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Патент USA US2412163

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Dec. 3, ‘1946-
c. J. LUNDBORG
2,412,163
ELECTRIC CONTROL
Original Filed Jan. 21, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
‘CARL J‘. LUNDBQRG
BY
PM,
W
ATTORNEYS
' Dec. 3, 1946.
2,412,163
.C. J. LUNDBORG
ELECTRIC CONTROL
Original'Filed Jan. '21, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
CARL J‘. LUNDBORG
BY
A TTORNE Y5
am$w3xm5w3g
Patented Dec. 3, 1946
2,412,163
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,163
ELECTRIC CONTROL
Carl J. Lundborg, Great‘ Falls, Mont.
Original application January 21, 1942, Serial No.
427,567. Divided and this application February
22, 1944, Serial No. 523,450
10 Claims.
1
The present invention relates to electric con
trol circuits, and, more particularly, to electric
control circuits involving control of the output of
grid control recti?ers. The invention, while be~
ing of general applicability, is especially appli
cable to control of the total load imposed by a
plurality of independent loads upon a common
source of electric power.
This application is a division of my U. S. appli
(Cl. 315—198)
2
bined outputs of the interconnected recti?ers.
The phase relationship between the grid and plate
potentials of the recti?ers is advantageously such
as to obtain a substantially intermediate output
from each of the recti?ers, and the phase rela
tionship between the grid and plate potentials of
at least one of the recti?ers is regulated by a vari
able superposed potential responsive to the varia
involving the use of electric apparatus call for a
control device which will effect a desired variation
tion in an electric apparatus which it is desired
to control.
These and other features of the invention will
be more fully understood by reference to the ac
companying drawings, in which
in the operation of the electric apparatus, For
example, in the operation of a plant using elec
bodying the invention;
cation Ser. No. 427,567, ?led January 21, 1942,
now Patent No. 2,362,652. Numerous operations
Fig. 1 is a circuit diagram of an apparatus em
tric power for various purposes such as for elec
Fig. 2 shows one form of contact assembly that
may be used in the circuit illustrated in Fig. 1;
and
power used. in the plant at a substantially con
Fig. 3 is a circuit diagram showing one applica
stant value. This may be accomplished if means 20 tion of the control circuit of my invention to con
are provided for controlling the power absorbed
trol of the power absorption in an illustrative
by one of the loads so as to maintain the total
‘plant arrangement, this ?gure being drawn as a
power consumed at a predetermined desired value
continuation of Fig. 1.
or rate, particularly when the power is paid for on
Referring to Fig. 1 of the, drawings, T1 repre
the basis of a peak load rate. In a plant such as
sents a transformer for supplying power for the
that referred to above wherein the power ab
control circuit. A second transformer T2 is con
sorbed by such units as the rolling mill, tram sys
nected across the center tap and one end of the
tem, etc, is variable, but cannot be controlled at
secondary of transformer T1 and supplies power
will because of the demand nature of these loads,
for the operation of the three thermionic tubes
the electrolytic cells represent a load which may
VTI, VT2 and VT3 and the circuits appurtenant
be economically Varied substantially at will and
thereto. The tube" VT1 comprises a full wave
in such manner that the total amount of power
rectifying tube connected across a secondary of
consumed by all loads in the plant remains sub
the transformer T2. The direct potential output
stantially constant at the peak load value, or at
of the tube VTi, which is ?ltered through the cir
any other desired value. The present invention 35 cuit including the, choke coil I! and the con
provides a control circuit capable of thus main
densers C1 and C2, is connected across the re
taining a substantially constant power consump
sistance R1 which serves as a voltage divider im
tion in such a plant, particularly by control of
pedance. The positive side of the voltage divider
trolytic cells, a rolling mill, tram system, etc., it
is frequently desirable to maintain the total
the power absorbed by the electrolytic cells, al
R1‘ is connected through another impedance com
though the invention is applicable to many other 40 prising the resistor of potentiometer R2 to the
operations in which control of the combined out
plate of the vacuum tube VT2. The negative side
put of a plurality of grid control recti?ers may be
of the voltage divider R1 is connected through the
utilized for control of electric apparatus,
variable resistance R3 and the photoelectric cell
The control circuit of my invention for regu
PTl
to the grid of the tube VT2. The cathode of
lating the combined output of a plurality of grid 45 the tube VTZ is connected to the voltage divider
control rectifiers comprises a plurality of grid
R1 at a point positive with respect to the negative
control recti?ers interconnected to combine the
side of the Voltage divider, and the cathode and
outputs of the individual recti?ers, means for
grid. of the/tube VTz are interconnected through
providing the grids of the recti?ers with a poten
a condenser C3. The grid of the tube VTz is also
tial having a predetermined phase relationship 50 connected through the photoelectric tube PTz and
with the potential of the plates of the recti?ers,
the variable resistance R4 to a point on the volt
and means including relay means controlling or
age divider R1 which is positive with respect to
regulating the phase relationship between the
the point on R1 to which the cathode of the tube
grid and plate potentials of at least one of the
V'I‘g is connected. Thus; the photoelectric cell PT1
recti?e'i's in such manner as to control the com
is in a circuit which connects the grid of the tube
2,412,163
3
I3.
