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Патент USA US2412291

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Dec. 10, 1946.
-
_o,- H.-SCHADE
2,412,291
ELECTRON. DISCHARGEv DEVICE
Filed May 30, 1942_
3 Sheets-Sheet 1'
*JAl
IMIEOF E0707?”
2
3nocntor
By
Dec. 10, 1946.
-o. H. SCHADE
- 2,412,291
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed may’ 30, 1942 " _
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
>
‘
Dec. 10, 1946.
v
o. H. SCHADE
2,412,291
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed May 30, 1942
3 Shee'ts-Sheet 3
Snventor
attorney
2,412,291
Patented Dec. 10,__194$
‘in T
"E E S
2,412,291
ELECTRON mscnAnoE nEvrcE
Otto H. Schade, West Caldwell, N. J., asslgnor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation
of Delaware
Application May 30. 1942, Serial No. 445,185
8 Claims. (01. 315-44)
1
'
This invention relates to de?ection circuits for
2
rotation of a unidirectional de?ecting ?eld; Fig.
cathode ray indicating systems, and more par- ,
3 is a circuit diagram showing one form of this
ticularly to circuits for producing linear radial
invention; Figs. 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e and Figs. 5a,
traces on the ?uorescent screen of a cathode ray
5b, 5c, 5d, 5e, 5)‘, 5g and 5h are graphs represent
ing wave forms of voltages produced in operation
to a trace having one of its ends at or near the
of the device of the invention; Figs. 6, '7, 8, 9 and
center of the cathode ray tube screen, as
.10 are schematic diagrams of modi?ed de?ection
distinguished from a “diametral trace,” having
voltage ampli?er and D.-C. insertion circuits;
its ends approximately equidistant from the cen
Fig. 11 is a diagram of a circuit for the ‘use of
ter of the screen. In certain applications of cath 10 modulated sine wave, instead of sawtooth, de
ode ray tubes, as in some types of radio distance
?ecting voltages; Figs. 12a and 12b are graphs of
tube. The words “radial trace” are used to refer
and direction indicators, it is desirable to pro
duce a radial trace which is rotatable about its
inner end to correspond in direction with the an
gular position of a remote shaft, which, for ex
wave forms illustrating sawtooth wave distortion
and its compensation; and Figs. 13a, 13b and 130
are graphs of three sawtooth waves having the
15
ample, may be connected to a rotatable direc
tional antenna. The problem is complicated by
the fact that the remote control shaft need not
necessarily rotate at a constant speed, but may
be stopped and reversed.
a
The conventional de?ection means in a cath
ode ray tube is a stationary four-pole system con
same amplitude and repetition time but different
slopes.
-
Referring to Fig. 1, the voltage characteristics
i, 2, 3, a required at each of the plates of an
electrostatic de?ection system to produce radial
de?ection are applied to the de?ecting plates D1,
D2, D3 and D4. Similarly, as shown in Fig. 2,
the currents 6 and ‘I may be supplied to the de
?ecting coils M in a magnetic de?ection system.
plates for electrostatic de?ection or two pairs of
For a QQnstant angular velocity, the modulation
de?ection coils arranged at right angles for mag 25 envelope is sinusoidal and the average component
netic de?ection. According to this invention, the
is zero. For a stationary trace 5 at any position,
line of de?ection of the beam in a cathode ray
such as indicated by the angle or, the average
sisting of four rectangularly disppsed de?ection
tube is rotated about one of its ends at the axis
of the tube by impressing upon each of the beam
component has a ?nite value and a polarity de
pending on the value of a, as shown by the
de?ecting means a sawtooth wave or other sweep 30
dashed curves.
signal of sinusoidally varying amplitude.
The
sinusoidal variations on one pair of the beam de
?ecting means differ in phase by 90° from the
variations on the other pair.
The principal object of this invention is to pro
vide an improved method of and means for de
?ecting a cathode ray beam. Another object of
,
.
