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Патент USA US2412286

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2,412,286
H. V. PEDERSEN
STATIONARY FLASH CALCINING FURNACE
Filéd Jan . 20, 1944
ZSIieets-Sheet 2
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2,412,286
Patented Dec. 10, 1946
. UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,286
'_ a
I
STATIONARY FLASH CALCINING FURNACE
I Hans V. Pedersen, Marshalltown, Iowa
, ‘ Application anuary 20, 1944, Serial No. 519,009
7 Claims.
(Cl. 263-29)
2
I8 and a settling chamber 20.- All of these cham- .
My invention relates toa furnace for calcining
material and particularly dried waste sludge from
a water softening plant whereby such sludge is
reconverted into a product containing all the
bers are formed by building a substantially rec- -
tangular structure from ?re brick or the like as
illustrated in Figure 3, although the walls are not
shown as to the brick detail in Figures 1 and 2. .
properties of quick lime so that it can be used
over again in the water softening process.
One object of the invention is to provide a rela
The various chambers l0, I4, l6, l8 and 20_
are vertically arranged and communicating with
the combustion chamber 14 is a portion Ma of 7'
tively simple and inexpensive furnace of this gen
eral character which is economical to operate.
' that chamber designed for receiving the ?ames 22
‘Another object is to provide a calcining furnace 10 from a plurality of fuel nozzles 24 to which fuel
such as oil is supplied under pressure. The nec
in which the dried sludge, which is predomi
essary air for supporting combustion enters
nately calcium carbonate, may be continuously
through Venturi openings 26 or may be supplied
fed to the furnace and so distributed with respect
to the ?ame in the furnace as to secure a maxi
mum of e?iciency in thecalcining process.
under pressure if desired.
15
.
‘The combustion chamber portion Ma. is adja-‘'
More particularly, it is my object to feed. the
cent the bottom of the combustion chamber l4 '
calcium carbonate through a vertical chamber or
and at one sidethereof. The ?ames 22 pass
through the combustion chamber portion Ma at an upwardly sloping angle and then travel ver
passageway wherein gravity and velocity cause
the materials to impinge a splash-spreader plate
with sufficient force to reduce it to ?ne particles 20 tically through the combustion chamber [4. The ‘
which are spread {fan shaped across the ?ame ’
issuing from the burner‘into a combustion cham
ber of the furnace;
'
‘
tubes 28 enter the gravity chamber In and each '
depends from one end of a horizontal screw con-‘I
veyor 30. These conveyors may be driven in any ‘_
Another object is to provide means for remov- '
ing quick lime from the bottom of the calcining I
furnace and means for disposing- of the carbon
dioxide resulting from the ?ame projected into
the combustion chamber and the volatile. sub
stances removed thereby from the calcium car-I
bonate.
.
With these and other objects in view, my. inven
tion consists in the construction, arrangement and
combination of the various parts of my calcining
?ames may reach as far into the furnace as the:
top of the chamber l4.
At the top of the furnace‘ a plurality of feed Y"
suitable manner such as by an electric motor '
32 (see Figure 2). V The conveyors 30 are fed with
calcium carbonate ?owing downwardly by gravity '
30 from a supply pipe 34 and'through a manifold
36 connected with the conveyors. The horizontal "
furnace whereby the objects contemplated are at
tained, as hereinafter more fully. set forth, point
ed out in my claims and illustrated in the accom
portions of the conveyors become filled, with the ‘
calcium carbonate so as to effect a seal as well-as ,
a feeding means for the upper end of the gravity’ '
chamber.
‘
'
The splash-spreader plate I2 it will be noted; is ‘
mounted so‘ as to form an inclined bottom for the
. p
'
.
gravity chamber In sloping downwardly‘ and in—
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view through
wardly toward the combustion chamber M. The‘
calcining furnace embodying my invention.
