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Патент USA US2412080

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Dec. 3, 1946.
2,412,080
R. C. CUNNINGHAM
WELDING APPARATUS
Filed Dec. 7, 1945
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Patented Dec. 3, 1946
2,412,98Q
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,080
WELDING APPARATUS
Robert C. Cunningham, San Francisco, Calif.
Application December 7, 1943, Serial No. 513,210
8 Claims. (01. 219-4)
1
This invention relates to an electric welding
method and apparatus and particularly to the
type of welder used for end-welding studs and
the like.
Heretoiore when a stud or the like loose ele
ment was Welded to a plate or another like ele—
ment, a welding device was used with a separate
welding circuit through an electrode and also a
separate alternating current control circuit with
2
initial closing of said alternating current circuit
independent of said electrode.
Another object of the invention is to provide a
welding gun which easily grips a loose article,
such as the head of a stud, and holds it tightly
against the conductor or electrode in the gun,
and which has an automatic control for the weld
ing circuit which is actuated initially by the con
tact between the loose element and the member
a number of terminals and cables connected to
to which the loose element is to be welded and
the device and operated by a trigger manually.
rl‘hese previous devices also required springs or
through the electrode of the welding circuit, and
immediately upon said actuation is shunted to
other pressure mechanisms to hold the loose ele
ment or stud spaced from the other element to
an actuating circuit independent of said loose ele
ment and of said electrode.
Another object of this invention is to provide a
allow the melting of the tip of the stud or the
like and then to apply a sharp blow for driving
the stud against the plate, thereby causing dis
turbance and splattering of the molten metal,
creating air pockets and imperfect weldings. The
operation of the device was awkward and inef?
cient on account of the complicated connections,
manual trip control and suddenly released spring
pressures.
An object of my invention is to provide a
method and apparatus for quick welding of a
loose element, such as a stud or the like, to an
other element, such as a plate, by holding the
loose element in tight contact with the electrode
of a welding circuit and in loose contact with the
other element so as to permit the melting of the
tip of the loose element into the small welding
space at its tip and to allow its contraction into
the welded joint without external pressure.
Another object of this invention is to provide a
method and apparatus for welding a loose ele
ment to another element, especially when the
loose element extends through an insulator,
wherein the welding current is controlled by a1
ternating current actuation, the initial alternat
ing current circuit for such actuation being con
ducted through the electrode of the welding cir
cuit and through said elements, and wherein said
initial circuit is rendered ineffective substan~
tially simultaneously with the closing of the weld—
welding method and apparatus which is highly
useful and simple in construction. Convenience
of arrangement, lightness and comparative inex
pense of manufacture are further objects which
have been borne in mind in the production and
development of the invention,
Other objects of the invention together with
the foregoing will be set forth in the following
description of the preferred method and pre
ferred embodiment of means for practicing the
same, which is illustrated in the drawing accom
panying and forming part of the speci?cation.
It is to be understood that I do not limit myself to
the embodiment disclosed in said description and
the drawing as I may adopt variations of my pre
ferred forms within the scope of my invention.
With the foregoing and other objects in view,
which will be made manifest in the following
detailed description, reference is had to the ac
» companying drawing for the illustrative embodi
ment of the invention, wherein, the ?gure shows
a sectional view of the welding gun in operating
position and a wiring diagram of the control
circuits and the welding circuit for said welding
gun.
While in the illustrative embodiment of my
invention I show my method and apparatus ap
plied to end-welding a stud to a plate for fastem
ing an insulating lining in place, it is to be under
stood that my method and apparatus may be used
for quick welding of any loose element to another
element.
In my method the head of the stud is tightly
gripped into and against the electrode of the
ing circuit by said alternating current circuit
actuation, another alternating current circuit in
dependent of the electrode continuing said actua
tion for a predetermined period.