4
The ?laments of the recti?ers are supplied
V'I‘z to a source of negative potential and the
photoelectric cell PTz is in a circuit which con
nects the grid of the tube VTz to a source of posi
one-half of the secondary of the transformer T1.
tive potential.
The plates of the recti?ers l2 and I3 are con
In the operation of this portion of the control
circuit, light falling with equal distribution from
a source hereinafter described, upon the photo
electric cells PT]. and PTz permits current to flow
in the two circuits including the photoelectric
cell P'I'i and the resistance R3 and including the
photoelectric cell PT2 and the resistance R4, re
spectively, thus tending to balance the negative
and positive potentials imposed on the grid of
the tube VTz controlled by these two circuits.
Under these conditions current will flow through
the tube VTz. When, however, the distribution
of light intensity on the two photoelectric cells is
from a ?lament transformer T3 connected across
nected across the ends of the transformer T1 sec
ondary. An auxiliary circuit comprising the con_
denser C4 and the primary of the transformer
T4 is connected between the plate of the rectifier
l3 and the center tap of the transformer T1 sec
ondary. The grid H3 of the recti?er l3 and the
grid I5 of the recti?er l2 are connected across
the ends of the secondary winding of the trans
former T4. The auxiliary circuit causes a poten~
tial to be impressed on the grids iii and 55 having
a de?nite phase relationship with the plate po
tentials of the recti?ers l3 and i2, respectively.
The magnitude of the grid current of the rec
ti?ers is limited by the resistance R5 connected
such that more light falls upon PTz than on PT1,
between the center tap of the transformer T4
the conductivity of the photoelectric cell PTz is
greater than that of the cell PTi and consequent 20 secondary and the cathodes of both recti?ers.
The plate of the vacuum tube VTs is connected to
ly a less negative potential is imposed on the grid
the‘ same end or" the transformer T1 secondary as
of the tube VTz. The, speed with which this
is the plate of the recti?er l2, and the cathode
change in light distribution between the two pho
of the tube VT3 is connected to the auxiliary cir
toelectric cellsis re?ected by the change in grid
cuit at a point common to the condenser C4 and
potential in the tube VTz is controlled, with any
the end of the primary of transformer T4, remote
given capacity for the condenser C3, by the values
from the end connected to the center tap on
of the variable resistances R3 and R4. 'By the
transformer T1, completing the plate circuit of
proper selection of the values of the resistances
tube VT3. Thus, the variable plate current ?ow
R3 and R4, any rapid oscillation or ?uctuation
in the light distribution between the two photo 30 ing through the vacuum tube VT3 and entering
the auxiliary circuit between the condenser C4
electric cells is substantially completely damped
and the primary of the transformer T4, acting as
and does not result in a corresponding oscillation
a variable superposed potential substantially out
‘of the grid potential of the tube VTz. This is
of phase with the grid potentials of the recti?ers
true of both types of relay means here disclosed,
l2 and I3, alters the phase relationship between
viz., the photoelectric cell type of Fig. 1, and the
thegrid and plate potentials of the rectifiers l2
mechanical type of Fig. 2,’ later to be described.
