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Патент USA US2412123

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Dec. 3, 1946.
2,412,123
R. E. H. CARPENTER
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Inventor
Attorney
Dec. 3, 1946.
R. E. H. CARPENTER
2,412,123
ELECTROMAGNETIC- DEVICE
Filed April 23, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIGS.
Inventor
magi VA3, ttorney
4W
Patented Dec. 3, 1946
UNITED
2,412,123
STATES '
PATENT OFFICE
2,412,123
ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICE
Rupert Evan Howard Carpenter,
South Croydon, England
Application April 23, 1943, Serial No. 484,266
In Great Britain April 28, 1942
16 Claims.
1
<o1. 200-93)
This invention relates to electric telegraph
relays and other electromagnetic devices having
vibratory armatures, and in particular is con
cerned with such electromagnetic devices having
2
also the faces of members of the magnetic cir
cuit which lead the variable flux into and out
of the armature, it is possible to set the air gaps
so that they all have the same lengths along the
a magnetic structure which comprises a part pro- 5 magnetic circuit. Those lengths are adjustable
viding a magnetic circuit of low reluctance to
to the precise amount desired and the faces co
carry the ?uctuating or reversing flux, and an
operating with the armature can be made accu
other part which provides two magnetic paths
rately parallel with the armature faces whenthe
in parallel for the steady polarising ?ux, and
armature is in its mean position. Thus, thin
which paths have a reluctance substantially 10 metal distance pieces may be inserted between
greater than that of the low reluctance magnetic
the armature faces and the co-operating faces
circuit in which the armature oscillates and
of the magnets and other members of the mag
which includes the effective air gap. The inven
netic structure. The parts may be set up against
tion is applicable to devices to which varying
these distance pieces, and then after clamping,
currents or potentials are applied to produce a 15 the distance pieces, may be removed, leaving the
corresponding vibratory motion of the armature,
air gaps accurately adjusted as desired.
including, for example, telegraph relays and driv
It is convenient to employ two permanent mag
ing units of sound reproducing instruments, and
nets having like poles presented to the armature
also to devices in which the vibratory armature
and to provide the two members of the magnetic
is driven to produce an electromotive force at 20 structure which serve as pole-pieces for the flue
the output terminals of the device, as is the case
tuating ?ux to face two other faces of the arma
in electromagnetic pick-up devices for gramo
ture. In a form of construction in which the
phones.
armature is a rectangular strip, the two perma
nent magnets on the other two members are
construction over that shown in my U. S. Patent 25 arranged transversely to the length of the arma
The present invention involves an improved
1,826,990.
ture and they form four magnetic limbs parallel
The object of the present invention is to pro—
to one another and at right-angles to the faces
vide a form of magnetic device with a magnetic
of the armature with which they co-operate.
structure as set out above, which is relatively
Such a construction is obviously convenient and
efficient for a given amount of material in the
easily assembled and set in the manner men
magnetic structure and consequently lends itself
tioned above, but it cannot always be adopted
to being housed within a smallcompass.
because in some cases where the conditions are
According to the present invention, the mag
such that the moment of inertia of the armature
netic structure is arranged so that the excitation
of necessity should be as low as possible, it is
?ux passes along separate paths in the structure 35 desirable to employ an armature which in end
except where they pass through the armature.
view has the shape of a lozenge, or of a rhombus
Thus, the magnet or magnets which are provided
of narrow width. In that case, the four magnetic
to set up the excitation ?ux, may then be ar
limbs referred to may be directed away substan
ranged so that they present polar faces to one
tially at right-angles from each of the four faces
or more faces of the vibratory armature directly, 40 of such an armature from which, so to speak,
that is to say, that the magnet or part of it, such
they radiate, and are consequently inclined to
as a pole tip, is only separated from the arma
ture by the inevitable intervening air gap. As a
result, the ?ux passes from the magnet to the
armature, or on leaving the armature, to the 45
magnet directly or substantially directly, passing
between those two members through the inter
one another. In such a case, the armature can
have a cross-section which at all points along
the ?ux path in it is roughly proportional to the
?ux which it has to carry, thus permitting the
reduction of its mass to the amount determined
by the magnetic conductance needed. Moreover,
vening air gap, and the magnet or magnets ex
the inclined disposition of the magnetic limbs
tend away from the corresponding face or faces
co-operating with the armature presents the ad
of the armature.
