner that the yokes are
spaced apart to form an elongated opening; a
movement of the lever toward the commutator
plurality of brushes slidably mounted in the
opening and capable of moving relative to each
other; ears provided by one of the stampings;
means cooperating with the ears for securing the
stampings to the frame; a sheet metal lever piv
otally mounted on the branches of one stamping,
determined amount; and means for biasing the
lever in one direction causing the ?ngers to abut
their respective brushes to move same against
the commutator and thus hold the brushes in the
when one of the brushes has been worn a pre
opening and allowing ready removal of the
brushes from the opening when the lever is ro
said lever including a plurality of ?ngers, one lO tated in the opposite direction a certain amount.
WILLIAM C. EDMUNDSON.
for each brush; means provided by one of the
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