Another object of the invention is to provide a 50 welding circuit so as to prevent an are or melt
welding method and apparatus wherein an alter
ing of the stud body or head. Then an initial
hating current circuit for controlling the Welding
alternating current control circuit is closed
current is initially closed through the electrode of
through said electrode, said stud and the plate
the welding circuit and then shunted into an al
to which the tip of the stud is contacted. It is
ternating current timing control circuit by the
preferable that said alternating current circuit he
2,412,080
3
4
completed through grounding of said plate. An
the recess 24 to assure contact of the stud head
insulating lining or layer is laid on the plate
prior to welding and the stud is pushed through
against said base. Chuck jaws ?tting various
shapes of stud heads and ends are interchange
this insulator lining and is held in loose contact
with the plate throughout the welding operation.
the head of the insulator casing by ?rst removing
A timing circuit and a control circuit are closed
by said initial, auxiliary alternating current cir- .
able and can be easily secured or removed from
the screws I1 and I9 and then replacing said
screws into the replaced chuck jaws. This readily
permits the gripping of the stud 21 in the con
cuit, and said auxiliary circuit through said elec
trode is simultaneously shunted out and rendered
ductor chuck jaws 'l and I8 and the pushing of
ineffective. The welding circuit of said electrode 10 the stud 21 through an insulator lining 3! so that
is substantially simultaneously closed by said con
the tip 32 is held in loose contact with the face
trol circuit. After a predetermined time the
of _a metal plate 33 to which it is to be welded.
welding circuit is broken by the breaking of said
The chuck jaws ‘l and E8, the adapter I 2 and
control circuit by the action of the timing circuit.
the end ill of the conductor 56 form an electrode
The stud is held in said loose contact with the 16 for the electric current to be passed through the
stud 27 and the plate 33. The plate 33 is grounded
plate until after the breaking of said welding cir
as indicated at 34. The conductor It is con
cuit. The stud is being repelled away from said
nected to a circuit breaker 36 through which it is
plate by the action of the welding circuit so far
connected by a conductor line 3‘! to one of the
as loose contact holding permits, and after the
breaking of said welding circuit the welded metal 20 terminals of a direct current welding generator
contracts and the stud is attracted or drawn
tightly against the plate forming a solid welded
joint Without spattering or splashing of material
and without air pockets or the like.
In the illustrative form of my apparatus I make
use of a hollow insulator casing I, for-med with a
38. The other terminal of the direct current gen
erator 38 is grounded at 33. Thus when the cir
cuit breaker 36 is closed the welding circuit is
closed from the generator 38 through the line
stem 2 adapted to be conveniently held by the
31, the circuit breaker 36, the conductor It, the
end 14, the adapter l2, the chuck jaws 1 and. I8,
the stud 21, the plate 33 and through the grounds
operator. A head 3 is formed at an end of the
stem 2 in a ?aring, frusto-conical form. This
34 and 39 back to the generator 33.
The circuit breaker 36 is normally open, as in
head 3 is split in substantially complemental
halves. One of the split sections 4 is entirely
separated from the casing and is attached in place
by a transverse hinge 8 so as to be swingable
dicated by the spring ill, and is closed by an
electro-magnet AZ. This electro-magnet G2 is
energized by an alternating current circuit. A
terminal of this electro-magnet 42 is connected by
into open and closed positions similarly to the
a line 43 to a terminal of a source of alternating
action of a jaw of a chuck.
current electricity indicated by an alternating
current generator 4%. The other terminal of the
electro-magnet 32 is connected by a line 36 to
A conductor chuck is detachably secured into
‘said casing head 3. This conductor chuck has a
?xed jaw 7 in the ?xed section of the head.
