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Патент USA US2412136

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Dec. 3, 1946.
2,412,136
_1. P. EVANS -ET AL
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR HYDROQARBON CONVERSION
3 Sheets-Sheet l
Filed Jan. 2a, 194s
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*Dea 3, 1946.
L, P, EVANS ¿TAL
2,412,136
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR’HYDROCARBON CONVERSION
Filed Jan. >28, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Dec. 3,- 1946.
‘
L„ P. EvANs Erm.
2,412,136
METHOD AND APPÄRATUS FQR HYDROCARBON CONVERSION
' Filed Jan. 28, 1945
3 Sheéts-Sheet 3
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Patented Dec. 1946~
UNITE-D STATES PATENT OFI-‘lcs
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR HYDRO-
`
CARBON CONVERSION
’
Louis P. Evans, Woodbury, and Frederick E. Ray,
Mantua, N. J., assignors to Socony-Vacuum Oil
Company, Incorporated, a corporation of New
York
'
Application January 28, 1943, Serial No. 473,861
24 Claims. (Cl. 196-52)
l
'rms invention has to do with methods and
apparatus for the conversion of hydrocarbon ma
terials and is particularly concerned with proc
2
.
'attained in-both the reaction zone and the re
generation zone.
It has for another principal object the provi
sion of withdrawal means to be utilized in such
converted is contacted in vapor form with a solid 5 zones whereby uniform withdrawal across the
entire area of the ilowing stream of contact mass
contact mass material capable of effecting o?-of
material may be efiected to provide uniform pas
influencing the desired conversion.
i ._
sage of such material through- all portions of
As is well known at this time, hydrocarbon
esses such as those wherein a hydrocarbon to be
materials 'may be cracked by being contacted at
appropriate temperatures in contact with a par
ticle form solid contact mass of catalytic material‘
such as a clay, `either natural orsynthetic, var
ious associations of alumina and silica either na- ,
tural or synthetic, alumina, silica or any of a
number of similar materials possessing adsorbent
- properties.
Othel` reactions such as hydrogena
the flowing stream.
'I'he successful operation of `processes involving
continuous flow of particle-form solid material
through reaction vessels as in the cracking and
regeneration steps of the continuous conversion
process outlined above, requires that the flowing
of the particle-form solid material be uniform
throughout the reaction zones of these vessels.
tion, dehydrogenation, alkylation, isomerization,
When granular material is discharged from the
and various other reactions may be similarly car
ried out, and in many of these cases the solid
base of a Avessel through an outlet of relatively
small size as compared with the vessel, the veloc
adsorbent material'will contain or act as a car 20 ity of flow will vary widely across a horizontal
cross-section ofthe vessel and will be greatest
rier for an- added material such as a metallic
oxide capable of effecting the desired reaction.
Typical of all of these reactions is the reaction of
cracking a high boiling point hydrocarbon-ma
directly above the outlet. This difference in ve
locity decreases at higher levels in the vessel, but
terial to material of the nature of gasoline. While
the cracking conversion of hydrocarbons will be
utilized herein in describing the process, it is to
be understood that the invention is not limited
thereto,
» Many operations of this general class have been
a large vessel if its cross-sectional area is much
greater than that of the outlet. Previous meth
ods have involved the use 'of grates or multiple
ports -individually regulated in an attempt toachieve even flow of particle form material in
large vessels. Grates present mechanical dim
r`carried Aout in equipment wherein the particle
form solid contact material is deposited as a
fixed bed, alternately subjected to reaction and
to regeneration. More -recently processes have
been proposed wherein a particle-form solid con
tact mass material catalytic in nature to the de
sired reaction, as described above, is moved in
the form of a flowing stream through a reaction
zone wherein the desired reaction is accomplished
and then ‘through a regeneration zone wherein- 40
equal velocity and even ñow is neverobtained in -
- culties and are particularly undesirable on pres
sure vessels as they do not in themselves provide
means whereby escape of reaction vapors from
the vessel with solid material may be avoided and
by their nature render the provision of such
means a dimcult and complicated problem. 'I'he
individual land 'concurrent control of multiple
ports is too complicated for practical manual 4con
trol and automatic regulators prove expensive
and troublesome under high temperature oper
- residual products of the reaction which have been
ating conditions.
i deposited upon the contact mass material, usually
in the form of a combustible carbonaceous sub
This invention~avoids these difficulties by pro
viding a simple and eñicient method whereby the
combined problems of uniform flow, uniform dis-
"
stance, broadly designated by the term coke, are
removed, usually by combustion, to regenerate the 45 charge and prevention of reactant escape are ac
complished through the aplication of relatively
contact mass material, after which the contact
simple principles of operation and items oi
mass material is returned to the reaction zone.
equipment.
`
’I'his invention is specifically directed to process
1 The invention may be understood by reference
and apparatus for the conduct of such processes
wherein flowing particle form solid contact mass 50 to the drawings attached to this specification. In
these drawings Figure 1 is a highly diagrammatic
material is used.
`
It has for its principal object the provision of .
showing of the entire setup used for accomplish
ing the conversion. Figure 2 is a vertical cross-I
method and apparatus wherein a complete and
section of _oneforxn ofthe apparatus.
uniform utilization of al1 the portions of the
Figure 3 is a view in section taken on line 3-3
iiowing stream of contact mass material may be' 55
_ anarco
_
~3
-
.