For any radial trace other than one rotating
at a constant velocity the average component is
not zero. Therefore, conductive coupling or its
equivalent between signal' generating and de
?eeting systems is essential. A system for radial
de?ection and variable angular velocities include
ing zero value is thus substantially di?erent in‘
this invention is to provide improved means for
operation and organization from a system with
generating signals for radial de?ection of a cath
constant velocity of ?eld rotation and diametral
ode ray beam, said signals being controlled in am 40 de?ection. A diametral system termed “a radial
plitude in accordance with the angular position
scanning system” in the De Forest ‘Patent
of the rotor of a remote control unit so as to pro
2,241,809, makes no provision for transmission
duce a synchronous angular displacement of the
of average values other than zero.’ A circuit ‘for.
radial cathode ray beam trace. A further object
generating and modulating saw-toothfvoltages as
is to provide an improved system of the described ' ‘ shown in Fig. 1 is illustrated in detail'in Fig. 3.
type in which the length of the radial trace is
A multivibrator i0 has its output connected
constant throughout a 360° rotation independent
across a’ capacitor -9. This circuit is described
of the speed of rotation. Other objects, features
and claimed in U. S. Patent No. 2,157,434 to James
and advantages of this invention will be appar
L. Potter. A capacitive voltagedividerii is also
ent to those "skilled in the art upon consideration 50 connected across the capacitor 9 and comprises
of the following speci?cation with reference to
four ?xed capacitors l3, l5, l1 and i9 and a vari
the accompanying drawings, in which Figs. 1 and
able capa-citor 2|. The rotor of the capacitor 2|
2 are graphs representing the wave forms of volt
‘is mechanically connected to the shaft' (not
ages or currents required in electrostatic or mag
shown) with which the radial trace is to be syn
netic .de?ection systems respectively to produce 55 chronized. The plates of the capacitor 2| are
9,412,291
.
4
'
‘
.
at 34, due to the fact that the average com
shaped so that the voltages across the ?xed ca
ponent, shown by the dashed line, is of too low a
pacitors have envelopes which are half wave
frequency to be transmitted. If the voltage 34
sinusoidal functions of the angular position a
and the corresponding quadrature voltage 33
of the rotor, plus a residual component due to the
minimum capacitance between the rotor and Cl were applied to the power ampli?er and de?ect
ing circuit, each trace of the cathode ray would
stator plates. The voltages l4, l6, l3 and 23 on
have its center at the center of the pattern,
the ?xed capacitors I3, l5, l1 and [9 respectively
of the voltage divider as functions of the posi
instead of starting at the center. As the capacitor
2| is rotated slowly, the trace would rotate about
tion of the rotor of the capacitor 2| are illus
trated by the correspondinglynumbered curves
in Fig. 3. The capacitor I‘! is coupled to the in
put of an ampli?er tube 25, and the capacitor l3,
connected to the opposite stator plate of the ca
pacitor 2 I, is coupled through a polarity reversing
its center instead of around one of its ends.
The D.-C. insertion circuit, or "clamping” cir
cuit operates to restore the lost average com
ponent of the modulated sawtooth wave. The
grid of the power tube 33 is connected through a
tube 21 to the input of an ampli?er tube 29_.~ The 15 pair of diodes 46 and 48 and a tapped resistor 53
to a bias source 55. A tube 49 is provided with
plate and cathode load resistors 51 and 53, re
The capacitors l5 and I9, which are connected
"tubes 25 and 29 have a common plate circuit 3|. '
to the other pair of oppositely disposed stator
plates of the capacitor 2|, are coupled similarly
to a pair ofampli?ers with a common load circuit.
These circuits are omitted from the drawing for
clarity.
I
‘
.