Figure 2 is another vertical'sectional view taken 40 plate [2, is made preferably of a heat and wear
resisting material, polished smooth on its‘upper
at right angles to Figure 1 and on the liner2--2
panying drawings, wherein:
thereof.
_
‘
Figure 3 is‘ a horizontal sectional view on the
line 3—3 of Figure 1 with parts broken away to
conserve space on the drawings. ‘
‘ '
Figure 4 is a sectional view on the line 4-4
of Figure 1 to show the portion of the combustion
chamber "of the furnace'into which the ?ames
are projected from fuel nozzles or the like.
On the accompanying drawings I have used the
surface. Its purpose as will hereinafter appear,
is to spread the calcium carbonate fan-wise across ‘
the ‘?ame 22 upon the calcium carbonate im-'
pingingthe plate l2 due to gravity and velocity ‘
acting thereon.
In the bottom of the combustion chamber l4 .
and, likewise in the bottom of the separation .
chamber I 6 are spiral conveyors 318 and 40 respec- '
tive'ly,v for sealing the bottoms of these chambers,_
reference numeral Ill to indicate the gravity ‘
and removing quick lime from the furnace.- The _
chamber of my calcining furnace, l2 the splash
conveyors 38 and 40 are preferably water-cooled _,
by passing. water through tubular shafts of the.
spreader plate ‘ thereof and 14 the combustion
conveyors, the piping therefor being shown at 42
chamber. In addition to the chambers I 0 and N
2.v The conveyors 38 and 40 maybe ,
there is a separation chamber IS, a stack chamber 55 in.
2,412,286
.
4
suitably driven as by an electric motor 44. They
.
through the tubes and through the gravity cham—
ber I0. Velocity is attained by the particles of
discharge their contents into a cross conveyor 46
which may extend to; a storage bin or the like.
The stack chamber l8 communicates at its top
with a stack or chimney 48, through which car
bon dioxide is discharged to atmosphere. The
stack 48 is offset with respect to the stack cham
ber I8 so as to more effectively permit settling
of any residual-.quick lime in the settlingchamber'
material so that when they impinge the splash- ~
spreader plate l2 the attained force is such as .
to spread the material out fan shaped, breaking '
it up so that it enters the combustion'chamber 1
I4 as a cloud of smoke rather than lumps. The .
particles of calcium carbonate are de?ected by
the plate“l2-_so asato be‘xth‘rown directly, across
20. A clean-out?t]; isprovidedfor the settling 10 thev path of‘ the‘ flame 22<-and=-when theycome in
. chamber 20, and other clean-outs "are provided
contact with the flame, carbon dioxide is quickly
as indicated at 52 at other points in the furnaces:
A conduit 54 may be connected with‘ the settling .
chamber 20 for taking oif hot-air forutilizing *
some of the heat of the furnace<(whichj..woul;d-i '15.
otherwise be wasted) for various purposes, such
. as drying the waste sludge‘ from a'watersoft'ening» "
liberated from the calcium carbonate due to the
intense heatof approximately 2,000° F. Accord—'
ingly, by the time the particles reach the top of
thQw-rCOIIlbIlStiOI]; :chamber I4 they are calcined.
Most of the particles are carried upwardly by the
drafticreatedl'by’the'stack l4 and the heat of the
plant to thereby condition it for feeding=-.to-_my v
‘ ?ame-22;. whereas some of them become calcined
calcining furnace.
within the combustion chamber I 4 and fall to
The
.variouschambers in my calcining furnace >20 the. bottom. thereof, vand. enter. ythe.._.conveyor._l38.