5O vantage of allowing them to be brought very close
Apart from the relatively high e?iciency from
to one another in the region of the armature
the magnetic point of view, such an arrangement
has de?nite mechanical advantages in that by
mounting the magnets so that their settings rela
tive to the armature can be varied, and indeed 55
without too much magnetic leakage between
them occurring. Thus, the armature may be
kept very short in the direction of the ?ux path,
in. fact Of. a length little more than that deter
' 2,412,123
3
mined by the dimensions of the working or polar
faces. In cases, however, in which it is desired
to keep the magnetic limbs further apart, the
armature may be of a section consisting of a
'
4
Figure 6 is a, diagrammatic illustration of a
modi?cation of the construction in which an
armature having the shape of a rhombus of nar
row width is employed; while
Figure '7 is a similar view showing a further
modi?cation with a somewhat different form of
short central portion with parallel sides and of
tapering end portions. In these cases also the
magnets and the pole members for, the variable
armature.
‘
?ux may be accurately set with respect to the
The telegraph relay illustrated in ‘Figures 1 to
armature by arranging them to slide along their
5 is mounted upon a base plate I made of non
axes inclined to one another, or by forming them 10 magnetic material such as brass. On either side,
with parts which are parallel and which can
upstanding from the base plate, is a pile of lami
slide in parallel grooves in a base plate to and
nations 2, 3, made, for example, of the metal
from the armature along parallel lines.
known under the trade name “Radiometal” and
Thus, any of the forms of device referred to
forming side limbs of the magnetic circuits. The
above may be built up on a non-magnetic base 15 bridge-piece or core 4 which carries the relay
plate which is machined with shallow grooves
winding 5 and which may be made, for example,
in which the two permanent magnets and the
of the metal known under the registered trade
two pole-pieces or limbs which are common to
mark “Mumetal,” extends between the side limbs
the magnetic circuit which carries the ?uctuating
2, 3 which are cut away to receive the ends of the
flux, and the circuit which carries the steady 20 core 4, as seen in Figures 1 and 4. The two
polarising flux, ?t slidably for assembling pur_
cross-limbs 6, ‘I which form parts of the magnetic
Then, when the parts are set truly in
circuits which carries poiarising ?ux and ?uc
DOSES.
position by the use of shim strips or distance
tuating ?ux, also made of the material known as ‘
pieces, as already mentioned, they may be
“Radiometal,” consist of piles of laminations, the
clamped in position on the base plate, for exam 25 individual laminations of which form a lap joint
ple, by means of a suitably-shaped saddle or
with those of the side limbs 2, 3. ,A strip of
bridgepiece which can be pressed on to the parts
Radiometal 8 is rivetted to the under surfaces of
and held tightly in position.
each of the cross-limbs 6, ‘I and ?ts in a corre
spondingly shallow groove 9 in the base plate i.
It is convenient to arrange the pivots for the
armature near to the centre line of the permanent 30 This enables each cross-limb 6 or ‘i, together with
magnets. The pivots may be arranged by pro
the corresponding side limb 2 or 3, to slide in
assembly to and from the corresponding surfaces
viding the armature with lateral extensions to
which a ?exible blade spring may be ?xed on
of the armature Ill. The permanent magnets
either side, the springs being anchored to a plat
ii, l2 are preferably made of a modern magnet
form on the non-magnetic base plate on the back 35 alloy having high retentivity and coercive force,
and to the non-magnetic saddle or bridgepiece at
such as the magnet alloy sold under the trade
the front. If comparatively weak springs are em
ployed, the armature can be made side-stable but
name “Alnico.” The magnets are disposed with
their like poles towards the armature EU, as in
dicated by the letters NS in Figure 5, and may be
by employing sufficiently sti? springs, it may be
made centre-stable, that is to say, the springs 40 magnetised in manufacture through the faces
are able to return the armature to the central
through which the flux is required to pass. The
position when, in the case of a telegraph relay or
magnets butt against the upper surfaces of the
the like, no signal or line currents are being re
side limbs 2, 3, and the cross-limb stampings 6,
ceived. The pivoting of the armature near to the
1, as seen in Figures 1 and 4, and they also make
centre line of the permanent magnets increases
a sliding fit in shallow grooves iii in the base
the sensitiveness‘ of the instrument on the one
plate I so that they too during assembly can
hand, and on the other, the amount of movement
slide towards or away from the armature III. In
of the armature in the neighbourhood of the mag
this way two parallel magnetic paths, shown by
nets when moving over from one side to the other
the dotted lines M in Figure 5 for the steady
is comparatively small and does not cause much 50 polarising ?ux of relatively high reluctance, pass
re-distribution of the ?eld between it and the
from the magnets ll, I2 down into the cross
magnets, and consequently reduces hysteresis
limbs 6, ‘l, thence pass through the armature ill
in parallel upwards, and back into the magnets
helped by placing the magnets in direct relation
H, I2. The magnetic circuit of low reluctance
ship to the armature since, owing to the very 55 for the reversals ?ux is shown by the chain line
high coercivity of the magnets themselves, very
IS in Figure 5, and passes from the core 4 through
little re-distribution of flux can take place in
one of the side limbs 2, through one of the cross
them which would not be the case were ?ux paths
limbs 6, across the armature I0 into the other
in iron to be provided as have been heretofore in
cross-limb ‘I, and back through the side limb 3
such a type of magnetic structure.