Tile plate circuit 3| is coupled to the grid of a
power ampli?er tube '33 through a capacitor 35.
spectively, coupled through capacitors BI and 83,
respectively, to the diodes 46 and 48, which are
connected to conduct in opposite directions. The
grid of the tube 49 is coupled to receive impulses
65 from the multivibrator l0 during the return
period of the sawtooth wave. This signal results
in .a positive pulse at the cathode and a negative
The plate circuit of the tube 33 includes one pair 25 ‘pulse at the plate of the tube 43, causing both
diodes 46 and 48 to conduct, momentarily present
ing a relatively low impedance path from the grid
of the tube 33 to the resistor 53 and thence to the
bias source 55 which is adjusted to provide the
and are ‘connected to provide a constant current
43 through the de?ecting coils M to cancel the 30 proper grid voltage for the tube 33 at the start of
the sawtooth voltage. The tap on the resistor
zero-signal component 35 of the plate current
53 is adjusted to form a‘balanced bridge circuit
of: the tube 33. An auxiliary circuit including
with the impedances of the diodes 48 and 48, pre
tubes 41 and 49 is connected to thegrid of the
venting the pulses 65 from reaching the grid of the
power tube 33 in order to restore the direct cur
rent component of the signal lost in the capaci 35 tube 33. During the pulse time of pulses 35,
of the de?ecting coils M of a cathode ray tube.
Resistors'3land 39 and a screen grid tube 4| are
also included in the plate circuit of the tube 33 '
tively coupled ampli?ers 25, 21 and 29. ‘
The operation is as follows: The multivibrator
IO produces a sawtooth shaped voltage wave 8 on
corresponding to the sawtooth return period, the ‘
‘coupling capacitor 35 is discharged rapidly to
the potential existing at that time between D.-C.
voltage 55 and the plate of the preceding stage.
the capacitor 9. The sawtooth frequency is con
trolled by the circuit constants of themultivibrator 40 The capacitor 35 maintains this potential for one
sawtooth period during which the diodes 46' and
and may be synchronized with a signal applied to
48 are non-conducting and act as open circuits,
the input 5|. The voltage 8 is applied to the
capacitive voltage divider ll‘, resulting voltages
and is then reset again in the same manner, thus
causing all sawtooth cycles to begin with the
l4, I6, l8 and 20 on the corresponding capacitors.
The voltage i8 is ampli?ed by the tube 25, and the 45 same voltage, that of the source 55. The signal
at the grid of the tube 33 is hence undistorted
voltage l4, which has a sinusoidal envelope com
as compared with the voltage 32 although the
ponent 180° out of phase with that 'of the voltage
ampli?er coupling networks do not pass low or
“5, is reversed in polarity by the tube 21, and
zero frequencies, but only the frequencies needed
ampli?ed by the tube 29. ‘The two ampli?ed
voltages are combined in the common plate cir 50 for transmission of the sawtooth wave 8. AIM
ther advantage in the use of a clamping circuit
cuit 3 I, cancelling the residual components caused
is the elimination of extraneous low frequency
by the minimum capacitances of the capacitor ‘2|
' pickup voltages, such as 60 cycle hum which may
and adding alternately reversed half-sinusolds
occur in the grid circuits of the tubes 25 and 21.
to produce a voltage wave 32.. This is ampli?ed
For symmetrical electrostatic de?ection cir
by the power tube 33 to provide a similarly ,
cuits, four voltages are needed as shown in Fig.
shaped current wave in the de?ecting coils M.
l; the voltages 2 and 4 are obtained by inverting
In the same manner, the voltages l6 and 20 across
the phase of the voltages | and 3 respectively in a
the capacitors l5 and I9 are amplified and com
bined to produce a current wave like the voltage
conventional phase inverter circuit. This may
36 in a second pair of de?ecting coils, which are 60 be done before the clamping, to allow capacitive
spaced 90° around the axis of the cathode ray tube
coupling 0! the phase inverters. Each de?ection
plate of the cathode ray tube is then directly’
from the ?rst pair. .