..
are"de?ned by‘partitionwalls 55, 58, 60 and 62'.‘
It will bearememberedi that the .calcined- particles .1
The“ walls 55 ‘and GiLdepend from the topv ofv the
furnace and areisupported*byiarches 64 and '66.
the.conveyor,3B_.-is
are quick. lime lso,
teningagenth
.. directly
thatijthelmaterial
'1 . '
usableasa
.Yremovedaby
waterso
. 7 ~
The ;.wallsi58 ‘and -?z'iextend upwardly’ from they
bottom'and are cappedbyj?r’e brick elementstii
andJO’to, de?ne the path’of the ‘calcium carbon
'The calcinedparticles .that pass into thesepae}
ration chamber . l6’; drop._.into the. convleyonidll
because, during ‘the .processotcarbon dioxide .lib
.ateiquick lime and‘carbongdioxide through ‘the.
furnace.
-'
' 1
"
eration . the fine particles .ofamaterial. fuse‘. to»; V
Practical operation
‘ gether J andtherebyf increase i‘n'lweight andjsettle
’
The waste sludge from a water, softening plant
resultsfronr softening ‘hard .water by’ thoroughly
30 to‘ . the , conveyor. 49... Since. carbon ~ dioxide. isv~ at;
gas,"itisljdrawnout, of .the.-separation chvamlb.er._.¢_v
mixing-quick lime withitfor-aperiod of» approxi
and
l 6 ‘ by__
‘into
the.the
draft
_stack',48.
.through. 7A'...'sm,alll.
the. stack-(chambers;
percentageeofa;
I78
mately 30 minutes and then'permitting the lime
to settle out in a-settling tank; During this proc
ess; the-quick lime-.undergoes a chemical change
, ,quick lime may still.bei-suspendedintheproducts
of combustion" passing.‘ upwardlyffthroughiethe
and.thevprecipitatedsolids-no longer have the
properties of quick: lime- but- become inert sub‘
be
stack‘chamber.
atl 81into
thecle‘an-out
and the,settlingrchambenjugtoa,
somepfQthis
.50.! vquick. lime.
. . can.: ;
stillcleaned
settle. out
back‘
stances, the greaterpart of which isvcalcium ca ‘
bonate or.- limestone......This-.-residue. or; sludge is
usuallyr‘wasted 'by- discharging it - upon low land
and may be used after drying
,a. soil condij-q
a
I have found by.,experiments that .thersuccess...
of) calcination depends ,entirely‘uponthelmanne '
in which the material is.fé?.iritb.._thé.i?ames Car
bon dioxide will not be liberated .from-calcium.'_l§‘
tioner. . In. many localities there is no economical
use for ithoweverand if it can be recovered and
carbonate as longasit. remainsistationaryeno I
reused in the. water softening process,.such .pro
cedure is-desirable if it can be done atsmallex- _ 4
the very ?ne calcium carbonate into.th'e..?ame,as.-=
pense.
thinly as possible, ‘calcin‘ation may. be practiced.»
..
.
I
,
~
.
with a ‘maximumbf. 'salvagejand a..minimum or...
By calcining the sludge after- it hasbeen dried}
fuel for the flame. The combination ofthe grav
it maybe converted back into. ap-roduct contain
ing-,alltheproperties .of quick lime so that it can»
ity chamber 10 and the splash-‘spreader plateilli,
beausedover againuinvthetwater softening pros-.1 '
I have found to be the answer to this probléinii.
By constructing‘acalcining ‘furnace in accord‘z
ess.» . The furnace vI have. disclosed calcines. the .
sludgewithout prohibitive costof operation. ‘The.
term .‘..‘calcining’f denotesl?the process of subject
ance with myrjdisclosure, it ispossibl'e to.secure.a.._
. e and
verysecure
ef?cient
" a.:calcination
resultant] product.
of fdriedwastelslirdge
thatv _.is entirely...
~ satisfactcryffor ‘reuse as a; water softeningagentaj.
ing calcium carbonate in dried form to highgtemr. <
peratures so- asto expel: volatilematerial and
drive oilv thecarbon dioxide. When this is suc-w
Some changes'may befm'ade in theconstr'uc-Q
tion' and arrangement of the parts of my furnaces "
cessfe-ully done, . the. calcined calcium carbonate; is converted. back into a. substance..~which is sub-
stantially quick lime.
