Патент USA US2412185код для вставки
Dec. 3, 1946. , c. WEBER I 2,412,185 METHOD OF ENCASING-DRIVEN FILING Filed June 7, 1945 " 3.7 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 . 36" } 35 24, ....I l INVENTOR ‘OAIFL WEBER ‘BY WV” ATTORN EYS Dec. 3, 1946. 2,412,185 Q WEBER ' METHOD OF ENCASING DRIVEN FILING Filed June '7, 1945 ' 2 Sheets-—She_et 2 ’ INVENTOR CARI. WEBER ATTO R N EY§ Patented Dec. 3, 1946 2,412,185 UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,412,185 ' METHOD OF ENCASING DRIVEN PILING Carl Weber, New York,,N. Y. Application June 7, 1945, Serial No. 597,995 (01. 61-54) 6 Claims. 1 2 This invention comprehends a method of en within the narrow forms frequently prevents so] casing with concrete wooden piles located under wharves, clocks, piers, bridges, trestles and similar downward flow of the concrete mixture thus leavé lidi?cation of the concrete by obstructing the maritime structures as protection against the ing large un?lled hollow spaces therein. Such hollow spaces form honey-combed sections that ruinous attacks of teredoes, limnoria, and other marine borers and to prevent‘ decay from dry-rot, cannot be detected until the forms are removed fungus growths, termites and other wood destroy and which must be repaired which is cost1y,'very , ing in?uences, and which also provides effective di?icult and providing at best an. unsatisfactory protection against damage to the piling from patch-work encasement. Should permanent abrasion caused by ice and floating debris while 10 forms be ‘used and allowed to remain “in vplace eliminating ‘or greatly reducing ‘the ?re hazard after pouring the concrete mixture, defects in the to which such maritime structures are frequently ‘encasement may remain‘hidden‘until the ‘forms exposed. ' are , Concrete encasements are also employed for the reconditioning of‘ wooden piling that has be come weakened or deteriorated byboreeworms or other destructive elements or for restoring piling v ~ " r . The aforesaid di?iculties encountered in‘ the formation of concrete encasements about driven piling have led to the formation of concrete en that has been ‘ruptured by impact or injured by ?re or overloading and the same is also'used for increasing the load carrying capacity of existing piling should it be necessary‘to increase the load carryingcapacity thereof. Concrete encasements consumed by rust -or other destructive agencies. u 4.. casements about piling before the samelis inserted a in place. In carryingout this method a suitable wire mesh is fastened around the piling and a con crete shell of the required thickness formediover the wire mesh by means of a pneumatic, cement or vmortar'gun. While a more perfect encasement are also employed for the protection of steel piling to prevent deterioration by rust of sections that maybe produced by this method, the ‘Waste of ‘the are exposed to alternate dry and wet conditions 25 mixture resulting from the use of the'vpneumatic and to preserve piling placed in corrosive ground gun, the inconvenience‘and cost‘involved in this or contaminated ‘Water. method are so great that the same is only em Concrete encasemen'ts are frequently applied to ployed for exceptional conditions and require the exposed tops of wooden piling or to the upper ments. The'use of the pneumatic gun in this portion of piling located within‘ the ‘tidal range, so method necessitates a rich "mixture of sand "and between extreme low and high water marks where cement, thereby eliminating a more effective and the‘destructive effects of bore-worms, crustacean economical cement mixture‘with ‘coarse aggro and fungus growth and deterioration by abrasive gates. The use of‘ the pneumatic gun also ‘re action are most prevalent. For the reason, how quires that the piling be disposed in a horizontal ever, that many species of marine borers enter the position for the application ofthe concrete; en piling at or slightly below the 'mudline, it is'the casement thereto which necessitates extensive more usual practice to extend the concrete casing space for the work and for storage and curing of a few .feet below ground level especially if large the encasedpiling. Furthermore piles so encased and important structures requiring permanent are heavy and cumbersome and ‘necessitate ‘the safe protection are‘to be provided. . 