A stem of this chuck jaw 1 extends into the
stem 2 of the casing and has a socket 9 thereof 40
tightly ?tted over a stub end II of a conduc
tor adapter l2. The other end of the conduc
tor adapter l2 has a socket I3 in it into which
is ?xed the end M of a cable or the like elec
another electro-magnetic circuit breaker 131,
which is normally open as indicated diagrammat
ically by a spring 48. The circuit breaker All in
turn is connected by a line 49 to the other ter
minal of the alternating current generator 44, so
that when this second circuit breaker Al is closed
it closes the circuit to the electro-magnet of the
?rst circuit breaker 36 and closes the circuit of
trical conductor Hi. This cable I 6 extends into
the welding current.
the tail end of the casing l and is suitably in
This electro-magnet 5i of the second circuit
sulated. The conductor and its adapter are
breaker
is connected by a line 52 to the same side
suitably ?xed into the stem 2 of the insulator
of the alternating current generator Mi as the line
casing I. The ?xed jaw ‘I of the conductor chuck
is held in place by any suitable detachable or re 50 133 of the ?rst circuit breaker 42. The other ter
minal of the electro-magnet 5! is connected by a
leasable securing means, for instance by a set
shunt line 53 to a normally open circuit breaker
screw i1 extended through the ?xed portion of
54, the opening of which is indicated by a spring
the insulating head 3. A movable conductor jaw
56. The second circuit breaker, as shown herein,
l8 complemental to the ?xed conductor jaw ‘I, is
?tted into the hinged head section 4 and is held in ' is preferably a double circuit breaker which in
cludes both the circuit breaker 41, which con
place thereon by a set screw l9 so as to swing
trols the line 46 leading to the direct current
into open and closed positions with said hinged
control,
and also the circuit breaker 54 which
head section 4. A handle 2! extends from the
controls the shunt line 53 for energizing the elec
hinged head section 4 toward the tail of the eas
tro-magnet 5! which latter simultaneously closes
ing 1 and is spaced from the stem 2. Between
its own shunt line 53 and also the line it for
the stem 2 and the handle 2| is a U shaped spring
said direct current control.
22 so secured to the stem 2 that the legs of the
The energizing circuit of the electro-magnet 5|
spring 22 point toward the tail end of the stem
of the second circuit breaker is opened after a pre
2. The handle 2! is on the outer leg 23 of the
determined time of operation by a normally closed
spring 22 so that the spring 22 normally urges
delayed action circuit breaker diagrammatically
the handle 2| outwardly, away from the stem 2
indicated at 51. A bridge 58 is interconnected
and thus closes the movable head section 4 and
in
the line 52 and is held closed by a compression
the chuck jaw [8.
spring 59. Spaced from the bridge 58 is a sole
The jaws 1 and [8 of the conductor chuck form
noid 6!, the core 62 of which is movable toward
a recess 24 tightly ?tting in complete tight con 70 the bridge 53. The solenoid 6! is connected by a
tact over the head 26 of a stud 2‘! so that the head
line 63 to the shunt line 53 so as to conduct the
of the stud 21 is held in tight contact also with
current when the shunt circuit breaker 54 is
the bottom 28 formed by the base of the chuck
closed. The other terminal of the solenoid 3| is
jaws 1 and I B. A groove 29 around the base of
connected by a line 6% to the line 52 and to the
the chuck recess is provided beyond the taper of 75 other terminal of the alternating current gen
2,412,080
5
6
erator. The core 62 of the solenoid BI is secured
on the line d2 to the electro~magnet M of the
to a diaphragm indicated at 66, which latter is
suitably supported at its circumference in a hous
second circuit breaker, and the double circuit
ing 61 so that the diaphragm 66 is hollowed in a
direction away from the bridge 58. Beneath the
diaphragm 65 is a pump chamber 68 with a vent
69 adjustable by any suitable mechanism such
as a needle valve indicated at l i. When the sole
noid BI is energized, the movement of the core
62 toward the circuit breaker bridge 58 is retarded
by the suction beneath the diaphragm 66 in ac
cordance with the air intake through the vent 69
as adjusted by the needle valve l‘ 1. After a period
of time thus predetermined the solenoid core 62
abuts against the bridge 58 and pushes it sub
stantially into the open position indicated by
broken lines at the top of the housing El. The
solenoid 6! of this timing device and the electro
magnet 5! of the second circuit breaker are ener
breakers 4‘! and 54 open and break the shunt cir
cuit of the delayed action circuit breaker 5? and
also the line 138 to the electro-magnet d2 of the
?rst control circuit breaker
and thus the
welding direct current circuit is automatically
opened. Thereupon the molten metal at the tip
of the stud 21 rapidly solidi?es and an attraction
is created pulling the tip of the stud
tightly
against the surface of the plate
inally-the
jaws of the welding gun are opened again to re
lease the stud head and to grip another stud to
repeat the operation. This operation is per
formed very rapidly. In practice and actual
operation where many large headed studs are
used to hold an insulator layer or lining on the
surface of the plate of a ship or the like, the
herein described method
ap
atus accom
gized simultaneously and are closed until the
0 plished great saving of time, labor and material
bridge 58 is opened to break the circuit through
as well as it eliminates defects in enduvelding
the line 52.