-
‘
ofFigureil. Figureiisavicwinsectiontaken
online4-4ofFigure1 Figureöisaviewin
`
4
.medium introduced at- I‘l and removed at Il, it
maybefreedofreactanm‘l’assingthrougha
section taken on line S-l of Figure 2. Figures
4valve Il,»or anysimilar doviceÄm of oon
6,7, andaare views in sectionsimilarrespectively
trolling the rato of passage of solid material,
to Figures 3,4and 5, but iilustratingmodincdori
whichdevicaifdcsiredmaybesodedgnedaato‘
,nce coniigurations. Figure 9 is a view in vertical
assistintheproper-isolationofthereactionaone
section similar to Figure 2 but illustrating a modi
fromotherportionsofthesystemthcsolidmate
tled type of reaction chamber. Figure 10 is a view
rialpassesinto elevator 23. Itisthereinhoilted
in vertical section similar to Figure 9 but involv
anddischargedatI-Iintothetopofregenerator
ing a reaction chamber which is rectangularin 10 23.topasstherethroughasamovingooiumn.cross section. Figure 11 is a view in section taken
The regeneration is usually a,- combustion and _to
along the lineI I-I I of Figure 10, illustrating the
effect it, regeneration medium may be introduced
uppermost baille plate in full iines- _and the ba?ie
at 23 and withdrawn at 24. Below'regenerator 32,
plate immediately therebelow in broken lines.
there is another purge section 2l, purge medium
Figure 1-2 is a view in section taken along the line
being supplied at 2t and withdrawn at 31. in
AI2-I2 of Figure 10 illustrating the intermediate
which regeneration medium may be removed to
baille plate in full lines and the lowermost baille , substantially prevent Iits presence in reaction
plate in broken lines. Figures 13, 14, l5 and '16
chamber III. Between this purge -chamber Il
are cross sectional views taken in a reactor of
and reaction chamber I0, there may be provided
hexagonal configuration, illustrating the baille
plates at the various levels therein beginning with
Figure 13 at the highest level and continuing
downwardly in numerical order.
Turning now to Figure l. This ñgure shows in
highly diagrammatic form a setup o: apparatus in
which the invention may be practiced. This apparatus consists of a reaction chamber I0 through ,
which there is moved as a moving column a flow
lng stream oi' particle-form solid contact mass
material. Hydrocarbons to vbe reacted, supplied
to the system through pipe II are subjectedy to
the charging stock preparation 'step indicated at
I2, and from I2 flow through lpipe I3 into _reactor
I0. The charging stock preparation step will in
general consist in the main of heating the hydro
carbon charging stock to provide itin vapor form
and at reaction temperature for entry to the re
action zone. The heating equipment used may be
any of the usual forms of apparatus suitable for
this purpose and will usually and preferably in
clude a pipe still form of. heater. The stock prep
aratlon step, it is also understood, may contain, j
if necessary, provision for separating from the
material flowing through pipe -II any portion
which is not suitable for charge to reactor III.
For example, if a Ycrude oil were charged through `
II and ‘it was desired to pass only gas oil through
pipe I3, the stock preparation stepwould include
appropriate fractionating equipment, evapora
tors, vapor heaters, if necessary, and similar
equipment capable of segregating from the charge
only that desired portion to be converted and
bringing it to the proper temperature vfor reaction
while rejecting other portions of the original
charge from the system. Reaction products from
reactor I0 will be withdrawn through pipe I4 and
passed to appropriate equipment for segregating
a valve or other device 2B for the purpose of con
trolling'solid now, which also may assist In> the
isolation of the reactor or may be arranged to
permit of carrying a pressure in thereactor dif
ferent from that in other portions of the sys
tem. Similarly, if desired, a valve or other de
vice 2s maylbe provided for complete control
of similar functions within the regenerator. If
necessary, catalyst may be withdrawn from the
system as, for example, at", or may be added.
as, for example at 3I, and it is also to be under
stood that proper provision, if desirable, lmay be __
made for the removal of iines from the catalyst
circulation system, for holding the external cata
lyst circulation system under pressure or vacuum
or under 'a blanketing inert gas, andsimilar‘pro
visions.
.
.
The reaction carrled'out in reactor Il in Figure
1 and the regeneration carried out in regenerator
22 are alike in that they comprise a contacting of
a moving particle form solid with a fluid gasi
form reactant. As pointed out before, it is advis
able and èven necessary that uniform contact of
reactant and solid be secured and to this end at ’
the bottom of'both the regenerator and the kre
actor, there have been provided structures as dis
cussed in the following iigures:
Turning to Figure 2, there is 'shown here the
construction adopted at the bottom 01' reactor
I I. While for convenience in description, only
the construction of reactor III is discussed, it must
be remembered that the problem of uniform
downward ilow of solid material is the same with
in the regenerator 22 as it is within the reactor III
and consequently in all of the following discus
sion, it must be understood that the description
and the remarks made are equally applicable to
the regenerator as well as to the reactor.
In Figure 2 we find reactor III terminating in a
generally conically shaped neck 32 leading to a
discharge pipe 33 upon which there 'may be
and recovering products of reaction as indicated
at I5. This equipment will normally be comprised
of the usual setup of fractionators, gas sepa
rators, stabilizers, gas recovery systems and the
mounted a valve or other control device 34 use
like, as indicated by the necessities of the con
ful for any of the purposes or all of the purposes
version in hand and will normally include provi
indicated for items I9 and 28 in the discussion of
sion for returning unconverted material‘or even
Figure 1. Within this conical neck 32, there are
other reaction products to the reactor for re 65 disposed severalbailles 35, 3B, and 31. The up
treatment with or without prior passage through
permost bañle 35 is so disposed as to constitute the
a stock preparation step.
bottom closure of reactor III and is provided with
It will be understood that heat exchangers and
oriiices 38. Bailles 3B and 31 are spaced apart
similar heat recovery arrangements may be ap
and downwardly of 35, asfwlll be explained. In
plied 'at any point where necessary or appro 70 these- baiiies and in closure 35, there are oriilces,
prlate.
.