and I3 (and also modi?es the effective amplitudes
As the potential of the grid of the tube VT2 be
of the grid potentials). These changes in phase
comes more positive the current flowing through
relationship effect corresponding changes in uni
this tube increases. An increase in the negative
bias or the grid of the tube VTz, resulting from 40 directional output current from recti?ers E2 and
13. The output current from the interconnected
more light falling‘ on the photoelectric cell PTi
recti?ers l2 and i3 is obtained through line it
than on the cell PTz, decreases the tube current
comprising connections to the center tap of the
flowing through the tube V'I‘z.
,
.
transformer T1 secondary and to the center taps
" The vacuum tube VTs acts as an electronic
,valve. The grid of the tube VTs is connected to 45 of the interconnected cathodes of these recti
the voltage divider R1 at a point negative with
This embodiment of the invention may be ap
.respect to the positive end of the voltage divider.
plied, as shown in Fig. 3, to the maintenance
The center tap of the cathode'of the‘ tube VTs is
of the power consumption of a plant including an
connected to the sliding contact of the poten-,
electrolytic cell tank room, Fig. 3 being drawn
wtiometer R2. Accordingly, the bias voltage on the
as a continuation of Fig. 1, terminals 34 and 35,
grid of tube V'I‘s is the difference between the
respectively, of both ?gures being identical. The
voltage drop on the voltage divider R1 from its
various independent power consuming loads may
positive end to the point at which the grid of
comprise rolling mills, smelters, tram systems,
VTs is connected and the voltage drop in the po
tentiometer R2 between the positive end of volt 55 compressors, and the like, and are represented
in Fig. 3 by loads #1, #2 and #3 connected across
age divider R1 and the sliding ‘contact of the po
the power line ll. To simplify the diagram this
By adjusting the position of the
, tentiometer.
power line is shown as comprising but two wires,
sliding contact on the potentiometer to give a
but a multi-phase line is usually employed in such
negative bias to the grid of VT: when the tube
current of VT3 is normal, an increase in the tube 60 plants. Variations in the power absorbed by these
loads are automatically compensated by control,
current of VT2 will produce a greater voltage drop
in accordance with the present invention, of the
in the potentiometer R2, thus decreasing the neg
power consumed by the electrolytic cell tanks it.
ative grid bias in the tube VTs. With a decrease
The power transformer 20 is connected to the
in the negative bias on the grid of the tube VTs,
power line H and through terminals 34 to the
the tube current ?owing through the tube VTa in
primary of transformer T1 of Fig. 1 and supplies
creases. Thus, with more light falling on the
to
the primary of the transformer T1 power nec
‘photoelectric cell P'I'z than on the cell PT1, the
essary for the operation of the control circuit
tube current through VT; increases and the tube
shown in Fig. 1. Also connected to the power
current through VTs also increases, whereas a
line H are the motors 2! of the motor-generator
reversal of this light distribution causes a de
crease in the tube currents of both VTz and VTa.
The grid control recti?er circuit providing the
'exciters “A,” .“B” and “C” and. the motors 22
of the plurality of .motor-generator sets which
supply direct current power to the electrolytic cell
tanks 18. The ?eld excitation for the motors 22
‘grid, control recti?ers, or “Thyratrons,” l2 and 75 and generators 23 of these motor-generator sets
controlled power output for the desired regulation
of an electric apparatus includes two gas-?lled
5
2,412,163
is provided by the generators .24 of the motor
6
tanks I8 by means of variations in the ?eld
generator exciters “A,” “B” and “C.”
