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Патент USA US2412126

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Patented D...3,1946 ,
' '
*_
' 2,412,126
- UNITED ‘STATES PATENT ornca ,
TREATMENT or oAsnns-mnnns ‘
John E. Conrad, Alton, 111., asslgnor to Collins 8;
'
Aikman Corporation, Philadelphia, ,Pa., ‘a cor
poi-ation of Delaware
JNo Drawing. Original application?october 18,
1941, Serial No. 415,631. Divided and this ap
plication March 19, 1946, Serial No. 655,592
. a 10 Claims. .(c1. 284-74) '
.1
I '
-When untreated synthetic casein ?bers are in
‘cluded in the pile yarn blend together with wool
and/or mohair, and the fabric union-dyed in a
I This invention relates to a process of prepar
ing synthetic ?bers derived from casein or from
other protein substances, for dyeing in certain'
dyebaths so that these synthetic ?bers, may be
blended or otherwise used together with-wool
and/or mohair ?bers in the manufacture of tex
tile fabrics which are to be dyed in the piece to
a substantially uniform shade without objection
‘ pad dyeing operation, the synthetic casein ?bers
will ordinarily dye much darker or deeper than
the wool and mohair ?bers. As indicated here
' inbefore, if such a fabric be union kettle dyed, the
, di?erence‘will not be as great due to theoften
repeated immersions, but there will nevertheless
ably noticeable striations appearing". My im
provements are of particular utility in the union 10 be ‘a substantial contrast in shade.
A di?‘erence in color or shade will also occur if .
dyeing of fabrics, both pile and ?at, containing
untreated synthetic casein ?bers be blended withv
cotton or other cellulose ?bers as well as wool
wool and/or mohair ?bers in fabrics, such as
and/or mohair. By my improvements a novel
?ber and fabric are produced. This application . worsted?at fabrics, having no cottonand the
fabrics dyed‘ by pad dyeing methods with acid
is a division of my prior application, Serial vNo. .
dyestuffs in a substantially neutralv bath.
415,631, filed October 18, 1941.
According to my improvements I may produce ' Z
Throughout this speci?cation the term "casein
a treated casein ?ber which will dye to a shade
?bers” will for brevitybe used, but the term will
approximating that of wool or mohair when the
be understood to include other synthetic protein
fibers such as those derived from the soy bean or 20 two types of ?bers are dyed together in- a sub
stantially neutral aqueous union bath contain
from zein (corn), as well as those derived from
ing neutral dyeing acid dyestuffs and substantive
dyestuffs using either short time immersion methods, as in pad dyeing, or long time repeated im
same dyes as have wool and mohair, but the 25 mersion methods, as in kettle dyeing. My treated
casein ?ber will also dye similarly to wool or mo
initial a?inity of the‘ synthetic casein ?bers for
hair when the two typeslare dyed together by
dyestuffs‘ is much stronger than that of the wool
either pad or kettle. methods in a substantially
and mohair ?bers.- Consequently, ‘if untreated
neutral aqueous bath containing only neutral
casein ?bers be blended with wool and/ or mohair
?bers in yarns which are then dyed by short time 30 dyeing acid dyestuffs or when the two types are
pad dyed together with vat dyestuffs. My treated
immersion methods, asin pad dyeing, the casein
casein ?ber does not, however, dye like wool or
?bers will dye so much darker than the wool and
‘mohair when the two are dyed‘togeth‘er by either
mohair as to constitute a difference in colbr. .
casein.
'
.
'
.
Synthetic casein ?bers are of protein material
and accordingly have a?inity for many of the.
pad or kettle methods in acid dye baths.
Where the time of immersion is long, as in kettle
dyeing, the stronger initial a?‘inity of the syn
35
\ The treatment given the casein ?ber to accom~
thetic casein ?bers will be partially overtaken
plish the foregoing effects does-not weaken the
but there will nevertheless be a substantial differ
ence in shade between the synthetic casein and
?ber nor does it make the ?ber stiff or hard or
harsh or gummy. Inrother words, the treated
?ber retains substantially its initial strength, ?ex
'
‘
In the manufacture in quantity of textile pile 40 ibility, elasticity and feel.
My method comprises a two bath treatment
fabrics having a cotton backing or base portion
whereby a water insoluble metallic tannate is
and wool, or mohair, or blends thereof, with or
incorporated with the casein ?ber. The tannate is .
without other ?bers, including casein ?bers, in
preferably light colored so as to affect as little as
the pile, it is very desirable for reasons of speed
and economy of production to dye the fabric in .45 possible the color or shade to which the ?ber is‘ .
dyed. This is important in connection with pro
the piece in a union dye bath in a continuous
ducing shades currently used for most automo
operation using pad dyeing methods. A union
bile upholstery pilevfabrics.