38, 39, 40, so arranged that the single discharge
stream in pipe 33 is fed by a plurality of streams
reactor I0 and contaminated by the reaction con
originating in orifices I0, each of which in turn
tained therein, is preferably passed through a
is fed from a plurality of orifices 39, and each of
purge `section I8, wherein by means of -a` purge 75 these in turn being fed by a plurality of oriiices
Particle-form solid contact mass ñowing from
. r‘8,319,183
33. The vertical spacing of bailes 33. 34 and 31
is such that the line defining a path of flow be
- has been found\that'this construction. onoetin
tween any orifice in one baille and an associated
' flow conditions over a wide range of solid mate- --
stalled, may be utilized with- 'equal 'accuracy of"
riale of widely varying flow characteristics.
orifice in the baille next above should not be lese
than about 45?. There may be any number of
these bailles dependent upon the amount of sub
division of the single discharge stream 33 neces
Figure 10 shows a vertical section quite similar
to Figure 9 and equivalent in function to that of
Figure 2. This form of construction being the
same as that of Figure 2, like portions are desig
sary to secure uniform ilow over all of the.crosssectional area of reactor i3 at a level not sub
nated by like numerals, the only difference being ~
stantially removed from the upper baille 33. The 10 that this construction is more readily adapted
to a rectangular reaction vessel. The difference
between the two ilgures arising from the fact that
the necked down portion 32 between reactor -I3
mass flow rate. 'I'he arrangement of orifices in
and pipe 33 begins at baille 33 in Figure 9 and
these bailies should be such that for any oriilce
in a lower baille, there are oriñces properly dis 15 -does not begin until baille 31 in Figure 10 is to
total area of orifices in any baille should be capa- l
ble of adequately handling the maximum contact
-indicate that either form of construction may be
posed above it to provide a »proper subdivision of
solid material streams. The whole setup is one
such that a large number of comparatively small
individual streams equal in size are drawn from
used, except that in the case of Figure 9, directed
to a circular reaction zone, the form there shown
probably gives less dead space.
v
-
»
Figure 11 is a plan view of baille 33h in Figure
10 showing how a group of orifices 33 are.proout the area of reactor I3 and these streams-are
vided for and symmetrically related to each ori
then stepwise and symmetrically combined and
ilce 33 in the bame 33h which is next below, the
‘recombined until a single discharge stream is
position of which orifices 33 is indicated in Figure4
achieved. Thus we find-that any control eilective
l1 by dotted circles. _Figure l2 similarly shows a
by control mechanism 34 upon the rate of flow
plan of baille 33h showing how groups of oriñces
of solid material is not reñected as a distortion of
39 are located symmetrically vwith respect to ori
the equal flow of material through any portion
ilces 43 in baille 31h next below, the position of
of reactor I3 beginning at a level a relatively short "
which oriilces 43 is indicated by dotted circles.
distance above the uppermost baille.
The method is not restricted to circular and
While Figures 3, 4 and 5 illustrate respectively. 30
rectangular reactors,'but may be vapplied to a
the bailies 35, 33 and 31, each with its orifices 33,
reactor` of 'any cross-section. For example in
33 and 43, respectively, arranged in concentric
Figures 13 to 18 inclusive, there are shown in
rings, it is also possible to substitute annular
diagram form each of several of the baiiies which
slots in lieu of the ‘punched or drilled holes and
might be used at the bottom 'of a reactor of
such a modification is illustrated' in Figures 6, '1
hexagonal cross-section. Inv these iigures, 44
and 8. Note that slots 33a, 33a and 43a in baii‘les
represents the uppermost baille or reactor bottom
35a, 33a and 31a correspond in number, position
closure and 43 and 43 the first and- second bailies
and relative size to the patterns defined respec
points symmetrically and evenly spaced through 20
below it, the ilnal discharge pipe being indicated
tively by oriñces 33, 33 and 43. .
In this form of construction, it is not easy to 40 at 41. Bail'ie plates 44, 4l and 43 are provided
respectively with orifices 44a, 43a and 43a dis
arrive readily at a single' form of apparatus use- ,
ful for widely varying flow characteristics of solid ' ' tributed so that the streams from 44a are com
bined and passed through oriilces 43a whereupon
they are again combined and passed through o?i
material, for example, the placement of orificesV
40 or 43a with respect to orifices 33 or 33a respec
tively and of orifices 33'or 33a with respect to ori v45 ñces 43a, iinally merging to pass discharge pipe
41. It will be noted that the successive plates,
f’ices 33 or 33a respectively will not necessarily be
considered in the direction of ilow ofthe mass ma
the same for solids of different sizes and fre'
terial, are-provided with fewer holesof individu
quently experimental adjustment must ,be made
ally larger diameter.
to achieve an equal flow distribution upon chang- „
ing the type of solid being handled by the appa
50 J It is also' noted >that the method is not restricted
to reactors whose cross-sections are regular geo
ratus. It has been found possible to avoid this
by providing for certain of the orifices vertical
shields extending downwardly from the orifices
metric ilgures, although the use of -such reactors _
is quite unlikely for a number _of reasons.
Nor is the uniformity/of flow so established
a distance not less than twice the width of the
orifice.
l
55
Turning to Figure 9, this may be readily under
subject tocancellation by yinternal structures
which may bey installed inthe reactor, such as',
for example, reactant distributor grids, or heat
stood. Here, as in Figure 2, we have the reactor
l0 with its conical neck 32 and discharge pipe 33
removal structures, so long as those grids, or struc
and its bailles 3_5, 33 and 31. Batlle 35 may have
its oriilces constructed either as concentric slots
tures, themselves are designed with reasonable>
care for uniformity of flow therethrough.
or concentric rings of drilled holes, as illustrated f
.
We
claim:
»
'
.