Calcium carbonate is a very ?ne'grained. pow?
der. Approximately 50% of it will pass-through
without departing from the real spirit and pure. .
pose of lmyminventiomv audit. ‘is my?intention. to, l '7
(iii
‘coverby my. claimslany Evm-odi?edlforms'pf struc- : .
ture or use of mechanical equivalents Whichgl?ayz
a 2,000 lmesh sieve“ Calcining dried waste. sludge -
be reasonably included. withinztheir, scopeewith';
canbeperformed in stationary lime kilnsor ro-ir, out sacri?cing _ any__,of .the radvantagesrthere‘ofx: '
taryakilns, but since the sludge froma water:
softening plant is so line in texture, it is;dif?cultIclaim
1. In .- a as
=calcining
my invention-;w.~¢f
xfurnacdsacvertical
“
. , -1 ‘combus
' Y
tocalcine and ‘to-handle- Using stationarypand
' tion chamber, means »for;projecting¢;a ?ameranpn:
rotarywvkilns for thispurpose cannotibe done. ., gularly upward therethrough: from: the‘: side and?"
economically.
’
Withv my furnace I have foundthateconomical
‘calcining’is entirely possiblewhen the furnace
is'fconstructed substantially in accordance with
the present disclosure.
*
:In operation, hot‘ freshly dried“calcium~¥car-‘5
bonate is slowlyfed by the conveyors-30 into the“ '
adJacent the .bottom/ - thereon; a ; splash-spreader:
.' plate aligoneside of saidtcombustion",chamberp'a
gravitychamber above :said splash-spreader plate-w
tween
comprising
said‘ combustiomchamberl
a, verticalpassageway,andlsaid
aLpartition-b
gravity.-r
Chamber terminating. atlits. lQWElin?i'ldqiIl spacedm. '
relation ;with"saimsplasinspreader .plate, means;
tubesaiz?“ and-‘the =material=drops by gravity‘v 75 at the top “of‘said' "gravity ‘chamber to seal the '
.
5
same and feed calcium carbonate downwardly to
said gravity chamber, said splash-spreader plate,
6
spread in a fan shape across the flame in said
combustion chamber, and separate means for re
moving quick lime and carbon dioxide resulting
due to the velocity imparted to said calcium car
from the combustion of said calcium carbonate
bonate by gravity, causing it to spread in a fan
from said combustion chamber.
‘
shape across the flame in said combustion cham
5. A calcining furnace of the character dis
ber, ‘means at the bottom of said combustion
closed, comprising a vertical combustion cham
chamber for sealing said bottom and for remov
ber, means for projecting a ?ame upwardly into
ing quick lime which results from the combus
said combustion chamber, a splash-spreader plate
tion of said calcium carbonate from said furnace,
and means for disposing of carbon dioxide re 10 at one side of said combustion chamber, a verti
cal passageway, means at the top of said vertical
sulting from combustion of said calcium car
passageway to seal the same and feed calcium
bonate from the top of said combustion chamber.
carbonate thereto, said plate forming a bottom
2. In a calcining furnace, a, vertical combus
for said vertical passageway sloping downwardly
tion chamber, means for projecting a ?ame
through said combustion chamber, a splash 15 toward said combustion chamber, whereby the
calcium carbonate drops through said passage
spreader plate at one side of said combustion
way and impinges on said plate and, due to the
chamber, a gravity chamber above said plate,
velocity imparted thereto resulting from gravity,
means at the top of the gravity chamber to seal
spreads in a fan shape across the ?ame in said
the same and feed material to be calcined to said
combustion chamber, a partition between said
gravity chamber, a partition between said com
combustion chamber and said gravity chamber
bustion chamber and said gravity chamber and
to separate the two into a relatively narrow
terminating at its lower end spaced from said
gravity chamber and a relatively wide combustion
plate, said plate forming a bottom for said gravity
chamber, means for removing quick lime result
chamber sloping from the horizontal toward said
ing from the combustion of said calcium carbo
combustion chamber, whereby the material drop
nate from said furnace, and means for disposing
ping on and impinging against the plate is spread
of the carbon dioxide resulting from the com
in a fan shape across the flame in said combus
bustion of said calcium carbonate issuing from
tion chamber, means at the bottom of the com
said combustion chamber.