excitation of either the generators or motors of
The power meter M (shown generally) is con
the motor-generator sets. Uniformity in opera~
nected in known manner to the power line I‘! in
tion rd output of the exciters “A,” “B” and “C”
order to indicate the total power consumed by
is enhanced by the equalizing connection between
the entire plant. The meter M which is provided
each of the exciter generators 24 comprising the
with a divided mirror 25, is connected :to the
line 32 and the equalizer switches 33. Inasmuch
power line in such manner that a drop ‘in the
as the power output of the generators 23 to the
plant power consumption below the desired rate
electrolytic cell tanks 53 represents converted
of power consumption causes the light from a 10 power obtained from the power line H, vari
suitable light source 26 to be re?ected from the
ations in the power supplied to the electrolytic
mirror 25 with greater intensity on the photo
cell tanks represent variations in the power con
electric cell PTz than .on'the cell PT1 of the con
sumed by this load on the power line.
trol circuit illustrated in Fig. 1. This causes an
The control circuit of my invention has many
increase in tube current through the vacuum tube 15 advantages over control circuits proposed or used
VT2, and a corresponding increase in the output
of the interconnected recti?ers l2 and 13 through
lines H5. ‘The output of the interconnected rec
ti?ers l2 and it through terminals .35 in lines
15, as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, is connected to the
double throw switch 21. By means of the switch
21 the output of the interconnected recti?ers l2
and i3 maybe connected across a portion of
heretofore. When the variable resistances R3
and R4 are adjusted to give the proper time con
stants to the circuit including the condenser C3,
there is substantially no hunting and the oper
ation of the control circuit is smooth and uni
form. The design of the control circuit is also
such that once it is calibrated and adjusted to
give the desired control output this calibration
either of the ?eld rheostats 28a and 28b which
is not disturbed by subsequent changes in the
are connected in series with the shunt ?elds of
operating constants of the tubes. The accuracy
and sensitivity of the control circuit are to some
the generators 2-4 of the motor-generator exciters
“A” and “B,” respectively. The current output
‘of the interconnected recti?ers l2 and ‘I3 is sup
plied to ?eld rheostat 28a or 2% in such man
ner that an increase in output current increases
the total current ?owing through the shunt ?eld
ofeither of the generators 2d of exciters “A” and
“B” thus tending to increase the output of these
exciters which in turn increases the output of
generators 23, thus increasing the load on motors ;_
22 and therefore on power line H.
It will be noted that the output of the inter
connected recti?ers through lines 15 is connected
into the shunt ?eld circuit of the motor-genera
tor exciter “A” or “B” by taps onto the ?eld
rheostat 28a or 2% so that the current output
through lines It‘ flows through a portion of either
rheostat acting as a ?xed resistance in the shunt
?eld circuit of each eXciter.
However, this is
extent dependent upon the relay system used to
translate to the rest of the control circuit the
electrical variation to be controlled. Where pho
tcelectric cells are used as such a relay, as shown
in the speci?c embodiment of the invention illus
trated in Fig. 1, no moving contacts are involved
and the output of the control circuit is directly
responsive to the distribution of light intensity on
the two photoelectric cells, thus giving a propor
tional step control. The photoelectric cells PTi
and P'Tz may be so illuminated that only one or
the other of these cells is illuminated when the
meter reading is either above or below its normal position. Where a contact relay such as that
shown in Fig. 2 is used in place of the photo
electric cells (the connections to the control cir
cuit represented by the numerals I, 2 and 3 being
the same as in Fig. l), the contact relay may
primarily a connection in the interest or con
be of a very delicate design because the currents
venience and accordingly the lines 15 may in
passing between the contacts, being substantially
stead be connected across a separate ?xed resist
ance in the shunt ?eld circuit of either exciter
only the grid current in the tube VT2, are of the
order of microamperes. The range of the control
circuit (regardless of the type of relay used) is
“A” or “B.”
The control circuit supplying the
current output through the lines it‘ is advan- .
tageously operated in such manner that under
normal conditions (i. e., ‘when an equal light
distribution falls on the photoelectric cells PTl
and ~PT2) the current output from the intercon
nected recti?ers of the control circuit provides
at'least a substantial portion of the current ‘flow
ing- through the shunt field of the generator 24.
The output from the generator 24 of the motor
readily adjusted to meet any conditions by regu~
lation of the potentiometer R2 which determines
the magnitude of the grid bias of the tube V'Ts.