Y
-
1. A’ method i'or the conversion of hydrocar
in Figures 3 to 8 inclusive. Baines 33 and 31 arebons in the presence of a moving particle-form
preferably of the type provided with oriilces 33
solid contact mass ‘material with substantialiy\
and 43 respectively, in the form of concentric
equal exposure of all portions of the contact mass
rings of holes from each of which orifice there
comprising >maintaining a downwardly moving
depends a short straight tube, designated 4| in the
column of said contact mass material, replenish
case of orifices 33 and 42 in the, case of orifices
ing this column at the 'top thereof, introducing
40. These tubes should be of a length not less
hydrocarbons at conversion conditions of tem
than' about twice their diameter. Since the line of
flow is now from the outlet of a tube 4I or 42, to 70 perature and pressure to said column, remov
either an orifice 43 spaced below a tube 4i or a
ing products of conversion therefrom, conduct
throat 43 spaced below a tube 42, the vertical
ing particle form solid material from the bottom
>of said column in a plurality of streams from a
spacing below battles such as 33 and 31 must be
increased over that shown in Figure 2 to-provide
plurality of points, said streams being of less total
for the added length of the tubes 4i and 42. It 75. cross-sectional area than said column and the
2,412,130 r .
7
8
.
size and arrangement of said streams across the l
ately combining said smaller plurality of streams
cross-_sectional area of the bottom of said column
being such as to provide substantially uniform
stream cross-sectional area per unit of column
,to form a single moving discharge stream while
maintaining continuity of solid material‘ column
cross-sectional area across the entire column bot
tom, iiowing said streams on to the nrst of a
series of accumulations of said solid material lo
cated below said column, similarly withdrawing
'from the ,bottom of each of said accumulations,
serially, a smaller number of streams of said 'solid
material, the streams from each accumulation
being horizontally staggered proportionately as
from said dischargeßtream through said accu
mulation and streams to said column ,thereabova
4. A method for the conversion of .hydrocar
bons in the presence of a moving particle-form
solid contact mass material with substantially
equal exposure oi all portions of the contact
mass comprising maintaining a downwardly` mov
ing column of said contact mass material, re
plenishing this column at the top thereof, intro
regards cross-sectional area with respect to the
ducing hydrocarbons at conversion conditions of
streams thereabove and finally reducing the nume "
temperature and pressure to said column, remov
ber of streams to a symmetrically placed single
ing products of conversion therefrom, removing
discharge streanrwhile maintaining continuity of
solid material column from the bottom of said
spent» contact mass material from the bottom of
said column in a plurality of small. equal streams
conversion zone column through said streams and '
from a plurality of'points substantially uniformly
accumulations to said discharge stream.
distributed with respect to the cross-sectional area
2. A method for the conversion of hydrocar -20 of said column and iiowing it onto a accumu
bons vin the presence of a moving particle-form
lation of said solid material below said column,
similarly withdrawing a smaller number of equal
solid contact mass material with substantially
equal exposure of all portions of the contact mass
streams from the bottom o_f said accumulation.
comprising maintaining a downwardly moving the last named streams being horizontally sym»
column of said contact mass material, replenish 26 metrically staggered with respect to the streams
ing this column at the top thereof, introducing
thereabove, combining said streams to form a
hydrocarbons at conversion conditions of tem
single discharge stream, throttling the ñow from
perature and pressure to said column, removing
said discharge stream to control the rate of solid
products of'conversion therefrom, conducting par
material iiow in said downwardly moving column,
ticle form solid material from the bottom of said 30 leading said discharge stream _into a moving col
column in a plurality of substantialLv equal'
umn of spent catalyst in a regenerator, passing
streams uniformly ’distributed with- respect to
.regeneration medium through the contact mass
the` cross-sectional area of said column and of - column in said regenerator, removing regenerated
substantially less cross-sectional area and iiow
contact mass from the bottom of said regener
ing said solid material into the first of >a series
ator column in a plurality of small equal streams
, of accumulations thereof located at spaced levels
.from a plurality of points substantially uniformly
below said column, withdrawing said solid ma
distributed with respect to the cross-section of
said column and iiowlng it onto an accumulation
of said solid material below said column, with
drawing a smaller number of equal streams from
the bottom of said accumulation, the last named
terial from the bottom of each of said accumula- .
tions, serially, in a progressively smaller num
ber of equal streams, the streams from each ac
cumulation « being horizontally symmetrically
staggered with respect to the streams flowing onto'>
said accumulation, finally merging the streams
streams being horizontally staggered with re
spect to the streams thereabove, combining said
from the lowermost accumulation uniformly into
a single discharge stream and throttling the flow
streams to -form a single discharge. stream of
of solid material in said discharge stream so as
flow oi' said discharge stream and returning said
to maintain continuity of column therefrom up
wardly through said streams and accumulations
to said column of solid material thereabove.
~
3. A method for the conversion of iiuid react 50
ants in the presence of a moving particle-form
solid contact mass material with substantially
equal exposure of all portions of the contact mass
comprising maintaining. la downwardly moving
column of said contact mass material, replen- -
ishing this column at the top thereof, introduc
ing iiuid reactants 'at conversion conditionsßof
temperature and pressure to said column remov
ing ‘products of conversion therefrom, conduct
ing particle form solid contact mass material from
the bottom of said column to an accumulation
of said solid 4material therebelow in a plurality
of streams from a plurality of locations across
said column cross-section, the streams being of
regenerated contact mass’material, throttling the
regenerated material substantially directly to said
reaction column to form a substantial vreplen'ish- '
ment therefor.