_' coupled to one power ampli?er tube having a
"Since the voltages 32 and 36 have sinusoidal
envelopes-90° out of phase, they will produce the
clamping circuit in its grid circuit.
required rotating radial sweep, de?ecting the 65
The de?ection circuits can‘ be simpli?ed by
combining the halves of each sinusoidal modula
cathode ray beam outward from the center at the
tion envelope after D.-C. restoration. The volt
sawtooth frequency and rotating the resultant
ages appearing at the respective output termi
radial trace about its inner end at the envelope
nals of a capacitive voltage divider connected to a
frequency, which is 'the frequency of rotation of
thevariable capacitor 2|. However, this is true 70 sawtooth wave source as in Fig. 3 are illustrated
in Figs. 5a, 5b, 5c and 5d. Upon passing through
capacitively coupled ampli?ers, the direct com
ponents of these voltages are lost, resulting in the
and~29 to pass it without attenuation. When the
waves shown in Figs. 5e‘, 5]‘. 50 and 5h, respec
speed of rotation of the capacitor 2| is lower, the
voltageacrossthe load-3| assumes the form shown 75 tively. The sawtooth components are in phase
onlyif the envelope frequency is high enough
for. the capacitively coupled ampli?ers 25, 21
5
aaiaaei
‘in the waves 5e and 5!, which represent the two
power factor. This condition is secured by mak
ing the reactances of the transformers H1 and
I I9 large in comparison to the total resistance in
halves of one sinusoidally modulated de?ection
voltage, and in the waves 5g and 5h, which rep
resent the other deflection voltage, modulated in
the circuit, including the diode resistance. Be
quadrature phase with the ?rst. Referring to
Fig. 6, a circuit for one of the phases for a single .
plate of the "electrostatic de?ection system is
shown. The voltages corresponding to one
phase, for example those of Figs. 5e and 5f, are
applied to the terminals 62 and 54, respectively.
The polarity of the sawtooth component of the
cause of this reactance, the diodes become con
ducting at the start of the sawtooth cycle, main
taining a closed circuit for substantially the en
tire cycle. This action is similar to that of a
half wave recti?er circuit of low resistance con
10 nected to a sine wave generator as illustrated in
. wave 5f is reversed by a phase inverter 65 and ap
plied to an output tube 61, while the wave 5c is
applied directly to an output tube 69. Diodes ‘H
and 13 are connected in the grid circuits of the
‘ tubes 61 and 69, and act as peak recti?ers, pro
ducing D.-C. voltages which are proportional to '
the average components of the sawtooth waves
and are added to them, thus restoring the wave
Fig. 4a. Figs. 4b and 40 show graphic construc
tions of the transient operation of such a circuit
under high and low power factor conditi'ons re-v
spectively. The wave forms e and 2' would be
obtained if the diode were short-circuited. The
transient voltages t arising when the diode starts
to conduct (when e=0) are added graphically.
When t‘=e, at the time s, the diode stops conduct
ing. When the power factor is zero, the conduc
envelopes to the shapes shown in Figs. 5a and 5b. 20 tion time is‘ one full cycle, and when the power ‘
These are combined in the common plate circuit
of the tubes 61 and 69, resulting in a voltage wave
factor is unity, the conduction time is one-half .
cycle. The current in a low power factor circuit
like that shown in Fig. 1a, which is applied di
with a diode is hence unidirectional, but'of sub
rectly to a de?ection plate 15 of a cathode ray
tube 11. The other de?ection plate 19 is supplied
with a voltage similarly derived from the waves
5g and 5h.
.Fig. 8 shows a circuit for one of the two phase
connections for a push-pull or symmetrical elec
trostatic de?ection‘ system. The half wave com
ponents, such as those shown in Figs. 5c and 5,‘,
are applied to the terminals 8! and 83, which
are connected to the grids of a pair of ampli?er
tubes 85 and 81, respectively. The plates of the
tubes 85 and 81 are coupled to the grids of a pair
stantially. the same wave form as without the
diode. The D.-C. polarity depends on the polar
ity of the diode. - This action is used in the cir
cuit of Fig. '7 to restore the D.-_C. component of
the unidirectional deflection current, producing
de?ection positions shown in Figs. 4d and 4e by
the traces I21 and I29 with respect to the center
of a cathode ray tube I3I.