’
'‘
dye bath which I contemplate is- an aqueous bath
‘According to a preferred embodiment of my
containing (a) neutral dyeing acid dyestuffs for
the wool,‘ casein, and mohair ?bers, and (b) sub 50 improvements, the casein ?bers are ?rst sub
jected to an aqueous solution of,'tannic acid.
stantive dyestuffs intended primarily for the cot
The excess solution may then be removed and the
ton ?bers. The wool, casein and mohair ?bers
the natural wool and/or mohair ?bers.
also have a?inity'for the substantive dyestuffs so
that the shade‘ or color to which they dye is the
?bers next immersed in an aqueous solution,
preferably of stannous chloride, whereby tin tan- 1
combined effect ‘of both components of the union
hate is incorporated with the fibers. The ?bers
may then be rinsed and dried. The second bath
dye bath.
f mam
, weight of the stock.
may if desired be an aqueous solution of any
water soluble aluminum salt such as aluminum
lrtemperature substantially I
higher than 120° 1''. would damage the available
casein ?bers, and a substantialh lower temper
sulphate or aluminum acetate, whereby alumi
num tannate will be incorporated with the ?bers.
ature would give markedly inferior resist elects
Or the second bath may be an aqueous solution 5 for the contemplated dyebaths. Acetic acid in
an amount approximating one per cent. of the
of tartar emetic, whereby antimony tannate will
weight of- the stock may be contained in-the sec
ond bath. As a result of the reaction between
of acetic acid may preferably be used in each
bath, the presence of acetic acid being more im
the tannic acid and the stannous chloride, tin
.
portant in‘the second bath than in the ?rst. ' The 10 tannate is'incorporated with the ?bers.
The metallic salt of Ithe'second bath may, if de
time of immersion, the temperature of the baths
sired, be aluminum sulphate or aluminum ace
and the‘ concentration of the solutions will be
be incorporated with the ?bers.
A small amount ~
tate, in which case aluminum tannate is incor
. I
porated‘ with the ?bers. Or the second bath may
It is an object of this invention to prepare syn
thetic ?bers derived from casein or other protein 15 be an aqueous solution of tartar emetic, in which
more fully described hereinafter.
substances for dyeingso that the said. synthetic
?bers may be blended or otherwise used together
with wool and/or mohair and cotton ?bers and
dyed in a union bath without objectionably no
ticeable striations appearing.
- case antimony tannate is incorporated with the
. ?bers. Tin tannate, aluminum tannate and an
timony tannate are all light in color and accord‘
ingly will not substantially darken the natural
20 color of the casein ?ber so as to interfere with or
'
More speci?cally, it is an object‘ of this inven
’tion to prepare arti?cial ?bers derived from
limit the color or shade which it is desired to
. apply in the subsequent dyeing operation.
casein for dyeing in a union bath containing neu
In each‘ bath the volume of aqueous solvent
tral dyeing acid dyestuffs and substantive. dye
should be su?lcien't to work the ?ber stock there- .
stu?s, or for dyeing with neutral acid dyestuffs, 25 in. The weight of the aqueous solution may con
. or with vat dyestuffs using short time immersion
methods as in pad dyeing.
.
I
veniently be about ?fteen times the weight‘ of
the?berstock.
I Another object is to produce asynthetic casein
?ber having a water insoluble metallic tannate
-
,.
preferred treatment deseri
dyestuffs, or to both as in union dyeing, or to vat _
dyestuffs in a‘ short time immersion operation will
‘dye to a shade approximating the shade of wool
~
ia'ibovethetemper
incorporated therewith, which when subjected to 3o ature of the tannic acid ha
neutral dyeing acid dyestuffs, or to substantive
'
Attention is. directed to the‘iac't that in the
is approximately
160° F.‘ This temperature is just above the point
where. the casein ?bers swell markedly and at
this temperature the ?bers will absorb the tannic .
acid solution more readily than at substantially
?bers subjected to the' same dye bath for the 35 lower temperatures. Temperatures below 160° 1'‘.
same length of time under the same conditions.
may be‘employed' if desired. but the timev of im
Another object is to provide a method of incor- ' ‘ ‘ mersion should be increased accordingly. '
'
porating a waterinsoluble tannate ‘H with the I
' Higher temperatures than 160° F. may also be i
casein ?ber. '
employed, but temperatures substantially in ex
~
- Another object is 'to produce a uniformly dyed c40 cess of 180° F. should not beused, as the strength
textile fabric including casein, cotton and other
of the casein ?bers win'be impaired. I have ob
cellulose ?bers, and wool ?bers, said casein ?bers‘
' having a water insoluble metallic tannate incor
. , tainedsatisfactory resist effects using as a ?rst -
bath a one-half of one percent aqueous solution
porated therewith.
of tannic acid at a temperature of 180° F., the
Another object is to incorporatetin tannate, 45 time of immersion being. two minutes. As indi
or aluminum tannate, or antimony tannate, with
the casein ?ber, whereby the ?ber will have an
ai’?nityz approximating that of wool ?bers for
neutral dyeing acid dyestuffs, or substantive dye
stuifs, or both as in union dyeing.