The control circuit of the invention may be
used in any electric system wherein control of
the system may be effected by a variable direct
current comprising the output of the intercom-e
nected recti?ers. For example, the control cir
cuit may be used to effect voltage regulation or"
generator exciter “A” is connected through its
an A. C. or D. C. generator, or for supplying part
series field, the circuit breaker 36a and the switch 60 or all of the ?eld excitation of a D. C. motor, or
Sic to the bus supplying excitation to the ?elds
for supplying all or part of both ?eld and armae
of the generators 23. The output from the gen
ture current of a D. C. motor as a means of speed
erator 2d of the motor-generator exciter “B” is
and torque control of the motor. The control
connected through its series ?eld and the circuit
circuit may also ‘caused to regulate current in an
breaker ‘38b to a double-throw switch Gib which
A. C. circuit by supplying the direct current out
is adapted
supply the output of exciter “B”
put of the control circuit to a D. C. winding of a
either to the bus for the ?elds of the generators
saturable core reactor in the A. C. circuit. Thus,
23 or to the bus ‘for the ?elds of the motors 22.
the control circuit may be used with advantage
The output from the generator 24 of exciter “C”
in any service wherein a variable but'controlled
is connected through the circuit breaker See and
direct current, within the current capacity of
the switch ‘die to the bus for the ?elds of the m0
the recti?er tubes, may be utilized, and it is in
‘tors '22. Thus, complete flexibility is afforded
this broad sense that the claims refer to control
‘for utilizing the controlled current output from
in response to changes in a given load.
‘the control circuit in varying the power output
What is claimed is:
.‘from the generators 23 to the electrolytic cell
1. In a system for automatically controlling
2,412,163
-
7
the output of a gas-?lled recti?er in accordance
with changes in a given load, said recti?er‘ having
a control grid, means for providing said control
grid with a potential having a predetermined
phase relation with the potential of the plate
thereof, a vacuum tube having a grid, a grid cir~
suit, a cathode, a plate and a plate circuit, means
in said plate circuit for deriving a control poten
tial therein, coupling means linking said plate
relay means‘ to said source of biasing potential,
said change in given load effecting a correspond
ing change in biasing potential impressed on the
grid of said vacuum tube to vary the output of
said recti?er in accordance with said changes in
said given load, adjustable means in one of said
connections for adjusting the value of biasing
potential impressed on said lastnamed grid, and
means including said adjustable means for pre
circuit with the control grid of said recti?er for 16 determining the time constant of the grid circuit
of said vacuum tube.
_
automatically varying said phase relation in ac~
4. In a system for automatically controlling the
cordance with variations in said control poten
output of a gas-?lled recti?er in accordance with
tial, and means for e?ecting variations in said
changes in a given load, said recti?er having a
control potential in response to changes
said
control grid, means :for providing said control
load, including: relay means, means for automati
grid with a potential having a predetermined
cally actuating said relay means in accordance
phase relation with the potential of the plate
with a preselected change in said given load, a
thereof, a vacuum tube having a grid, a grid cir
source of substantially constant biasing potential,
and connections between said relay means, the
cuit, a cathode, a plate and a plate circuit, means
in said plate circuit for deriving a control poten
grid of said vacuum tube and said source of bias
ing potential, said change in given load effecting
tial therein, coupling means linking said plate
a corresponding change in the biasing poten a1
circuit with thecontrol grid of said recti?er for
automatically varying said phase relation in ac
with
vary
impressed
said
the output
changes
on theofin
grid
said
said
ofrecti?er
given
said vacuum
load. ,
tube
cordance with variations in said control potential,
and means for effecting variations in said control
2. .In a system for automatically controlling the
output of a gas-?lled recti?er in accordance with
potential including: relay means, means‘respcn
sive to said changes in said given load for actuat
' changes in a given load, said recti?er having a
ing said relay means in accordance with a pre
selected change in said given load, a coupling be
control grid, means for providing said control grid
with a potential having a predetermined phase 30 tween the grid of said vacuum tube and said relay,
a source of substantially constant potential com
relation with the potential of the plate thereof, a
prising a voltage dividing resistor through which
vacuum tube having a grid, a grid circuit, a cath
a substantially constant unidirectional current
ode, a plate and a plate circuit, means in said
plate circuit for, deriving a control potential
flows, a coupling from the plate of said vacuum
‘therein, coupling means linking said plate circuit