40 use ‘of heavy equipment for handling and trans . It has been the practice to form concrete en casements about wooden piling either before or after'the piling is driven-in place. The former method has beenemployed so as to prevent pre mature contact of .fresh concrete with sea or brackish water and because it has been found practically impossibleto'form'a comparatively thin porting the same. The ‘handling and driving of such encased piling into place frequently result in damaging the encasement although-the same has been ‘allowed to become cured and hardened which ' is not always possible where cramped working space and ‘limited time prevent proper aging and below the low water line withoutexposing the thereof. This method also entails the en'casing 'of a ‘longer portion of the piling than is usually necessary since the correct length of penetration fresh concrete mixture to in?ltration or admix of the piling cannot always be predetermined. ture with sea water which weakens the concrete and greatly reduces its protective quality. Afur Inorder to overcome the aforesaid disadvan tages in and objections to the use of the afore ther obstacle‘to the formation of concrete encase ment about driven piling is that the reinforce ment in the form of wire mesh- or the like located, an improved method of encasing with concrete wooden piling .or the like at anytime after ‘the shell of concrete around driven piling under water said methods, the present'invention comprehends. 2,412,185 3 same has been driven in place to the required depth. This method embodies the enclosing of the portion of the piling about which the encase 4 mating members together in annular formation. A valve l5 of any commercial construction is se cured in an opening in the member ID for eject ing by air pressure the water which accumulates ment is to be formed with an air-tight and water tight sectional casing which is spaced from the Cl in the casing during the assembly thereof. The said valve is adapted to permit of the passage of piling to provide an annular cavity for receiving the concrete mixture for producing the encase ment of the desired thickness. The method contemplates the assembly of the sections of the casing about the pilingabove the water from the casing and the same is of a type which automatically closes when the air pressure is released to prevent the re-entry of water into the casing through the valve. The member I0 is waterline and the step by step lowering thereof also formed with an opening in which'is thread into position as each section is assembled and connected to its adjacent upper section respec tively. The method also includes the steps of subjecting the casing to air pressure to expel the water accumulating therein and thereafter forc Y edly engaged the lower end of a pipeline l6 ex ing the concrete mixture in plastic condition into; the casing at the bottom thereof with su?icient ' ?uid pressure to cause it to rise within and to» the top of the casing to thereby compress and compact the concrete into a dense mass ?lling the entire cavity surrounding the piling and em bedding therein the reinforcement secured to the tending upwardly therefrom and connected with a concrete injector or pump (not shown) for forc ing the concrete mixture through said pipeline intothe casing. The bottom section A also includes an annular plate ll consisting of abutting semi-circular members which are secured against the underside of the mating members It) and II by bolts l8 extending through the peripheral ?anges l3 thereof. The inner periphery of the plate I1 is spaced from the pile when the, bottom section A is disposed in surrounding relation therewith and piling. The invention further includes the retaining , and protection of the concrete within the casing until the concrete has su?iciently hardened so as to safely permit the removal of the temporary casing forms. ' V ' With'the foregoing and other objects in view reference is. now made to the following speci?ca tion and accompanying drawings in which is illus trated the preferred forms of the casing for carry ing out they method embodying the invention. In the drawings: .- , : ~ . ‘ Fig. 1 is‘a'verticalsectionalview of ‘a casing employed’ in carrying out the method embodying the invention. ‘ - ' Fig. 2 is a top plan view thereof with parts broken away and the pile shown in section. - ‘V Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view on line. 3-3 of-Fig. l. in order to form a water-tight jointbetween the plate and the pile a plurality of arcuate ?aps l9 fashioned from canvas impregnated with rubber are arranged within the section A with the outer edges of the ?aps secured to the inner edge por tion of the plate l'l- and with the inner edge por tions of said ?aps bent upwardly and impinged against the pile. -- ' g - ‘ g The top or uppermost section B similarly con sists of oppositely disposed matingmembers 20 and 2|‘ of semi-circular formationin cross-sec tion which are formed with peripheral ?anges 22 and 23 at. the upper and lower ends thereof re spectively and with longitudinally extending ra dially projecting ?anges 24 at the opposite ver 40 tical edges of said members, the'said ?anges 24. being formed with ‘openings therethrough adapt ‘ ed to receive bolts for securing said semi-cylin f “Fig. 4 is a typical ‘horizontal sectional vview‘ through a portion of the intermediate sections illustrating one of the clamping devices in po sition ‘on thevertical ?anges. drical members together in annular relation. The said section also includes an annular plate ' 26 consisting of abutting semi-circular members which are’secured upon the-upper surface thereof ~ Fig.5 is'a view inv elevation of said clamping by bolts 21 extending through the peripheral ?anges 22 and superimposed upon said annular