A choke coupled, so called direct drive circuit
is shown in Fig. 9. Its operation is similar to
that of the circuit of Fig. 7. A pair of power
?ecting plates 93 and 95 of a cathode ray tube
tubes_II3 and H5 are coupled to the de?ecting
coils I25 by means of chokes I33 and I35 and
capacitors I31. The tubes H3 and H5 are oper-.
ated class A, and the input to the tube H5 is re
91.
versed in phase by an inverter I39.
of power ampli?er tubes 89 and 9I, respectively,
whose plates are connected to one pair of de
The power tubes 89 and 9! have a common
cathode resistor 99, which is relatively high in
resistance as compared to the reciprocal of the
transconductance of the tubes 89 and 9| so as
Practical sawtooth de?ection circuits, partic
ularly when operated at low frequencies, may cause
distortion‘ of the current wave form because of
to produce phase inversion by cathode coupling.
insu?icient reactance, resulting ‘in a rapidly de
A pair of diodes IM and I03 are connected as
peak recti?ers in the grid circuits of the power
caying wave form as illustrated in Fig. 12a.
This
is corrected by distorting the driving voltage by
an equivalent amount as shown in Fig. 12b. This
tubes, and function like. the diodes “II and 13 in
correction may be obtained automatically by the
the circuit of Fig. 6. Since the diodes are not
use of inverse'feedback‘. The voltage drops on
100 percent efficient, they do not supply quite
resistors IM and I43 are taken oil on leads I85
enough D.-C. voltage to restore the average value
of the sawtooth waves, and the de?ections of the 50 and I41 and added to the sawtooth signal in the
, proper polarities in earlier stages of the ampli?er
beam in the tube 91 tend to start slightly off cen
system.
ter. This is compensated by reducing the A.-C.
The circuit shown in Fig. 10 is arranged to
components by the same percentage. A tap I05
permit operation with di?erent ratios of current
on each of the load resistors I01 of the ampli?ers
transformation for e'?icient operation with widely
85 and 81 is coupled through a capacitor I09 to
different sawtooth slopes as shown in Figs, 13a,
the power tube grid circuit. Resistors III are
13b and 130. The high slope, short duration
provided for isolating this circuit from the peak
sawtooth I30 limits the permissible inductance of
recti?ers I III and I03, so that the A.-C. voltage
the de?ection coils I53 to a relatively low value,
drops on the resistors II I will be subtracted from
60 because the inductive voltage
the A.-C. voltages across the recti?ers.
Circuits for magnetic de?ection in which alter
nate half wave signals are combined after am
pli?cation and D.—C. restoration are shown in ' '
Fig. 7. Referring to Fig. 7, a pair of power am
pli?er tubes II 3 and H5 are arranged to have
voltage waves like those shown in Figs. 5c and 5]’
applied to their ‘respective control grids, and their
plate circuits include the primaries of a pair of
transformers H1 and H9, respectively. The
La
is limited by the available plate supply voltage,
thus requiring a high current for a given de?ec
tion. The average plate current and power dis
sipation of the tube I5I is, however, moderate be
cause of the long zero current time interval be
tween de?ection time repetitions. For this signal no step down is used, and a switch I55 is op
transformer secondaries are connected through 70 erated to contact point I51, connecting the de-,
diodes l2l and I23 to one pair of de?ection coils
?ection circuit to the primary of the transformer
I25, so that current will ?ow in only one direc
I49. For slower de?ection rates, the inductive
voltage
tion in one branch circuit and only in the oppo
site direction in the other. The de?ection coil
di
circuit has a high inductive reactance and low 75
La
‘
2,412,291
has a lower value, .permittirrg’the use of a step
down ratio and requiring thus a lower peak plate
current from the power tube for a given de?ec
tion. In this manner, the total voltage drop re
flected‘into the plate circuit of the power tube
can ‘be given the same value for different saw
tooth slopes, with the power tube operating at
maximum efficiency.