-
5. In- a reactor for the contacting of a ñuid
lreactant with a moving particle-)crm solid con-
tact mass material with substantially equal uti-'
lization of all portions of the contact mass, a
means defining a vertically extending reaction
zone within which there is confined a moving
column of lcontact mass material,.means to sup
ply contact mass 'material thereto, means to sup
ply reactant to said zone, means. t'o remove. re
action products from said zone, below said zone
a series of chambers of substantially less height
than said zone, transverse partitions between said
chambers and between the uppermost chamber
and saidzone, a. contact mass removal duct lead
ing fromfthe lowermost chamber, each of said
less total cross-sectional area than said column .65 partitions having a plurality of orifices distrib
and the size and arrangement of said streams ' uted substantially uniformly across its surface,
across the bottom of said column being such as
the orifices in each partition in descending order
to provide substantially uniform stream cross
being lesser lin number the ori'ñces in any-partition
sectional area per unit of -column cross-section
being symmetrically stagßlired with respect to
entirely across the bottom of said column, with 70 thev oriflces'in the partition next below, so that a
drawing a smaller plurality of streams of said
plurality of small streams of contact mass mate
solid material from said accumulation, Said
rial'originating in orifices of the uppermost par#
smaller plurality of streams being horizontally
tition are ‘successively combined into a smallerj.
staggered proportionately as regards area between
number of streams and finally into a single stream
said iirst named plurality of streams, proportion-_
within said discharge duct.
'
.
l
'
'
¿419,186 `
9,
’ 6. In a reactor for the contacting of a >fluid
8. A method of -regenerating particle-form
reactant with a moving particle-form solid con
tact mass material with substantially equal uti
lization of all portions of the contactl mass, a
means defining a vertically extending reaction
-zone within which there is confined a moving
column of contact mass material, means to sup
solid contactmass material comprising flowing
said particle-form contact mass material down-.„
wardly through a reaction zone as a continuous
moving column under regeneration conditions of
temperature and pressure, replenishing the solid
material in said column, introducing a regener
ating medium intosaid column, removing prod
ply a contact mass material thereto, means to
ucts of regeneration therefrom,y removing the par
supply reactant to said zone, means to remove
reaction products from said zone, below said zone 10 ticle-form solid fromy the bottom of said regen?
eration zone by subdividing the column into a
a seriesv of chambers of substantially less height
. than said zone, substantially fiat transverse par
titions between said chambers and between the
’ uppermost chamber and said zone, a co‘ntact mass
plurality of components uniformly distributed
over the cross-sectional area of the column and
having a cumulative cross section less than that
removal duct leading from the lowermost cham 15 of the regeneration column, recombining said sub
divisions in a plurality of horizontal stages, each
ber, each of said partitions having `a plurality of
recombination involving a reduction ’in the num
' orifices distributed substantially uniformly across
ber of subdivisions and an increase inthe cross
its surface, the orifices in each partition in de
sectional area of each, and finally merging the
scending order being lesser in number, the orifices
in any partition being symmetrically staggered 20 subdivisions into a continuous moving bed con
stituting a discharge zone while maintaining con- \
with respect to the orifices in the partition‘next
tinunity of solid material column from said dis
below, so that a plurality of small streams of con
charge zone through said subdivisions to said
-tact mass material originating insorifices of the
column thereabove, all without division of any of
uppermost partition are successively combined
into larger streams and finally into a single stream 25 saidÍ subdivisions during said recombining and
merging.
within said discharge duct and on said discharge
9. A method for effecting the conversion of a
duct a fiow control means to govern flow of con
fluid reactant in the presence of a particle-form
tact »mass material -through said reaction zone.
solid contact mass material flowing as a moving
, 7. A system for the conversion of hydrocarbons
in the presence of a moving particle-form solid 30 bed through a reaction zone to a discharge zone
of lesser cross-sectional area which comprises,
contact mass material comprising a means for
` introducing reactants into the reaction zone, with
defining a vertically extending reaction zone with
drawing products of reaction from said reaction'
, in which there is confined a moving column of
zone', adding particle form solid contact mass
contact mass material, means to replenish the
material to said reaction zone, flowing the mate
contact mass material therein, means to bring
rial from the bottom of said reaction zone as a
hydrocarbon reactants to conversion conditions
subdivided moving bed uniformly distributed over
of temperature and pressure, means to introduce
the cross-sectional area of said zone and having
said hydrocarbon reactants into said column,
a cumulative cross-sectional area less than that of
means to remove reaction products therefrom, re-i
action product recovery and separation means, 40 the reaction zone, recombining said subdivisions
.in a plurality of horizontal stages, each recombi
below said reaction zone a series of .chambers of
nation involving a. reduction in the number of
substantially less height than said reaction zone.,
subdivisions in the absence of any further division
substantially fiat transverse partitions between
of the original subdivisions and finally merging
said chambers and between the topmost chamber
and said reaction zone, a contact mass removal 45 the resulting subdivisions into a continuous mov
ing discharge bed while maintaining continuity
duct leading from the lowermost chamber, each
of solid material column from said discharge bed
of said partitions having a plurality of orifices
through said subdivisions to said reaction zone
distributed uniformly across the surface thereof,
the orifices in each partition in descending order
l0. A method for eiïecting'the conversion of
being lesser in number, the oriñces in any par
a iiuid reactant in the presence of a particle-form
tition being symmetrically staggered with respect
solid contact mass material flowing as a moving
to the orifices in the partition next below so that
bed through a reaction- zone to a discharge zone
a plurality of small streams of contact mass mate
of lesser cross-'sectional area which comprises,
rial originating in the orifices of the topmost
introducing reactants into the reaction zone,
partition are successively combined into a lesser
withdrawing products of reaction from said re
number of streams and finally into'a single stream
thereabove.