plate‘ are abutting semi-annular members v28 Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view illustrating ‘a pre-cast concrete bottom section 60 secured thereto by said bolts 21. The said mem employed in carrying out the method when the bers 28 are rabbeted about their inner periphery to provide an annular recess 30 with said. annular piling is to be encased below the mud-line. plate 26 in which is clamped the outer edge of Fig. 7 is a horizontal sectional view on line L-l an elastic annular collar 3| having its inner por of view‘ 6. ' ‘The casing employed in carrying out the 55 tion curved upwardly and secured about the pile device, I ‘ > method consists of a bottom section A, a top sec tion B and a plurality of intermediate sections C and D which are of tubular-formation and so as to close the space between the‘ inner periph adapted'to be disposed in surrounding spaced re 32 for discharging the impurities that may be ery'of the annular plate and the pile; vThe semi circular member 20.is provided with a cock valve lation with a driven or standing pile E and se» (ill forced to the top of the concrete mixture in. the cured together in end to end relation so as to .cavity 9. The said member 20 is also provided provide an annular cavity 9 between the pile and with a pipe 33 secured in an opening therein and the casing for receiving a concrete mixture which ‘connected to an air pressure pipe 34 in'which is - is forced into the bottom thereof to thereby pro interposed a valve 35 and connected therewith is duce a concrete encasement surrounding the pile 65 a pressure gauge 36 and an exhaust valve 31, the throughout the desired length thereof. I r latter being manually actuated for controlling The bottom section A consists of oppositely dis the pressure within the casing. '7 ' '“ posed mating members In and l l of semi-circular The intermediate sections C are- of ‘inverted formation in cross-section which are formed with truncated formation each consisting of oppositely peripheral ?anges l2 and I3 at the upper and 70 disposed mating members 38 and 39701 semi-elm lower ends respectively and with longitudinally cular formation in cross-section which ‘are fash ioned from sheet steel and have flanged angle bars 40 and 4| secured thereto at the‘ upper-and l4 being formed - with openings therethrough lower ends thereof and longitudinally extending adapted to receive bolts for securlngthe said 75 angle bars 42 secured thereto along the opposite extending radially projecting ?anges 14' at the opposite vertical edges thereof, the said flanges 2,412,185 5 6 vertical edges thereof. Any desired number of intermediate sections-C may be employed in the casing arranged with the horizontal ?anges of the upper bars 40 secured by bolts 43 to the hori tion .A is. secured in position upon the ‘uppermost .intermediate section C .thus completing the cas ing. The ‘steel reinforcement, indicated :by the reference character 58 such as wire mesh, .ex zontal?anges of the lower bars 4! of the adjacent . C: panded metal, steel bars or the like is inserted into the casing and secured ‘in position therein upper section, the upper horizontal ?anges'of the bars 410 of the uppermost section ~C being bolted‘ as'the sectionsare assembled. The pipeline 16 is connected with the lower to the horizontal ?anges 20 of the top section B. The members 38 and 39 are releasably secured ' section A during the assembly :thereof and when vthe casing is completely assembled and is in the together in assembled annular formation by (‘desired position longitudinal of thejpile ‘the pipe means of clamping devices 44 which are spaced’ line I6 is connected with a concrete injector or longitudinally along the angle bars 42 and which pump (not shown) for forcing ‘the concrete into consist of a lever 45 pivoted intermediate its the casing. When the top section B is in posi length to a bracket 46'having an enlarged outer tion the piping 33 together with the valves 35 end formed with a cam face against which the and 3;‘! and gauge 36 are connected thereto and lever :is pivoted. The inner ends of the brackets to the pipeline 3d leading to a-source of air pres 46 preformed with an annular projection or boss 41 adapted to engagein-openings 48 in the angle sure (not shown). - As the sections of the casing are lowered into curing the device in position so that the inner 20 position the same ‘become ?lled with water which is discharged vafter ‘the casing is completed by ends of the levers 45 may be cammed against means of air pressure forced into the casing the adjacent angle bars 42 of the opposite mem through the pipeline 34 'so as to expel the water her. through the valve 15. The concrete mixture The intermediate sections D also consist of op is then forced into the bottom of the casing positely disposed mating members 49 and 50 of. through the pipeline it which is continued until semi-circular formation in cross-section which the cavity 9 surrounding the pile is ?lled'while are fashioned from sheet steel and have angle the exhaust valve 31 may be ‘manipulated ‘to bars 52 and 53 secured thereto at the upper and maintain pressure upon the top of the concrete lower ends thereof and longitudinally extending angle bars 54 secured thereto along the opposite I as the same rises in the casing to thereby 'com press and compact the concrete about the piling. vertical edges thereof. Any desired number of Any» impurities that may ‘be ?oating on top ‘of said intermediate sections may be employed in the concrete in the casing ‘are discharged by the casing in accordance with the length of the manipulating the valve 32. pile to be encased. The sections are arranged The sections A, B, C and D of the ‘casingzare with the horizontal ?anges of the upper bars 52 u secured together so as to render the casing liquid secured to the horizontal ?anges of the lower bars 42 of one of saidmembers 38 and 39 for se angle bars 53 of the adjacent lower section by bolts 55. The horizontal ?anges of the upper angle bars 52 of the uppermost section D is so cured by the bolts 55 to the horizontal ?anges of the lower angle bars 4| of the lowermost inter mediate section C. The members 49 and 50 are similarly releasably coupled together in assem bled annular formation by means of the clamping devices 44 engaging at longitudinally spaced in tervals over the adjacent vertical angle bars 54 as described in connection with the intermediate sections C. Chains 56 are connected to the outer ends of adjacent levers 45 whereby the levers may be swung on their pivotal connections with I and air-tight and for this purpose gaskets :80 are interposed between the mating horizontal and vertical ?anges thereof. This construction prevents the entrance of water into the casing which would dilute and ‘weaken the concrete and also renders it possible to maintain ‘the de sired pressure within the casing during the forc ing of the concrete mixture therein. The valve 35 ‘is closed during the ?lling of the casing with the concrete material while the cock valve 32 and the exhaust valve 31 are regulated by hand to vdischarge impure or watery material ?oating on top of the concrete mixture or to maintain any desired pressure upon the top thereof. The con the brackets 46 by an upward pull on the chains crete mixture being subjected to pressurefrom so as to release the clamping devices 44 from en below forcing the same upward within the casing to the top thereof compresses and compacts the gagement with the vertical angle bars of the in termediate sections C and D to thereby discon nect the oppositely disposed members 38 and 39 of the intermediate sections C and the oppositely disposed members 49 and 50 of the intermediate sections D. In practicing the method the pile which isdis posed in standing position is ?rst cleaned if nec ‘essary. The members I0 and H of the bottom concrete therein and causes the same to extend into and ?ll all crevices‘in the piling. The en casement thus formed about the piling is ex tremely dense and hard'and is tightly bonded to the piling. When the concrete is su?iciently hardened the casing sections are removed for further use. When it is necessary to provide a concrete section A are assembled in surrounding relation with the pile which members are supported by means of ropes or chains above the level of the water While the same are being secured together. The members 49 and 50 of an intermediate sec tion D are then secured in assembled relation encasement extending about the ‘piling into ‘solid ground below the mud level, a concrete pre molded section F illustrated in Figs. 6 and '7 of the drawings is provided which takes the place of the bottom section A of the casing previously described. The pare-molded section F is formed about the pile and fastened to the bottom section of oppositely disposed mating members BI and A which is then lowered and additional interme 52 of semi-circular formation in cross-section. The said mating members are formed with lon diate sections D and. C are assembled in sure ~ rounding relation with the pile and secured in end to end relation with adjacent sections. When the required number of said intermediate sections are arranged in position depending upon the length of the pile to be encased the top sec- ' gitudinally extending rabbeted vertical edges 53 at the opposite sides thereof which provide verti cally extending recesses at the juncture of the members when arranged in mating relation which recesses are ?lled by quick hardening cement and 72,412,185 7 8 . "upward pull on the clamping devices when the in which are embedded‘ the projecting ends of, the --reinforcement 64 for securing the .said members , concrete hardens and removing the'ca'sing sec together in assembled relation about the piling.