_ ,
cated, this is a maximum temperature and a twov
. minute immersion period is minimum, as shorter
periods of immersion do ‘not give su?lciently
strong resist e?’ec'ts.
‘
.
50 I The time of immersion in the‘ second bath
Another object is to treat casein ?bers so that
should, as indicated above, .be _?ve minutes or
they may be blended together with wool and/or
more and the amount of stannous chloride in so
mohair ?bers in the pile of pile fabrics having a
lution should neither greatly exceed nor be greatly
cotton backing, and dyed together therewith in
less than three per cent. of the weight oi’ the
a union bath using short time immersion methods 55 ?bers being. treated, as in either case the shade
as in continuous pad dyeing, all of the blended
of the dyewould be adversely affected, and if more
?bers in the pile bIeing dyed to nearly the same
is used the ?bers ‘may be weakened. My im
shade.
.
'
'
,
.
These and other objects of invention will\be
provements are particularly applicable for pad
type union dyeing where the time of immersion
I manifest from a consideration of the speci?cation 60 is very short, that is, amatter of seconds. This
and of the claims. .
.
.
According to a preferred embodiment of my in
vention, the syntheticcasein ?bers are immersed
typeof dyeing is widely used in the production of
pile fabrics, as is. set forth in United States Pat
em to Drobile et a1. No.'2,071,922. A satisfactory
in one quarter of one .per cent. aqueous solution
dyebath immersion time'in processing according ,
'7 of tannic acid at‘160“ F'. It is desirable but not 65 to the} prior patent is ten seconds. I have found
essential that the solution contain a small quan
that after a ten second immersion my treated
- tity ofacetic acid.
After about five or more min- '
utes of being worked inthe solution as by gentle
agitation, the stocirmay be rinsed or nipped-or
casein ?bers will approximate the shade of wool
I and/or, mohair blended therewith. ,It is to be
understood that wool and mohair do not dye
the solution may be merely permitted to drain oil. 70 identically,‘ but that they dye su?lciently close in
The casein ?ber stock is then‘ immersed for
shade to permit blending wtihout objectionably
noticeableystrlations in the ?nished piece. -My
is preferably an aqueous solution, at approxi: - treated casein ?bers ‘may be brought within a
mately ‘120° F., containing stannous chloride in
shade range which permits blending with wool or
.a an amount approximating three per cent. of the 75 mohair to give a like uniform appearance to the
- ?ve or more minutes in the secondbath, which
2,412,120
5
.
taining natural staple animal ?bers and synthetic
cloth after a ten second immersion as set forth.
?bers derived from casein in the pile portion, the
steps which consistof treating the synthetic ?bers
derived from casein so as to incorporate a light"
This result is accomplished by the treatment illus
hated by this preferred embodiment.
.
A typical treatment of a commercial quantity
of casein ?bers according to my method is as fol
lows:
,
' colored metallic tannate‘in the ?bers, blending
the casein ?bers with the natural animal ?bers,
and fabricating said blended ?bers into the pile
'
500 lbs. of synthetic casein ?bers is placed in
portion of a pile fabric having ‘a cellulose back
ing, and then‘dyeing the animal and synthetic
fibers to approximately the same shade with a
a suitable container or kettle. The aqueous so-~
lution of tannlc acid at ‘about 135° F. is drawn
from a reservoir, placed in the kettle and then
brought to a temperature of 160° F. and held there
neutral dye bath containing neutral dyeing acid
colors and substantive dyes.
for approximately ten minutes, during which the
?ber stock may be gently agitated. The tannic
acid solution is then drained out and pumped
'
.
_
5. A process of making pile fabrics of approxi
mately uniform shade ‘which includes the steps
back into the reservoir. A light rinse may then 15 of treating synthetic ?bers derived from casein
so as to form a light colored metallic tannate in
be given the casein. ?bers, after which any excess
the ?ber, blending the casein ?bers with natural
water or solution may be removed. The ?bers
animal staple ?bers and forming a yarn, fab
are now ready for the second bath. Water and
ricating said yarn into the pile portion of a pile
half of the required acetic acid is poured into the
kettle, then the solution of stannous chloride and 20 fabric and piece dyeingthe pile face to an ap
proximately uniform shade with a substantially
the remainder of the acetic acid is added and the
neutral-dye bath containing neutral dyeing acid
entire solution brought to 120° F. and held there.