in said discharge duct, means to define a ver»
‘ tically extending regeneration zone to which con
»
'
_
action zone, adding particle _form solid contact
mass material to said reaction zone, ñowing the
material from the bottom of said reaction zone
tact mass from said discharge duct is fed and
in which there is confined afmoving column of 60 as a subdivided moving bed uniformly distributed
over the cross-sectional .area of said zone and
spent contact mass material undergoing regener
having a cumulative cross-sectional area less than
ation, means to supply regeneration medium
that of the reaction` zone, and without any fur
thereto, means to remove products of regenera
tion therefrom, means to effect substantially / ther dividing" of subdivisions recombining said
equal exposure of all contact mass therein to 65 subdivisions in »a plurality of horizontal stages,
equal regeneration by withdrawing contactmass
each recombination involving areduction in the
material from the bottom thereof in a plurality
of substantially equal small streams from a plu
number of subdivisions and an increase in the
cross-sectional area of each subdivision, and ii
rality of points distributed substantially uniform- , 'nally merging the resulting subdivisions -into a
ly across the cross-sectional.’ said column, means 70 continuous moving compact discharge column
and throttling the flow of solid material in said
to combine said' streams into a single stream of
discharge column so as to maintain continuity of
regenerated contact mass material and means to
column therefrom upwardly through said subdi
return said regenerated contact mass material
visions to said reaction zone thereabove.
substantially directly to the said reaction as a
substantial replenishment of the material therein. 75
11, A method for ,effecting the conversion of a
»,siaisc
'
fluidv reactant in the` presence. of a particle-form
solid contact mass material flowing as a moving
bed through a reaction sone to a discharge zone
of lesser cross-sectional area which comprises,
introducing v reactants into the reaction zone,
withdrawing products of reaction from said re
action zone, adding particle-form solid contact
mass material to said reaction zone, flowing the
material from the bottom of said reaction zone
as a subdivided moving bed uniformly distributed
over the cross-sectional area oi said zone and ì
having a cumulative cross-sectional area less than
that of the reaction zone, recombining said sub
12
.
_ 15.'In an apparatus for 4contacting gasiphase
- reactants with particle form solid contact mass
material and with substantially equal exposure of
alll portions of the solid material: a vessel later
ally confining a substantially compact bed of '
downwardlymoving particle form solid contact
mass material, means to admit gasiphase re
actant to said vessel and means to withdraw gasi
phase reaction products therefrom, means to in
troduce said solid material tothe upper end' of
said vessel, a plurality of superposed, transversely
extending partitions spaced apart inthe lower
section of said vessel, said partitions dividing the
divisions in a plurality of horizontal stages, each
lower section of'said vessel into a series of `super
recombination involving a reduction in the num 15. imposed. chambers oi' substantially less height
ber of'subdivisions and an increase in the cross
than that portion of said vessel thereabove, the
sectional area of each subdivision, effecting said
uppermost of said partitions having a plurality
.recombination under resistance to flow condi
vof holes therein, said holes being of such size'and
arrangement across said partition as to provide
tions such that the resistance to i'iow effective at
the level oi initial subdivisions is equal per unit 20 a substantially uniform aperture cross-sectional
of cross-section at that level. merging the result
ing subdivisions into a continuous moving\discharge stream and throttling the ilow in said
area per unit of partition cross-sectional area
entirely across said partition and the total cross
sectional area of said holes being less than that of
discharge stream so as'to control the rate of
. said vessel, and each of _said succeeding partitions
solid ilow in said reaction zone.
, ' .
25 having a gradually decreasing number of holes
therethrough. said latter holes in each of said
12. Apparatus for the conversion of areactant
succeeding partitions vbeing horizontally Istag
in the presence of a moving particle-form solid
contact mass material with substantially equal
gered between the holes in the partition directly
exposure of all points of the contact mass com
prising means defining a reaction zone, means to
thereabove in such amanner as to receive pro
supply reactants thereto, means to remove re- `
nected to said vessel below the lowermost of said
portionate now of solid from said holes there
supply contact mass material thereto, means to 30 above, a solid material discharge conduit con-
partitions,'the`inlet thereof being symmetrically
' action products therefrom, a discharge duct of
lesser cross section than said reaction chamber,
placed with regards to said holes in said lower
flow throttlingmeans on said discharge duct, 35 'most partition, flow control means on said con
means denning'a connecting zone intermediate
duitto govern the flow rate of solid material
said reaction zone and> said duct. a first plate par
through said vessel. '
` ~
tition _defining the top vof said connecting zone, _
16. In an apparatus for contacting gasiphase
at least one additional fixed partition spaced be
reactants with particle form solid contact mass
low the nrst one and lying parallel thereto within 40 material and with substantially equal exposure of
the connecting zone, said ñrst partition having
all portions of the solid material: a vessellater
a plurality ‘of uniformly distributed apertures
therein and said other partition having a lesser _
ally confining a substantially compact bed oi'
downwardly moving particle form solid contact
number of apertures therein arranged in such
mass material, means to admit gasiphase react
staggered relation-to the apertures in the ñrst d5 ant to said vessel and means to withdraw gasi
as to receive proportional solid now therefrom.
phase reaction products therefrom, means to in
13. Apparatus for the conversion of a reactant
troduce said solid 'material' to the upper end of
in the presence of a moving particle-form solid
said vessel, a plurality of superposed, transversely '
contact mass material with substantially equal
extending partitions spaced apart in the lower
exposure of all points of the contact mass com '50 section of said vessel. said partitions dividing the
prising, means deiining a vertically disposed re
action zone, means to supply contact mass mate
lower section of _said vessel into a series of super
imposed chambers of substantially less height
than that portion of said vessel thereabove, the
rial thereto. means to supply reactants thereto,
means to remove reaction products therefrom, a ‘
uppermost of said partitions having a plurality
discharge duct of lesser cross section than -said‘ 55 of equal oriilces therein uniformly. distributed
reaction zone disposed therebelow, flow throttling
across its cross-sectional area and each of said
means on said discharge duct means deilning a
connecting zone intermediate said reaction zone
‘succeeding partitions below having a gradually
decreasing number of larger orifices there'
through, said orifices in each of said succeeding
and said duct. a partition extending'across the
upper end of said intermediate zone deilning the 60 partitions being horizontally' proportionately
top. of said intermediate zone, and a plurality of
staggered between the ori?ces in the partition di
vertically spaced fixed partitions disposed there
rectly thereabove, wherein the number and size
below in parallel relationship therewith and ex
tending across said intermediate zone, each of
said partitions lying within the intermediate zone
of said orifices in said partitions are such that- »
lines drawn from any given orifice in one parti
tion to the oriñces in the partition thereabove in`
horizontally adjacent positions have a slope
and having a plurality of uniformly distributed
kapertures therein, the number of apertures in
each partition successively increasing with dis- ‘
tance upwardly from'said duct, andv being ar-4
ranged in staggered relationship to receive mate
rial from a plurality of apertures thereabove.