such as splattering of metal, air pockets and the
It is to be noted that the showing of the vari
disturbance of molecular structure in the weld.
ous circuit breakers, and the timing device here
It is to be noted that in operation, when the
in is diagrammatic and suitable or various types
timer breaks the circuit of the various circuit
of circuit breakers and timing devices may be
breakers, the core 62 is held in the circuit break~
used in the circuit.
ing position until after the gun is removed from
For instantaneous automatic starting of the
the stud 21. The solenoid 6! during this period
welding operation I provide an auxiliary start
remains energized because as soon
the circuit
ing circuit utilizing the electrode line of the 30 breakers are open and the direct current flow
direct current welding circuit. The terminal of
ceases, the ground circuit through the auxiliary
the alternating current generator M, to which
line 73 is again closed and thus the energizing
the shunt line 53 of the second circuit breaker
circuit of the timing solenoid 6| remains effec
shown
is connected
at ‘H. through
An auxiliary
the line
line
49,‘isis connects
grounded‘the
tive until the ground circuit is broken by remov
ing the gun from the stud 2?. Thereupon the
shunt line 53 to the conductor it of the elec
solenoid Si is die-energized and the action of
trode M to complete an alternating current cir
the spring 59 returns the circuit breaker bridge
cuit from the alternating current generator Ml
58 and the core 62 to the initial. circuit closing
through the lines 52 and 51! to the solen id 5!
of the timing device 57, then through the shunt 4:0 position ready for the next operation.
I claim:
lines 63 and 53 to the auxiliary line 13, and then
1. An electric welding apparatus comprising,
through the conductor 53 and through the elec
an electrode, means to tightly contact the elec
trode M to the stud 2? and through the plate
trode with an element to be welded to another
33 to the plate ground as and to the ground 12
element, means to connect said electrode to a
of the alternating current generator 44.
direct current electric circuit, a normally open
In operation the handle 2i of the welding gun
electro-responsive circuit breaker to break said
is pressed down to open the movable jaw it of
direct current electric circuit, a normally open
the conductor chuck. After the chuck is on
electron‘esponswe circuit breaker to control said
the stud head 26 the handle H is released and
?rst circuit breaker, electro~responsive timing
the stud head ‘.26 is tightly gripped against the
means to hold said second circuit breaker closed
conductor elements in the
gun, which
for a predetermined period for closing said ?rst
in fact form the electrode of the device. Then
circuit breaker for the same period, a source of
the tip of the stud is prssed through the in
alternating current electricity connected to said
sulator lining
into loose contact with the sur
holding means and to said circuit breakers, and
face of the plate 33. This instantaneously closes
a starting circuit momentarily completed through
a starting or initial alternating current circuit
said electrode to said holding means and to said
through the electrode and through the grounds
second circuit breaker for energizing said hold~
as heretofore described. rThis starting circuit
ing means and initially closing said second cir
energizes the solenoid B! of the delayed action
circuit breaker or timing device 57 and also si 60 cuit breaker, and means on said second circuit
breaker for shunting said alternating current to
multaneously energizes the eiectro-magnet iii
said timing means and to said second circuit
of the second circuit breaker. The second cir
breaker independent of said electrode and in
cuit breaker then closes the control circuit
place or" said momentary energizing circuit when
breaker ill and also its shunt circuit breaker 54,
said second circuit breaker is closed.