The ?bers are kept in this solution for approxi
6. A process. of making pile fabrics of approxi
mately ?ve minutes, after which the kettle is
'
colors.
'
v
uniform shade in the face portion, which ,
drained, the ?bers rinsed and then dried. In 25. mately
process includes the steps of treating synthetic
this condition the ?bers are ready for blending
with wool or other ?bers or for use alone in'the
formation of yarns.
'‘
-'
-
?bers derived from casein so as to form a light
colored metallic tannate in the ?bers, blending
the casein ?bers with natural animal staple ?bers
As indicated hereinbefore, casein ?bers treated
forming‘ a yarn, fabricating said yarn into
according to my methods will dye approximately 30 and
the pile portion of a pile fabric having a cotton
like wool when the two types of ?bers are dyed
backing and union piece dyeing the pile fabric to
together, by either pad or kettle-methods, in a
an approximately uniform shade with a neutral
substantially neutral aqueous medium containing
dye
bath containing neutral dyeing acid colors
neutral dyeing acid dyestuffs or substantive dye
stu?s, or both as in union dyeing, 0r pad dyed 35
with vat dyestuffs. Casein ?bers treated accord
ing to my method will not, however, dye like wool
and substantive dyes.
‘
j -
7. A process of making pile fabric having a pile
portion of ‘ approximately uniform shade which
includes the stepsof treating synthetic ?bers de
rived from casein so as to form a light‘ colored
bath containing acid dyeing acidv dyestuffs.
metallic tannate in the ?bers, blending the casein
40
Having described my invention, I claim:
?bers with natural animal staple ?bers and form
1. In a vprocess'of making pile fabrics [which
ing a yarn, fabricating said yarn into ‘the pile
contain natural staple animal ?bers and synthetic
portion of a pile fabric, and pad dyeing the pile
?bers derived from casein in the pile portion, the
?bers to an approximately uniform shade with a
steps which include treating the synthetic ?bers
substantially neutral dye bath containing neutral
derived from casein so as to incorporate a light
dyeing acid colors.
‘7
colored metallic tannate in the ?bers, blending
8. A process of making pile fabric having a
the casein ?bers with the natural animal ?bers,
,pile portion-of approximately uniform shade,
' and fabricating said blended ?bers into the pile
which includes the steps of treating synthetic
portion of a pile fabric and then pad dyeing the
animal and synthetic ?bers of the pile to ap-‘ 50 ?bers derived from casein so as to form a light
colored metallic tannate‘ in the ?bers, blending
proximately the same shade. ‘
'
.
the casein ?bers with natural animal ?bers and
‘ 2. Ina process of making pile fabrics which
forn'iing a yarn,_fabricating said yarn into the
contain natural animal ?bers and synthetic ?bers
pile portion of a pile fabric having a cotton back
derived from casein in the pile portion, the steps
ing and union pad dyeing the pile fabric to an
which include treating the synthetic ?bers de 55 approximately
uniform shade with a substantially
rived from casein so as to incorporate a light
neutral dye bath containing neutral dyeing acid
colored metallic tannate in the ?bers, blending
colors and substantive dyes.
the treated casein ?bers with the natural animal
9. A processof making pile fabrics of approxi
?bers and fabricating said blended ?bers into the
pile portion of a pile fabric having a cotton back 6 mately uniform‘ shade which includes the steps
of treating synthetic ?bers derived from‘ casein
ing, and then pad dyeing the pile fabric to ap
‘
so
as to form a tin tannate on the ?bers, blending
proximately a uniform shade inv the pile portion.
the casein ?bers with natural animal ?bers and
3. In a process of making pile fabrics the pile
forminga yarn, forming a fabric having a cotton
portion of which contains natural staple ani
mal ?bers and synthetic ?bers derived from 65 base portion and a pile portion of the blended
yarn and dyeing the entire fabric to approximate
casein, the steps which consist of treating
ly the same shade with a substantially neutral
the synthetic ?bers so as to ‘incorporate a
dye bath containing neutral dyeing acid colors
light colored metallic tannate in the ?bers. blend
and
substantive dyestuffs.
_
v
ing the casein ?bers with the natural animal
10. A process asset forth in claim 9, further
?bers and fabricating the blended ?bers into the
characterized invthat the tin tannate is formed
pile’ portion of apile fabric, and then dyeing
by treating the casein ?bers with each of two‘
both types of said pile ?bers to approximately the
separate solutions, onejof which contains tannic
same shade by the use "of ‘a neutral dye bath,
acid and the other of which contains a' tin salt.
, containing neutral dyeing acid colors.
_
'
JOHN E. CONRAD. ‘
1!. In a process of makingzpile fabrics con-. 75
where the two are immersed together in an acid
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