60 into the core 4.
In order that the invention may be clearly un
The armature ill is generally of rectangular‘
derstood and readily carried into effect, an ex
shape, its opposite faces being parallel to the
ample of a fully worked-out telegraph relay in
faces of the opposite cross-limbs 6, ‘I, and the
permanent magnets H, l2. The armature is
accordance therewith, and some modi?cations of
the arrangement will now be more fully described
pivoted in the region of the mid-line of the mag
with reference to the accompanying drawings,
nets li, i2, and is extended upwards and at the
in which—
upper and bears the moving contacts IS. The
Figure 1 is a front elevation of the relay;
side contacts or butts I‘! are adjustable and are
effects to a minimum.
Such reduction is also
Figure 2 is a central vertical section on the line
II-II of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a rear elevation of the relay; and
Figure 4 is a side elevation seen from the left
of Figure 3;
Figure 5 is a diagram to show clearly the mag
netic circuits employed in Figures 1 to 4;
shown of the construction carried on damped
compliant mountings, as set forth in patent
speci?cation No. 2,219,222.
A bridgepiece of brass I8 is provided for a
double purpose, both for clamping the magnets
H and I 2 and the cross-limbs 6 and ‘I, and also
75 to support the pivot at one end of the armature
9,419,193
10. The bridgeplece it engages over the upper
surfaces of the magnets ll, i2 at the points fl,
and also engages below the under surfaces of the
lateral limbs 8, ‘i at the points 20, so that it acts
as a saddlepiece for the magnets and the lateral
limbs. The bridgepiece I8 is secured to the base
plate I from the back by means of screws 2|.
Also screws 22a and 22b are threaded in the
bridgepiece i8 and their points respectively bear
on the front faces of the permanent magnets ii.
l2. and of the cross-limbs 8, 1. Hence, when these
screws 22a, 22b are somewhat loosened, the mag
nets ll, l2, and the cross-limbs 8 and ‘I can slide
or be pushed within the shallow grooves l3, 8
to cause them to approach to or recede from the
armature l 0 and can then be clamped by tighten
ing up the screws.
The pivot of the armature Iii consists of a
square extension 23 towards the back and a
8
.
With all'the parts thus finally tightened up, the
shims can be withdrawn.
'
In the form of construction shown diagram
matically in Figure 6, the armature ll, instead
of being rectangular, has now the shape of a
narrow rhombus, as seen in end view. Its
moment of inertia can, therefore, be made small
relatively to its magnetic conductivity and it can
be pivoted about the centre of gravity of the
system comprising'the armature II and ‘the con
tact tongue 33, for example, by means of a square
spindle I4 furnished with suitable bearings or
suspensions. The tongue 3| carrying the movable
contacts I6 is also fixed to the spindle it.