bustion chamber for sealing said bottom and re
6. A calcining furnace comprising a vertical
moving quick lime resulting from the combustion 30
combustion chamber, means for projecting a
of said calcium carbonate from said furnace, and
?ame upwardly therethrough, a splash-spreader
means for disposing of the carbon dioxide result
plate at one side of said combustion chamber, a
ing from the combustion of the said calcium car
gravity chamber above said plate comprising a
bonate issuing from the top of said combustion
vertical passageway having means at the top
chamber.
.
thereof to seal the vertical passageway and feed
3. In a calcining furnace, a vertical combustion
calcium carbonate thereto, said plate sloping
chamber, means for projecting a ?ame upwardly
downwardly toward said combustion chamber,
into said combustion chamber from the side and
whereby the calcium carbonate dropping thereon
adjacent the bottom thereof, a splash-spreader
plate at one side of said combustion chamber, a 4.0 impinges against the plate and is spread in a
fan shape across the flame in said combustion
gravity chamber above said splash-spreader plate
chamber, a partition between said combustion
and comprising a vertical passageway having
chamber and said gravity chamber, said partition
means at the top thereof to feed calcium carbo
terminating adjacent said plate, means at the
nate to said gravity chamber, a partition sepa
bottom of said combustion chamber for removing
rating said combustion and gravity chambers
quick lime resulting from the combustion of cal
from each other, said plate sloping downwardly
cium carbonate from said furnace, a separation
toward said combustion chamber, whereby the
chamber communicating with the top of said
calcium carbonate impinging against said plate
combustion chamber and conducting quick lime
is spread in a fan shape across the ?ame in said
and carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion
combustion chamber, said partition having an
of said calcium carbonate downwardly, a second
opening through which the calcium carbonate is
quick lime removing means at the bottom of
spread, means for removing quick lime resulting
said separation chamber, and means for dispos
from the combustion of said calcium carbonate
ing of carbon dioxide issuing from the bottom
from said combustion chamber, and a stack for
of said separation chamber.
disposing of the carbon dioxide resulting from
'7. In a calcining furnace, a relatively wide
the combustion of said calcium carbonate issuing
elongated vertical combustion chamber, means
from the top of said combustion chamber.
for projecting a ?ame longitudinally there
4. In a calcining furnace, a vertical combustion
through, a splash-spreader plate, a relatively nar
chamber, means for projecting a ?ame upwardly
through said combustion chamber, a splash 60 row chamber adjacent said plate, means for
forcibly feeding calcium carbonate to said nar
spreader plate at one side of said combustion
row chamber and dropping it against said plate,
chamber, a gravity chamber above said plate, a
whereby the calcium carbonate impinges on the
partition between said combustion chamber and
plate and is spread in a fan shape across the
said gravity chamber in such position relative to
?ame in said combustion chamber, a partition
said chambers that said gravity chamber is con
separating said chambers from each other, said
siderably narrower than said combustion cham
partition having an opening therethrough adja
ber, means at the top of the gravity chamber to
cent said plate, and means for removing quick
feed calcium thereto, said plate forming a bot
lime resulting from the combustion of said cal
tom for said gravity chamber and sloping down
wardly toward said combustion chamber, where 70 cium carbonate from said combustion chamber.
by the calcium carbonate dropping thereon is,
due to the velocity imparted thereto by gravity,
HANS V. PEDERSEN.
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