substantially simultaneously shunting out the
2. An electric welding apparatus comprising,
auxiliary starting circuit and closing
first
an electrode, a welding gun adapted to hold an
control circuit breaker 38 in the manner here~
element to be welded in tight contact with said
tofore described. The welding direct current
electrode, a source of direct current electricity, a
through the conductor l5 and through the weld
conductor line to connect the electrode to a ter
ing gun and the stud 2“! pushes the stud 2‘! away
minal of said source of electricity, a normally
from the plate as far as the loose contact permits
open el ctro~magnetic circuit breaker intercon
and produces what may be termed an arc. The
nected in said conductor line, a separate electric
tip of the stud 21 is melted quickly. After a
predetermined period the delayed action circuit
circuit to close said electro-magnetic circuit
breaker or timing device 51 breaks the circuit
breaker, a second normally open electro-magnetic
7
2,412,080
circuit breaker interconnected in said separate
electric circuit of said ?rst circuit breaker, timing
means to open the circuit to said second circuit
breaker after a predetermined period so as to
8
said auxiliary circuit, one of said elements being
grounded and said direct current circuit and said
auxiliary alternating current circuit being com
pleted through said grounded element.
5. An electric welding apparatus comprising,
complete the energizing circuit of said ?rst cir
cuit breaker, a starting electric circuit connected
a welding gun adapted to hold an element to be
to said timing means and to said second open cir
Welded against another element, a source of
cuit breaker for initially energizing said second
direct current electricity, means to connect the
part of the gun contacting said element to a
said electrode and the elements to be welded to 10 terminal of said source of electricity, a circuit
gether, and means on said second circuit breaker
breaker interconnected between said connecting
actuated by the energizing of said second circuit
means and said source of electricity, said circuit
breaker to shunt said second circuit to said actu
breaker being normally opened, electro-mag
ating means of said second circuit breaker for
netic means for closing said circuit breaker, a
energizing the same and to shunt out said start 15 separate electric circuit to actuate said electro
circuit breaker, said starting circuit including
ing circuit.
3. An electric welding apparatus comprising,
a welding conductor, means on the welding con
magnetic means, a second normally open electro
magnetic circuit breaker to control said separate
electric circuit, an auxiliary electric circuit be
ing closed through said contacting part of said
welding gun and through the elements to be
Welded together to initially energize the electro
magnet of the second circuit breaker and close
ductor to hold an element to be welded in tight
contact with said conductor, a source of welding
direct current electricity, a, normally open electro
magnetic circuit breaker to break the circuit be~
tween said source of electricity and said conduc
said second breaker, means on said second cir
tor and to close said circuit when the electro
cuit breaker actuated by the initial energizing
magnet of said circuit breaker is energized, an 25 of said second circuit breaker to feed said second
alternating current electric circuit for energizing
circuit back to the electro-magnet of said Sec—
the electro-ma'gnet of said circuit breaker for
ond circuit breaker for maintaining the same
closing the same, a second normally open electro
energized and to shunt out said auxiliary circuit,
magnetic circuit breaker connected in said alter
one of said elements being grounded and said
nating current circuit so as to close said alter
direct current circuit and said auxiliary alter
nating current circuit when the electro-magnet
of said second circuit breaker is energized, said
direct current welding circuit being completed
through said conductor, said element and through
the member to which said element is welded, an
nating current circuit being completed through
said grounded element, an electrically actuated
and normally closed delayed action circuit
breaker connected in series with the electro
magnet of the second circuit breaker so as to
auxiliary alternating current circuit completed
through said conductor, said element and said
break the circuit of said last electro-magnet after
member for initially energizing the electro-mag
necting means between the electric actuating
elements of said delayed action circuit breaker
net of said second circuit breaker, a normally
a predetermined period of welding, and con
open shunt circuit closer on said second circuit 40 in series with the feed backcircuit of said sec
breaker being closed by the action of the electro
magnet of said second circuit breaker simulta
neously with the closing of said second circuit
breaker, said shunt circuit closer being connected
between said ?rst alternating current circuit and
the electro-magnet of said second circuit breaker
to shunt the ?rst alternating current circuit to
said second electro-magnet simultaneously with
ond circuit breaker and in parallel with said
auxiliary circuit of said second circuit breaker.