tube to the positive terminal of said resistor, a
with the control grid of said recti?er for auto
?rst connection from the cathode of said vacuum
tube to a ?rst point on said resistor considerably
matically varying said phase relation in accord
more negative than said positive terminal, a sec
ance With variations in said control potential, and
means for e?ecting variations in said control po
tential including: relay means, means responsive
to said changes in said given load for actuating
ond ‘connection from said relay means to a second
point on said resistor more negative than said
?rst point, a third connection from said relay
said relay means in accordance with a preselected
change in said given load, a source of substan
means to a third point on said resistor more
tially constant biasing potential, connections be
in at least one of said second and third connec
tions and a condenser effectively connected be
tween the grid and cathode of said vacuum tube
tween said relay means, the grid of said vacuum
tube and said source of biasing potential, said
change in given load effecting a corresponding
change in ‘the biasing potential impressed on the
grid of said vacuum tube to vary the output of
said recti?er in accordance with said changes in
said given load, and means connected in at least
one‘ of said connections for predetermining the
time constant of the grid circuit of said vacuum
tube.
3. In a system for automatically controlling the
output of a gas-?lled recti?er in accordance with
changes in a given load, said recti?er having a
control grid, means for providing said control grid
with a potential having a predetermined phase
relation with the potential of the plate thereof, a
vacuum tube having a grid, a grid circuit, a cath
ode, a plate and a plate circuit, means in said’
plate circuit for deriving a control potential
therein, coupling means linking said plate circuit
With the control grid of said recti?er for auto
matically varying said phase relation in accord
ance with variations in said control potential, and
positive than said ?rst point, a variable resistor
whereby the time constant of the grid circuit
thereof is predetermined and said change in said
given load effects a corresponding change in the
biasing potential impressed on the grid of said
vacuum tube so that the output of said recti?er
is varied in accordance with said changes in said
given load.
,
5. A system according .to claim 4 wherein said
coupling means linking said plate circuit with
the control grid of said recti?er includes a second
vacuum tube having a cathode, a grid and a plate,
said last named grid being connected to a fourth
point on said resistor less ‘positive than said-ter
minal, impedance means in the plate circuit of
said ?rst vacuum tube across which is developed
said control potential which ?uctuates in re—
sponse to changes in said load, means for im
pressing said control potential on the cathode
of said second vacuum tube, and an impedance
connected in the grid circuit of said recti?er,
the cathode and plate of said second vacuum tube
being effectively coupled across said impedance,
means for e?ecting variations in said control po
whereby the grid-to-plate phase relation of said
tential including: relay means, means responsive
to said changes in said given load for actuating 70 recti?er is automatically varied in accordance
with variations in said control potential.
said relay means in accordance with a preselected
change in said given load, a sour-ceof substan
tially constant biasing potential, a ?rst connec
tion from said relay means to the grid of ‘said
vacuum tube, and a second connection from said
6. In a power control system, a pair of gas- .
?lled grid control recti?er tubes coupled in full
wave recti?er relation, 2, ?rst vacuum tube hav
ing grid and plate circuits and a cathode, the
2,412,183
plate circuit thereof being coupled to the grids
of said recti?er tubes so that variation of current
in said plate circuit varies the phase relation be
tween the grid and plate potentials of said recti
?er tubes, a second vacuum tube having a grid, a
cathode, a plate, and a plate circuit, impedance '
means connected in the plate circuit of said sec
ond tube in series between the plate and the
cathode thereof, a source of direct-current poten
tial connected with its negative terminal to a 10
?rst point on said impedance means and its posi
tive terminal to a second point on said impedance
means, the cathode of said second tube being con
nected to a third point on said impedance means
between said ?rst and second points, a connec
tion from the cathode of said ?rst tube to a
fourth point on said impedance means between
said second point and the plate of said second
tube, a ?fth point on said impedance means more
positive than said third point and a sixth point on said impedance means more negative than
said third point, relay means for impressing on
the grid of said second tube a control potential
derived from the potential at either of said ?fth
and sixth points, and means responsive to ?uctu
ations in said power source for actuating said
relay means so that the output of said recti?ers
is varied in accordance with said ?uctuations.