The magnetic circuit of the device is similar
to that shown in Figures 1 to 5 except that the
two permanent magnets II. I! are ‘not parallel
to one another but are set substantially at right
angles to theupper faces of the armature i0,
similar extension 24 towardslthe front. At the 20 and the two cross-limbs 6, ‘I are similarly set with
back, the extension 23 passes into a recess 25
their centre lines at right-angles to the two lower
in ‘the base plate I, and a ?exible blade spring
faces of the armature ll. For assembling pur
26 is ?xed to its upper surface by a- screw 21.
poses, the magnets ll, l2 and the cross-limbs i,
The blade spring 28, is anchored to a platform
‘I may be caused to fit in inclined'shallo'w grooves
on the base plate I on either side of the recess 25 in a base plate similar to the'plate I in Figures
25 by screws 23. Similarly, at the front of the
1 to 4, but as illustrated diagrammatically, the
bridgeptece i3 is recessed to receive thearma
cross-limbs 6, ‘I are made in one with the side
ture extension 24 which, as at the other end, is
limbs 2, 3 and each of these composite units has
secured by a screw 21a to a thin blade spring 28a
a brass strip 38, 31 ?xed to its rear face and ar
which is anchored on either side to the bridge 30 ranged to slide in shallow grooves in the base
piece by screws 28a. Thus, when the armature
plate, while in a similar way each of the
is rocked, the two blade springs 28, 26a can yield
permanent magnets II, II has secured to its
sumclently to accommodate the relatively small
rear face a brass strip 38, 39 so that both the
movement necessary, and upon any movement
cross-limbs 8, ‘I and the magnets ll, l2 can be
of the armature sideways, both blade springs are
caused to slide all in the same direction before‘
placed under tension. As already mentioned, the
being ?nally secured in position in the manner
springs 28, 26a may allow the contacts it to be
already described with reference to Figures 1 to
drawn over on either side, in which case the relay
5. In this case, however, for accurate setting up,
is side-stable or may be stiff enough tomaintain
it is desirable to provide either four separate
the contacts in the central position when there 40 thin shims, or two shims each consisting of two
is no current on the relay.
parts inclined to one another.
For biassing the relay, a bar magnet 29 is
It is clear that a movement such as illustrated
pivoted to the back of the base plate I at the
in Figure 6 could be used for a high frequency
point 30 and can be turned to one side or the
relay or with a slight modification as the ener
other in a recess 3| in the base plate i to set 4.-1 gising movement of a loud speaking telephone, in
the bias of the relay to neutral.
1
which case the vibrating armature I. may be
In assembling the relay, the side limbs 2, 3
connected to the telephone diaphragm by any
with the cross-limbs O, ‘l are placed in position
suitable connection between the square spindle.
on the base plate i with the strips 8 in‘their
34 and the diaphragm.
grooves 9 in the base plate, the two permanent
In Figure '7, a form of construction is shown on
magnets II and i2 are placed in their grooves l3,
much the same lines as that shown-in Figure 6
and the bridgeplece i8 is ?xed in position by the
except that in this case the armature J I, as seen
screws 2| and with the screws 22a and 22b _in
in side view, has the shape of ‘a thin wedge with
serted but not screwed up tightly. The armature
its base curved as an arc struck from the centre
I0 is placed in position and a shim strip, say i of the spindle 34. The arrangement of the con
0.006 of an inch'in thickness, is inserted between
tact tongue 35 and of the cross-limbs 3, ‘I and the
the armature on one side and the face of the
side limbs 2, 3 may be .the same as in Figure 8.
magnet ii and of the limb I and on the other
although the means for guiding them during
side, between the armature and the magnet i2
assembly in grooves in a base plate are not shown.
and the cross-limb ‘I. Then, before the screws (1i) The magnets il, i2, however, are in this case at
22a, 22b are tightened up, the magnets ll, i2
right-angles to the side plates 2, 3 and can there
and cross-limbs 8, ‘I are pressed in against the
fore slide directly in shallow grooves in a brass
shims which ensures ?rst of all that the arma
base plate. Their inner like poles are shown
ture Ill is set square to the magnets and lateral
abutting and are machined to the shape of the
limbs, and also that the two magnets and the
curved surface of the armature I‘, but clearly
two pole-pieces are equally distantly spaced from
in order to allow latitude in .the width of the air
the opposite faces of the armature l0. At that
gap between them and the armature, as deter
stage, the two screws 22a, 22b can be tightened
mined by the insertion of an arc-shaped shim,
to clamp the magnets i I, I2 and the limbs 8, ‘I
the magnets ll, l2 would barely come into con
in position, and also two screws 32 threaded in
tact when ?nally set up. Generally speaking,
right-angle brackets 33 rivetted to the base plate
the form shown in Figure 7 operates in the same
i are screwed in so as to bear against the core
way as that shown in Figure 6, and the magnetic
4 and hold it in position. Finally, the screws 21
circuits of both of. them are similar to those
and 210 which had been loosened to prevent
shown in Figure 5.