14. Apparatus as claimed in claim 13 in which
the .cross section of the apertures in each parti
tion decreases with distance of that plate up
wardly from said duct.
.
.
-j
greater than about 45 degrees, a solid material \
discharge conduit connected to said vessel below
the lowermost of said partitions, the inlet thereof
70 being symmetrically placed with regards to said
orifices in said lowermost partition, flow throt
tling means on said conduit.
17. In an apparatus for contacting gasiphase
'reactants with particle form solid contact mass
75 material and with substantially equal exposure
'
9,419,186 ,
,
,
.
)
13
14
.
of all portions of the solid material: a vessel lat
erally confining a substantially compact bed of
downwardly moving particle form solid contact
nmngtne top of said intermediate zona'and a
r plurality of‘vertically spaced fixed plate parti
tions disposed therebelow in parallel relationship
therewith, each of sald’partitions lying within
mass material,r means to admit gasiphase re
actant to said -vessel and means to withdraw
the intermediate zone and having a plurality of -
gasiphase reaction productstherefrom, means to
uniformly distributed apertures therein, the
introduce said solid material to the upper end of
'said vessel, a plurality of superposed, ,trans
number of apertures in each .partition succes
versely extending partitions spaced apart in the
said duct, and being arranged in staggered rela
tionship to receivematerial from a plurality of
apertures thereabove, andv for at least one of said
partitions an equalizing tube depending from .the
deñning edge of each aperture in registering po
sition, said equalizing tubes being of a length atV
sively increasing with distance upwardly> from
lower section of said vessel, said partitions divid
ing the lower section oi' said vessel into a series of
superimposed 'chambers of substantially less
height than that portion of said vessel there
Jabove, the uppermost of said partitions having a
pluralityI of equal holes uniformly distributed 15
across the cross-section thereof and each of said
least twice theirdiameter`
'
`
~
,
i
20. An apparatus for conducting gas-solid con
succeeding partitions below having a gradually
tacting operations comprising a vessel laterally
confining a substantially compact column of
_ decreasing number of equa1 holes of gradually f
increasingV size, said holes in said succeeding par
'downwardly moving particle-form solid material,
titions in each case `being proportionately stag 20 means to admit gas to said vessel and means to
gered between holes inthe partition directly , withdraw gas therefrom, means to introduce said
thereabove, conduits open at their ends depend
solid material into the upper section of said ves
ently associated with each of the holes in said
sel, a discharge conduit connected to the lower
end of said vessel, flow throttling means asso
succeeding partitions. said conduits terminating
substantially short of the partition below and ‘ ' ciated with said discharge conduit. a plurality of
superposed partitionsl extending across said ves
sel within its lower section above said discharge
conduit dividing the `lower section of said vessel
being of length at least twice their diameter, a
solid material discharge conduit connected to said
vessel below the lowermost of said partitions, the
inlet thereof being symmetrically placed with re
gards to said holes in said lowermost partition,
flow throttling means on said conduit to control
into a vertical series of chambers of substantially -
less height than that portion of said vessel there
l
above, the uppermost of said partitions having a
the rate of solid ilow in said vessel.
18. '_A method for' the lconversion of gasiphase
plurality of holes therein, said holes being of such
material to said reactants comprising: maintain
ing a substantially compact column of down
wardly moving particle form contact material,
and each of said succeeding partitions having a
gradually decreasing number ofl holes there
size and arrangement across said partition as to
reactants in the presence oi' a moving particle
provide a substantially uniform aperture cross
` form solid contact material with substantially 35 sectional area per unit of partition cross-sectional
equal exposure of all portions of the contact mass
area substantially entirely across said partition,
continuously replenishing said column‘at the top
thereof, passing gasiphase reactant through said
column, continuously conducting contact mate
rial from~ the bottom of said column to an accu
mulation of contact material below in a plurality ‘
of streams fromA a plurality of- locations, the
streams being vof _less total cross-sectional area
than said column and said streams being of such
size and arrangement across the bottom of said
column ~ as to provide substantially uniform
stream cross-sectional area per unit of column
cross-section across the‘bottom of said column,
withdrawing a smaller number of larger streams
of said solid material from said accumulation,
said last named streams being horizontally stag
40
through, said latter holes in each of said succeed
ing partitions being horizontally staggered be
tween the holes in the partition directly there
above in such a manner as to receive proportion
ate flow of solid from said holes thereabove, and a
conduit open at its ends dependently associated
with each of the holes in at least one of said
partitions.
_
2l. In an apparatus for contacting gasiphase
yreactants with particle-form solid contact massr
material and with substantially equal exposure
of all portions of the solid material: a substan
' tially cylindrical, vertical vessel adapted .to lat
erally coniìne a substantially compact column of
downwardly moving particle-form solid contact
mass material, means Ito admit gaslphase react
gered between said. iirst named streams so as 55 -ant to said vessel and means to withdraw gasi
to receive flow therefrom proportionate to their
phase reaction products therefrom, means to in
erom-sectional areas,`combining said streams to
troduce said solid material to the upper end of
form a single symmetrically- placed discharge
said vessel, a plurality of superposed, transverse
stream and throttling the ilow in said discharge
ly extending partitions spaced apart in the lower
stream so as to maintain continuity of solid ma 60 section of said vessel, said partitions dividing the
terial column upwardly therefrom .through'said
lower section of said vessel into a series of super
streams and accumulation to said column and so
imposed chambers of substantially less height
as >to control the rate of solid ilow in said column.