7. In a power control system, a pair of gas
?lled grid control recti?er tubes coupled in full_
wave recti?er relation, a ?rst vacuum tube hav
ing grid and plate circuits and a cathode, the
plate circuit thereof being coupled to the grids of
said recti?er tubes so that variation of current
in said plate circuit varies the phase relation be- -
tween the grid and plate potentials of said
recti?er tubes, a second vacuum tube having a
10
positive potentials comprise taps on a voltage
divider resistance and connections therefrom to
said relay means.
9. In a system for automatically controlling the
output of a gas-?lled recti?er in accordance with
changes in a given load, said recti?er having a
control grid, means for providing said control
grid with a potential having a predetermined
phase relation with the potential of the plate
thereof, a vacuum tube having a grid, a grid cir
cuit, a cathode, a plate and a plate circuit, means
in said plate circuit for deriving a control po
tential therein, coupling means linking said plate
circuit with the control grid of said recti?er for
automatically varying said phase relation in ac
cordance with variations in said control potential,
and means for effecting variations in said control
potential in response to changes in said load, in
cluding: relay means, means for automatically
actuating said relay means in accordance with a.
preselected change in said given load, a source
of substantially constant biasing potential, and
connections between said relay means, the grid
of said vacuum tube and said source of biasing
potential, said change in given load effecting a
corresponding change in the biasing potential im
pressed on the grid of said vacuum tube to vary
the output of said recti?er inversely with respect
to said changes in said given load.
10. In a power control system, a pair of gas
?lled grid control recti?er tubes coupled in full
Wave recti?er relation, a ?rst vacuum tube hav
ing grid and plate circuits and a cathode, the
plate circuit thereof being coupled to the grids
of said recti?er tubes so that variation of cur
rent in said plate circuit varies the phase relation
between the grid and plate potentials of said
grid, a cathode, a plate, and a plate circuit, im
pedance means connected in the plate circuit of
recti?er tubes, a second vacuum tube having a
grid of said second tube, relay means for impress
potential normally positive with respect to the
grid of said second tube, relay means for impress
grid, a cathode, a plate, and a plate circuit, im
said second tube, means causing a unidirectional 4:0 pedance means connected in the plate circuit of
current to flow through said impedance means, a
Said second tube, means causing a unidirectional
connection from said impedance means to the , current to ?ow through said impedance means, a
cathode of said ?rst tube, a connection from the
connection from said impedance means to the
grid of said ?rst tube to a point in the plate cir
cathode of said ?rst tube, a connection from the
cuit of said second tube normally more negative '
grid of said ?rst tube to a point in the plate cir_
than said connection from said impedance means,
cuit of said second tube normally more negative
a source of substantially constant potential nor
than said connection from said impedance means,
mally negative with respect to the grid of said
a source of substantially constant potential nor~
second tube, a source of substantially constant
mally negative with respect to the grid of said
potential normally positive with respect to the
second tube, a source of substantially constant
ing on the grid of said second tube a control
potential derived from at least one of said poten
tial sources, and means coupling said relay means
with a power source, said coupling means being ;
responsive to ?uctuations in said power source to
actuate said relay means to vary the output of
said recti?ers in accordance with said ?uctua
tions.
ing on the grid of said second tube a control
potential derived from at least one of said poten
tial sources, and means coupling said relay means
with a power source, said coupling means being
responsive to ?uctuations in said power source to
actuate said relay means to vary the output of
said recti?ers inversely with respect to said ?uc
8. A system according to claim 7, wherein said 60 tuations,
sources of substantially constant negative and
CARL J. LUNDBORG.
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