‘
distortion during the assembly, are tightened up.
If a strictly triangular armature is employed,
2,419,128
.
>
'
'
8
7
there must be su?lcient clearance between the
permanent magnets H, I! andthe base of the
_ ing a portion thereof positioned in said air-gap,
armature to allow the latter to vibrate to the
luctance bridging said air-gap and ‘also having
required extent.
In any of the forms of construction described,
an air-gap in which another portion or said vi
the reluctance of the magnetic circuits, including
the ?eld magnets ll, l2, may be increased by
leaving gaps between the side limbs 2, 3 and the
magnets II, I! orotherwise in order to reduce
magnetic shunting of the lateral limbs 6, 1 with 10
path embodying means for establishing a polariz
ing ?ux in the portion of said armature lying be
respect to the ?uctuating ?ux.
magnetic structure forming a path of high, re
bratory armature is positioned, said bridging
tween said air-gaps, said polarizing ?ux having
one polarity in one air-gap and_the opposite
polarity in the other air-gap, and an actuating
coil for establishing a ?ux in said magnetic cir
"
In all three arrangements illustrated in Figures
cuit oi’ low reluctance.
5 to ‘7 inclusive the pivotal axis of the armature
5. An electromagnetic device according to claim
is located substantially at the point of juncture of
4 wherein the air-gap of said bridging path ‘is '
the two polarizing ?ux paths from magnets I I 15 formed between like poles of a pair of permanent
and I2. Due to the location 01' the pivotal axis
magnets included in said path on opposite sides
and to the shape of the armature, vibration of
of said armature.
the armature in all three arrangements does not
6. An electromagnetic device according to
materially change the reluctance of the two gaps
claim 4 wherein said vibratory armature is piv
between the armature and magnets I I and l 2.
20 oted for oscillation about an axis positioned with- .
in the air-gap of said bridging path.
-l. An electromagnetic device of the class set
7. An electromagnetic device according to
forth, comprising a magnetic structure including
claim 4 wherein said armature is pivotally mount
a magnetic circuit 01 low reluctance, a pair or
ed for oscillation about an axis located substan
‘pole-pieces in said magnetic circuit abutting on 25 tially at the point of juncture of the two polariz
the effective air-gaps oi’ the device, polarizing
ing ?ux paths from opposite poles of the air-gap
means for establishing the polarizing ?ux for the
in said bridging path.
device, a coil linked with said magnetic circuit
8. An electromagnetic device according to
of low reluctance, and a vibratory armature piv
claim 4 wherein said armature is provided with
Iclaim:
-
>
oted at or near its centre of gravity to move to 30 an arm extending beyond said bridging path, and “
and from each of said pole-pieces and shaped
includingmeans pivotally mounting said arma
with a varying section perpendicular to its neu
ture substantially at the center of gravity oi.’ the
tral axis, said section being greater where the
vibratory mass.
,
?ux in said armature is greater.
9. An electromagnetic device according to
2. An electromagnetic device of_ the class set 35 claim 4 wherein said armature comprises a mag
iorth, comprising a non-magnetic supporting
netic piece of rhombic shape and the pole faces
plate, a magnetic structure mounted‘on one side
of said air-gaps are arranged at angles to each
other and parallel with the adjacent faces of said
thereof and including a pair of pole-pieces each
with a race adjacent one of the effective air-gaps‘
rhombic piece.
'
of the device,.a magnetic bridge piece connecting 40
10. An electromagnetic device comprising,'
said pole-pieces to form a magnetic circuit of low
in combination, a non-magnetic supporting plate,
reluctance, a pair of magnet members co-operat
a pair of magnetic pole pieces, means for locating
ing with said pair of pole-pieces to form two mag
and guiding said pole pieces on said supporting
netic circuits for a polarizing ?ux with two paths
plate for adjustment towards and from each other
in parallel, the elements of said magnetic circuits 45 to form an air-gap of variable width between said
being mounted so that the planes of all three
pieces, means for clamping said pole pieces to said
magnetic circuits are arranged substantially par
plate in adjusted position, a magnetic bridge
allel with the face of ‘said supporting plate, a V1
piece connecting said pole pieces to term a mag
bratory armaturepresenting faces each adjacent
netic circuit of low reluctance, and an actuating
one of said effective air-gaps and mounted on 50 coil linked with said bridge piece.