Thus far the invention has been described
only with reference to the use of modulated saw
tooth de?ecting voltages. However, it is feasible
to use modulated voltages of other shapes, for
example, sinusoidal. The radial velocity of the
ages and to add said unidirectional voltages to
the respective distorted voltages from which they
are derived.
2. A de?ection system for cathode ray tubes
including a de?ection voltage generator and a
plurality of variable'voltage dividers connected
across the output circuit of said generator, a
shaft connected to said voltage dividers, said
voltage dividers being so constructed and ar
ranged that the proportions of the output volt
age appearing across the output terminals of
said voltage dividers are uniquely related to the
angular position of said shaft, means for com- -
bining said voltages appearing at the output ter
trace will vary with its radius, instead of being
constant, as with a sawtooth signal.’ A circuit 15 minals of one ,pair of said voltage dividers to
produce a voltage synchronous with and similar
adapted for use with modulated sinusoidal deflec
in wave shape to that produced by said de?ec
tion signals is shown in Fig. 11. A source of sine
tion voltage generator but having. an amplitude
wave voltage, not shown, is connected across a
proportional to the cosine of the angle of posi
capacitive voltage divider like the voltage divider
II in Fig. 3. The four output terminals are con 20 tion of said shaft, and means for combining the
voltages appearing at the output terminals of a
nected to the grids of ampli?er tubes I59, IGI,
I63 and I65, respectively. The plate circuits of
these tubes include the primaries of step-up
transformers I61, I69, Ill and I13, which are
tuned to resonate at the oscillator frequency. The
transformer secondaries are connected to recti
?ers I15, I11, I19 and IBI which produce the mod- '
ulation envelope voltages on their respective
loads, which are serially connected for each phase
as shown to obtainthe complete summation waves 30
for rotation of the cathode ray beam. Radial
modulation voltages are obtained directly from
second pair of said voltage dividers to produce a
second voltage synchronous with and similar in
wave shape to that produced by said de?ection
voltage generator but having an amplitude pro
portional to the sine of the angle of position of
said control shaft, means for amplifying said
cosine proportional and sine proportional volt
ages including networks which discriminate
against the low frequency and direct current
components of said voltages, means for compen
sating said discrimination including switching
the transformers, which are connected in pairs
devices arranged to cause each cycle of said dis
with primaries in opposite polarities and with
proportionately ampli?ed voltages to form a pre
secondaries in the same polarities and in series. 35 determined voltage level, and means for apply
The radial de?ection voltages are coupled over
ing said. voltages to respective rectangularly re
capacitorsv I83 and I85 into the de?ection cir
lated de?ection elements of a cathode ray tube.
cuits'of the tube I81. Isolating impedances I89
3. A de?ection system for cathode ray tubes
and I9I prevent these voltages from being short
’ including a de?ection voltage generator and a
40
circuited by the recti?er ?lter capacitors I93.
plurality of voltage dividers connected across the
Variation of the capacitors I83 and I 85. allows
output circuit of said generator, each of said
variation of the radial de?ection amplitude.
voltage dividers comprising a variable capacitor
Thus the invention has been described as a
device for causing a radial de?ection of the beam
of a cathode ray tube in a direction correspond
ing to the angular position of a shaft, the direc
tion of said de?ection being unique for each po
sition of the shaft even at low or zero speeds of
rotation.