‘ 'The section F is similarly provided with a valve [5 for ejecting water from the casing and secured 5 '3. A method for producing concrete encase ments about piling driven into water-covered to the lower reduced end thereof are arcuate ?aps l9 having their upper ends disposed in sur ground and projecting upwardly through the waterjconsisting in' assembling the sections of a water-tight casing about the piling in spaced tions. ' » rounding relation with the piling for closing the relation thereto to completely enclose a longi bottom of the casing. The section F is secured to the adjacent upper 10 tudinal portion thereof above and below the water-line, lowering said sections into position section D by bolts 65 extending through the as the same are assembled and fastened to the horizontal ?ange of the angle bars 53 thereof ' I and through angle bar 61 secured in surrounding relation with the upper end of said section F. adjacent section, forcing air into said casing to A pipeline similar to the pipeline l6 extends into the "casing through the section F thereof and through which the concrete mixture is forced into mixture into said casingr at the bottom thereof and upwardly therein to ?ll the space between the piling and the, casing, and'removing the cas the casing. ing when the concrete hardens. ' ' When the pre-formed‘ section F is employed, the same becomes an integral part of the con crete encasement and remains in position in sur rounding relation with the portion of the piling located below the mud-line. The concrete mixture employed in the forma tion of the encasement is composed of any de sired proportions of cement, sand and agglomer ate which are mixed into a plastic consistency so "as to‘ provide a dense and hard concrete when solidi?ed. r I What is claimed is: 1. A method for producing concrete encase eject 'water therefrom, forcing plastic concrete ‘ ' ‘ ‘4. A method for producing concrete encase ‘ments about piling driven into Water-covered ground and projecting upwardly through the water consisting in enclosing a longitudinal por tion of the piling below the mud-line with a sec‘ tional concrete casing portion disposed in spaced 25' relation with the piling, enclosing an upper lon gitudinal portion of the piling with a metallic casing portion disposed in surrounding spaced relation with the piling, fastening said concrete and metallic casing portions together, forcing plastic concrete mixture into said casing at the bottom thereof and upwardly therein to ?ll the space between the piling and the casing, main taining pressure upon the top of the concrete ments about driven piling subjected to the ac tion of sea-water and the like consisting in com pletely enclosing a longitudinal portion of the mixture as the same rises within the casing and removing the metallic portion of the casing when piling with a liquid tight metallic casing com pressed at its ends against the piling and dis the concrete hardens. t 5. A method for producing concrete encase posed between its ends in surrounding spaced ments about driven piling subjected to the ac ‘relation to the piling, forcing plastic concrete tion of seaéwater and the like consisting in com mixture into said casing at the bottom thereof ‘and upwardly therein to ?ll the space between 40 pletely enclosing a longitudinal portion of the piling with a liquid tight metallic casing dis the piling and the casing, maintaining pressure posed in surrounding spaced relation to the pil upon the top of the concrete mixture as the same ing, forcing plastic concrete mixture into said rises within the casing and removing the metallic casing at the bottom thereof and upwardly casing when the concrete hardens. , therein to ?ll the space between the piling and 2. A method for producing concrete encase the casing, and'removing the metallic casing ments about piling driven into water-covered ' ground and projecting upwardly through the when the concrete hardens. water consisting in assembling semi-circular 6. A method for producing concrete encase sections of a water-tight casing about the pil ments about piling driven into water-covered ground and projecting upwardly through the ing in spaced relation thereto and above the water consisting in assembling a sectional me water-line, securing said semi-circular sections together by clamping devices releasable by up tallic casing about the piling in spaced relation ward movement, coupling said clamping devices thereto‘ above the water-line, securing said sec together for simultaneously releasing the same; tions'tog‘ether by releasable clamps, lowering lowering said sections into position as the same said sections into position as the same are as are assembled and fastened to the adjacent sec sembled and fastened to adjacent sections, forc ing air into said casing to eject water there tion, forcing air into said casing to eject water therefrom, forcing plastic concrete mixture into from, forcing plastic concrete mixture into said ‘said casing at the bottom thereof and upwardly casing ' at the bottom thereof and upwardly therein to ?ll the space between the piling and 60 therein to ?ll the space between the piling and the casing, maintaining pressure upon the top the casing, and releasing the clamps and re moving the casing when the concrete hardens. er the concrete mixture as the same rises within ‘the casing, releasing the semi-circular casing by CARL WEBER.