'
the same side of said plate to co-operate with
11. An electromagnetic device comprising, in
said magnet members, said two magnetic circuits
combination, a non-magnetic supporting plate, a
presenting a path in parallel with said eii'ective
magnetic structure mounted on one side of said
air-gaps having a reluctance large compared with
plate and forming a magnetic circuit including
that of said air-gaps, and one or more of the ele
ments comprising said pole-pieces, said magnet
members and said armature being mounted on
said plate so as to be slidable for adjustment dur
ing assembly.
an air gap formed between a pair of pole pieces
in said circuit, a magnetic vibratory armature
mounted on said plate and having a portion there
- of positioned in said air-gap, means for mounting
at least one of said pole pieces for adjustment to
3. An electromagnetic device of the class set 60 and from said armature to vary the air-gap be
forth, comprising a vibratory armature and a
tween said armature and said pole piece, and
magnetic‘ struct e including a pair of ' pole
‘means for clamping said adjustable pole piece to
pieces each pres ing a face to said armature,
said plate in adjusted position.
a pair of magnet ' embers co-operating with said
-
12. An electromagnetic device according to
pair of pole-pieces to form two magnetic circuits 65 claim 4 and including a non-magnetic plate sup
for a polarizing ?ux with twobpaths in parallel,
porting said magnetic structure, and wherein the
and each magnet presenting a pole face directly
air-gaps in the low reluctance magnetic circuit
to said armature, said armature being mounted
and in the bridging path are both formed between
so as to be slidable and rotatable relatively to
pole pieces movable towards and away from said
said pole-pieces and said magnet members for 70 magnetic armature during assembly, and means
adjustment dm'ing assembly.
for securing said pole pieces .to said plate in ad
- 4. An electromagnetic device comprising, in
7 ‘ iusted position.
combination, a magnetic structure forming a
13. An electromagnetic device comprising, in
magnetic circuit of low reluctance and having
combination, a non-magnetic supporting plate, a
an air gap, a vibratory magnetic armature hav 75 magnetic armature having a rhombicshape piv
2,412,123
10
, otally supported on said plate, a pair of perma
nent magnets supported on said plate so that one
end face of each magnet is presented to one face
of said rhombic shaped armature, a pair of mag
netic pole pieces supported on said plate so that
one end face of each pole piece is presented to
one of the remaining faces of said armature,
means including shallow grooves formed in the
surface of said plate for mounting said magnets
and said pole pieces for adjustment to and from 10
located within said gap, 9. pair of blade springs
supported on said base, and means for clamping
said arms to said springs whereby said springs
serve to position said armature centrally of said
88D.
,
16. A polarized electro-magnetic relay com
prising an energizing coil having a magnetic core,
an elongated vibratory magnetic armature
mounted adjacent said coil and having its longi
tudinal axis directed substantially through the
axis of said‘core, a magnetic circuit of low re
luctance Iormed between the ends of said core
and including a pair of spaced pole pieces mount
ed on opposite sides of theend of the armature
eluding integral arms extending on either side of 15 nearest said coil, a magnetic path of relatively
said armature.
,
1
>14. An electromagnetic device according to
claim 3 wherein said vibratoryarmature is piv-\
otally supported upon’ a base by a structure inf
said armature in the direction of its pivotal axis,
a pair of blade springs supported on said base and
extending into engagement with said arms, and
means for adjustably securing said arms-to said
springs.
"
-
15. An electromagnetic device comprising, in
combination, a supporting base, a magnetic struc
ture mounted on said base and comprising a, mag
netic circuit having an air-gap therein, a mag
high reluctance completed between the ends of
said core and including a‘pair of magnets having
like poles thereof arranged on opposite sides of
I said armature adjacent the pivotal axis thereof,
20 a contact arm carried by said armature and ex
tending to the opposite side of its pivotal axis
from said coil, and stationary contacts cooperat
ing with said contact arm, said elements being
arranged so that the centers of said contacts, the
netic armature positioned in said air-gap, and 25 center lines of said pole pieces, the center lines
means for pivotally supporting said armature
of said magnets, and the axis of said core are all
upon said base on an axis passing "through said
positioned substantially in the same plane.
gap comprising integral arms extending inoppo
site directions from a portion of said armature
JRUPERT EVAN HOWARD CARPENTER.
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