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Патент USA US2412145

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Dec. 3, 1946.
‘G. H. s. GRENE‘
Filed Oct. 6, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
,7 J. Glue/p8
1515c. 3, 1946.
G‘, H, s, GRENE
Filed 001;. 6, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
' ‘ F/ez.
Geo/5J6’ #aGi'eize ‘ -
Patented Dec. 3, 1946
George Henry Stanley Grene,-Watford, England,
assignor of one-half to Wild-Bar?eld Electric
Furnaces Limited, Watford, England
Application October 6, 1942, Serial No.‘460,991
In Great Britain October 20, 1941
'7 Claims.
(01. 263-2)
ternal as indicated at 4. Thus as shown the cen
tral heater 3 extends vertically from the bottom
to nearly the top of the furnace chamber and the
‘Where a powder or small articles have to be
treated in special atmospheres as for example in
powder metallurgy tube furnaces have been used
external heating resistances 4 extend similarly
in a continuous process and small retort type
furnaces for a batch method.
in the outer wall I. In the intervening space is
an annular retort 5 in which is placed a'stand
which is constructed with inner and outer verti
cal pipes l and 8 Welded to the top of the retort’
and welded roughly radial ledges 9 which sup
In dealing with batches, shallow trays have
been supported on a stand one above the other,
but the capacity of such a system is limited by
the necessity of even heating so far as possible
and an even ?ow of gas to form the desired at 10 port the roughly radial edges of superposed lay-'
ers of trays 6, any convenient number of trays
mosphere over the whole of the exposed surfaces.
for instance six or eight-—forming a complete
According to the present invention the mate
layerv Inlet and outlet branches ‘la, 8a form
rial is placed in shallow trays, arranged one above
headers at the top. The gas inlet and outlet
the other in a retort externally heated, or in the
pipes l0 and I I can pass out laterally through
case of larger diameter retorts in the space be
notches at the top of the furnace wall and can
tween central and circumferential heating means
be attached to a gas supply main and outlet duct
and gas is supplied in a directed stream over the
respectively. At suitable positions to supply each
surfaces of the contents of the trays. The term
tray are inlet and outlet ori?ces 1b, 8b (which
gas as used herein is intended to refer speci?
may be graduated to give an even distribution).
cally to gas to form the desired gaseous atmos_
The whole stand is suspended by the pipes from
the removable top of the retort which is in turn
In a typical furnace according to the inven
tion a stand or carrier occupies the roughly an
nular space between central and external struc
tures, both preferably having heating means and
stood in the furnace chamber. Gas distribution
can be arranged as convenient; in the illustrated
' example alternate pipes ‘I of the inner ring of
carries roughly segmental or tapered trays which
pipes serve to supply the gas over each layer of
can be slid into position so as to form roughly
trays, and the alternate but non-corresponding
annular layers of trays one above the other. Ver
tical pipes, which may conveniently be used as
the uprights of the stand, afford gas inlets and
pipes 8 of the outer ring to collect and remove the
gases and water vapour or other resultant gases
. O1’ vapours.
The remaining pipes 1 and 8, other
outlets so positioned as to direct the movement
of gas over the surfaces and may be connected
than those marked with ori?ces 1b and 8b, do
not form gas conduits, but merely for structural
to headers or radial branches forming headers at
the top (or possibly at the bottom) so that the
stand and trays can be loaded into the furnace
supporting parts. And alternatively all the inner
or outer pipes or branches may be used with slots
or other ori?ces and baffles if required, the ar
rangement being such as to direct the gas in an
chamber in a retort and withdrawn through a lid
at the top (or possibly at the bottom). Prefer
ably the pipes lie between the trays, and carry
supports for the radial edges of the trays, so that
heating is obstructed as little as may be.
Other parts of the invention are embodied in a
even steady flow as indicated by the arrows over
all the surfaces of the material in the trays. It
will be understood that as more particularly
40 shown in Figure 1, certain of the pipes 8 are
merely structural supports, the remaining pipes 8,
such for example as have the ori?ces 8b in Fig
ure 2, are extended above the top and connected
to the outlet pipe I l as shown in Figure 3.
It will be understood that the retort need not
necessarily have circular walls and that central as
well as external heating is not always essential.
Also that the furnace may have uses outside pow
der metallurgy and that the more detailed de
scription is‘ given by way of an example of a
typical form which is illustrated by the accom
panying drawings. The parts for which a monop
oly is desired are those set out in the claims.
In the drawings-—
Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation and
Fig. 2 a part sectional plan view with the door
or lid removed.
Fig. 3 is a broken perspective of the upper por
tion of the furnace showing particularly the con
nection of the pipes above the furnace.
furnace embodying the ideas underlying the
The furnace is indicated with an outer wall I,
I claim:
a top door or lid 2 and a central block or cham
ber 3.
Heating means of conventional form are
provided, preferably both central and also ex
1. Apparatus for heat treating powder or small
articles including a furnace with external and
internal structures leaving a roughly annular
inlet and outlet pipes form uprights of the frame,
approximately radial tray supporting members
being secured to the uprights.v
5. Apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the
trays are of tapered form with roughly radial
space between them, heating means, an annular
retort with a removable lid supportable in the
annular space, a frame including tubular mem
bers, trays supportable in the stand, gas connec
tions from outside the furnace to some of the
tubular members" forming inlet pipes,- exhaust
6.-_Apparatus for heat treating powder or small
connections/t0.z outside the furnace to othersof
the tubular members forming outlet pipes, ori
articles in a furnace including a retort, means
for heating the retort, a removable lid thereto, a
?ces beingso arranged in the said inlet and out- .
frame ?tting in the retort, trays arranged to be
let pipes as to give a directed flow of gas. overv
supported in the frame in layers each of a num
the surfaces of material contained in‘ the trays.
ber of ‘trays, inlet means arranged to direct treat
2. Apparatus for heat treating powder'or small .
ing» gasifrom' outside the furnace over the sur
articles including a furnace withexternal'andj
faces of the‘ contents of the trays, said inlet means
internal structures leaving a roughly‘. annular
~including tubular members forming part of the
space between them, heatingmeans, carriedby.
structure of. the frame, and outlet means ar
both the external and the internal structures, an
ranged to‘receive treating gas from the surfaces
annular retort with a removable lid supportable
and deliver it outside the furnace.
in the annular space, a frame including tubular
'7‘. Apparatus for heat treating powder or small
members, trays supportable in the stand, gas con
articles in a furnace including a retort, means
nections‘rfrom outside the furnace to some of the
for heating the'retorti-a removable lid thereto, a
tubular- members forming inlet pipes, exhaust
connections) to- outside- the' furnace, to'others; of ‘
framefitti-ng; in the retort, trays arranged‘ to-be'.
supported‘inthe framein layerseach of a-num
the tubular members forming outlet pipes, ori?ces
ber of trays, inlet means arranged to direct treat
being-so arranged in the said inlet and outlet
ing gas from outside the furnace over the‘ sur-i
pipesas to- give a directed flow of gas over the
faces of the‘contents of the trays and outlet
means arranged to receive treating gas from the
surfaces and deliver itoutside the furnace, said
outlet means including tubular members forming
part ofthe structure'of the frame.
surfaces of v‘material contained inthe trays.
3.’ Apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the
inlet; and outlet pipes pass through and, are se
cured'to the-lid of ;the retort.‘
. 4: Applara'tusiaccordingv to claim 1 wherein the
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