6. A riveting gun of the character described
comprising a hollow casing made of insulating
material, an electric conductor secured in said
casing, a gunhead on said casing, said gunhead
having a movable section thereon, a handle on
said movable section for manipulating the same
to opened and closed positions, and a conductor
the closing of said second circuit breaker by the
action of said auxiliary circuit, and- means to 5.0 chuck in the head of said casing adapted to
break said ?rst alternating current circuit after
grip the head of an element to be welded, at
a predetermined period of welding.
least one section of said chuck being movable
4. An electric welding apparatus comprising,
relatively to the other section of the chuck, said
a welding gun adapted to hold an element to be
movable chuck section being secured to said
welded against another element, a source of direct
current electricity, means to connect the part of
the gun contacting said element to a terminal of
said source of electricity, a circuit breaker inter
connected between said connecting means and
said source of electricity, said circuit breaker
being normally open, electro~magnetic means for
closing said circuit breaker, a separate electric
circuit to actuate said electro-magnetic means,
a second normally open electro-magnetic circuit
breaker to control said separate electric circuit,
an auxiliary electric circuit being closed through
said contacting part of said Welding gun and
through the elements to be welded together to
initially energize the electro-magnet of the sec
movable section of said head so as to be moved
therewith into opened or closed positions.
'7. A riveting gun of the character described
comprising a hollow casing made of insulating
material, an electric conductor secured in said
casing, a gunhead on said casing, said gunhead
having a movable section thereon, a handle on
said movable section for manipulating the 'same
to opened and closed positions, and a conductor
chuck in the head of Said casing adapted to
grip the head of an element to be welded, at
least one section of said chuck being movable
relatively to the other section of the chuck, said
movable chuck section being secured to said
movable section of said head so as to be moved
ond circuit breaker and close said second breaker, 70 therewith into opened or closed positions, and
means on said, second circuit breaker actuated
means to detachably secure said chuck in said
by the initial energizing of said second circuit
casing in conducting relation to said conductor
breaker to feed said second circuit back to the
in the casing.
electro-magnet of said second circuit breaker for
8. A riveting apparatus of the character de
maintaining the same energized and to shunt out 75 scribed comprising a hollow casing madeof in~
2,412,080
10
sulating material, an electric conductor secured
in said casing, a gunhead on said casing, said
gunhead having a movable section thereon, a
handle on said movable section for manipulating
the same to opened and closed positions, and a
conductor chuck in the head of said casing
adapted to grip the head of an element to be
welded, at least one section of said chuck being
nating current circuit independent of said con
ductor keeping said welding circuit normally
open and keeping said welding circuit closed for
a predetermined period during welding, an auxi1~
iary starting circuit completed through said con
ductor and the elements to be welded to start
the action of said alternating current circuit for
initially closing said welding circuit when said
elements to be welded are ?rst contacted, and
movable relatively to the other section of the
chuck, said movable chuck section being secured 10 means actuated by the initial operation of said
alternating current circuit to shunt out said
to said movable section of said head so as to be
starting circuit when said welding circuit is
moved therewith into opened or closed positions,
closed.
a direct current welding circuit, said conductor
ROBERT C. CUNNINGHAM.
being connected to said welding circuit, a sys
tem of circuit breakers operated by an alter 15
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