The required de?ecting voltages are
derived by modulating the output of a. sawtooth *
or a sine wave generator with a capacitive volt
age divider-to produce component waves which
are combined, ampli?ed, and applied to the de
?eeting circuits. Direct current components
which are lost in the ampli?er and combining cir
, connected in series with a fixed capacitor, a shaft
' connected to said variable capacitors, said var
iable capacitors being so constructed and ar
ranged that the proportions of the output volt
age of said generator appearing across the out
put terminals of said voltage dividers are
uniquely related to the angular position of said
shaft, means for amplifying said voltages in
cluding coupling networks which discriminate
against the low frequency and direct current
components of said voltages, and means for com
pensating said discrimination including recti
?ers arranged to derive unidirectional ‘voltages.
proportional to the average components of said
tion circuit.
disproportionately ampli?ed voltages and to add
I claim as my invention:
said unidirectional voltages to the respective dis
1. A de?ection system for cathode ray tubes
including a de?ection voltage generator and a 60 torted voltages from which they are derived.
4. A de?ection system for cathode ray tubes
plurality of variable voltage dividers connected
including‘
a de?ection voltage generator and a
across the output circuit of said generator, a‘
plurality of voltage dividers-connected across the
shaft for driving said voltage dividers, said volt
output circuit of said generator, each of said
age dividers being so constructed and arranged
that the proportions of the output voltage of said 65 voltage dividers comprising a variable capacitor
cuits are restored by a clamping or D.-C. inser
generator appearing across the output terminals .
connected in series with a ?xed capacitor, a shaft
of said voltage dividers are uniquely related to
the angular position of said shaft, means for am
connected to said variable capacitors, said vari- ‘
able capacitors being so constructed and ar
ranged that the proportions of the output voltage
plifying said latter voltages including networks
which discriminate against the low frequency 70 of said generator appearing across the output
terminals of said‘ voltage dividers are uniquely
and direct current components of said voltages,
related to the angular position of said shaft,
and means for compensating said discrimination '
means for amplifying said voltages including
including recti?ers arranged to derive unidirec
coupling networks which discriminate against
tional voltages proportional to the average com
ponents of said disproportionately ampli?ed volt 75 the low frequency and direct current components
9
2,412,291
10%
of said voltages, means for compensating said
' frequency and direct current components of said
_ discrimination including recti?ers arranged to
voltages, means for compensating said discrim
ination including recti?ers arranged to derive
unidirectional voltages proportional to the aver
age components of said disproportionately ampli
?ed voltages and to add said unidirectional volt~
ages to the respective distorted voltages from
derive unidirectional voltages proportional to the
average components of said disproportionately
ampli?ed voltages and ‘to add said unidirectional
voltages to the respective distorted voltages from
which they are derived, and means for com
pensating the losses in said rectifiers by pro
viding corresponding attenuation of said dis
torted voltages.
5.. The invention as set forth in claim 1 where
in said last named means comprises diode rec
ti?ers provided with low power factor load cir
cuits.
which they are derived, and means for combin
ing said ampli?ed waves to produce voltage waves
10 synchronous with and similar in shape 'to that
produced by said de?ection voltage generator
-
6. A de?ection system for cathode ray tubes
including a de?ection voltage generator and a
plurality of variable voltage dividers connected
but having amplitudes proportional respectively
to the cosine and to the sine of the angle of posi
tion of said control shaft, and means for apply
ing said resultant voltages to corresponding de
?ection circuits of the rectangularly related de
?ection elements of a cathode ray tube.
'7. The invention as set forth in claim 1 where
shaft connected to said voltage dividers, said
in said de?ection voltage generator produces an
voltage dividers being so constructed and ar 20 amplitude of substantially sinusoidal wave form.
ranged that the proportions of the output voltage
8. The invention as set forth in claim 1 Where
of said generator appearing across the output
in said ampli?er means includes resonant cir
terminals of~said voltage dividers are uniquely
cuits tuned to the repetition frequency of said
related to the angular position of said shaft,
de?ection voltage generator.
across the output circuit of said generator, a
means for amplifying said latter voltages includ 25
ing networks which discriminate against the low
OTTO H. SCHADE.
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