.than that portion of said vessel thereabove, the
19. Apparatus for thegconversion of a reactant
uppermost of said, partitions having a plurality
in the presence of a moving -particle-form solid 65 of substantially equal holes therein arranged-in
contact mass material with substantially equal
circular rows so spaced apart as to provide a
exposure of all points of the contact mass com
substantially
uniform aperture cross-sectional
prising: means deilning a vertically disposed re-v
area per unit oi'A partition cross-sectional are@
action zone, means to supply contact mass mate
substantially entirely` across said partition, and
rial thereto, means to remove reaction products 70 each of said succeeding partitions having a pro
therefrom, a discharge duct of lesser cross-sec
gressively decreasing number of circular rows of
Y tion than said reaction zone disposed therebelow,
holes therein, all of îthe holes in any given panti
throttling means on said discharge du t, means
tion being substantially equal in cross-sectional
defining a connecting zone intermedia said re
area, said rows of holes in said succeeding par
action zone> and said duct, a plate partition de 75 tltions being horizontally staggered between the
9,419,180
l5
-
rows of holes in the partition thereabove so that
each row of holes receives solid flow from two‘ rows
of holes in the partition thereabove, a solid ma
terial discharge conduit connected to said vessel
,
_
16
and each succeeding partition having therein half
the number of concentric circular rows of holes
present in the partition immediately thereabove,
the lowermost partition having only one circular.
below the lowermost of said partitions, the inlet
thereof being symmetrically placed with regard to
said holes in said lowermost partition, flow conf
-row of holes therein,l each row of holes in any
given partition being staggered between two rows
trol means on said conduit to govern the ilow rate
in such a way that each row of holes in the suc
ot holes in the partition immediately thereabove
ceeding partitions receives proportional solid now
of solid material through said vessel.
22. Apparatus for the conversion of a reactan-t 10 from two rows of holes in the partition imme
diately thereabove, a plurality of conduits, one
in the presence of a moving particle-form solid
dependently associated with each hole in at leest
contact mass material with substantially equal
_ exposure of all points of the contactl mass com
prising: means denning a vertically disposed re
' action zone,-means to supply contact mass ma
terial thereto. means to introduce reactants there
into and means to remove reaction products there
` from, a discharge duct of lesser cross-section .than
one of said partitions, a solid material discharge
conduit connected to said vessel below the low
ermost of said partitions, the inlet thereof being
symmetrically placed with regard to said holes in
said lowermost partition, ilow control means on
said conduit to govern the tiow rate of solid mate
rial through said vessel.
said reaction zone disposed therebelow, throt
tling means on said discharge duct, means denn 20 '24. An lapparatus for conducting gas-solid
contacting operations comprising: a substantially
ing a connecting zone intermediate said reaction
vertical vessel of rectangular cross-sectional ‘
zone and said duct, a plate partition deñning the
shape, means to introduce gas thereinto and
top of said intermediate zone, and a plurality
means to withdraw gas therefrom, means to in
of vertically spaced ñxed plate partitions dis
posed -therebelow in parallel relationship there 25 troduce particle-form solid material to the upper
end thereof, a plurality of superposed, trans
with, each of said partitions lying within the in
versely extending partitions spaced apart in the
.termediate zone, a plurality of uniformly spaced
lower section of said vessel, said partitions di
concentric circular rows of holes through said ilrst
viding the lower section of said vessel into a se
named partition, a progressively decreasing num
ber of spaced concentric rows of holes through 30 ries of superimposed chambers of substantially
less height than that portion of said vessel there
said last named spaced partitions below said nrst
named partition, each row of holes in any one ' above, the uppermost of said partitions having s
Y plurality of spaced parallel rows- of holes there
of said last named partitions being horizontally
through extending horizontally thereacross, said
staggered between two rows of holes in the parti
tion immediately thereabove.
35 rows of holes being so arranged as to provide sub
stantialiy uniform aperture cross-sectional area
23. In an apparatus for contacting gasiphase
per unit of partitions cross-sectional area sub
reactants with particle-form solid contact mass
stantially entirely across said partition. a pro
material and with substantially equal exposure
_ gressively decreasing num-ber of spaced rows of
of all portions of .the solid material: a substan
tially cylindrical, vertical vessel adapted to lat `40 holes through said succeeding partitions, said
latter rows of holes inany given partition being
erally conilne a substantially compact Acolumn of .
horizontally staggered substantially midway be
downwardly moving particle form solid contact
tween rows of holes in the partition immediately
mass material, means to admit gaslphase react
thereabove so that each row of holes in any suc
ant to said vessel and means 4to withdraw gasi
ceeding partition receives solid flow from .two
phase reaction products therefrom, means to in
troduce said solid material to the upper end oi'
said vessel, a plurality of superposed„transversely
extending partitions spaced apart in the lower
section of said vessel, said partitions dividing the
lower section of said vessel into a series of super
imposed chambers of substantially less height
than that portion of said vessel thereabove, the
uppermost of said partitions having a plurality
rows of holes in the partition thereabove, a con
duit having a length at least equal to twice its
diameter dependentlyassociated with every hole
in at least one of said partitions, a solid material
discharge conduit connected to said vessel below
the lowermost of said partitions. the inlet there
of being symmetrically placed with regard to said
holes in said lowermost partition, now control
of substantially equal holes therein arranged in
means on said conduit to govern the ilow rate of
concentric circular rows so spaced apart as to pro
solid material through said vessel.
vide a substantially uniform aperture cross-sec
tional area per unit of partition cross-sectional
area substantially entirely across said partion,
LOUIS P. EVANS.
FREDERICK E. RAY
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