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Патент USA US2412303

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106. CUMPUSIHUNc,
mull-HUN IWUH!
Hm
(JOANNE 0R PLASTIC
Patented Dec. 10, ~1946
2,412,303
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,303
FIRE RETARDANT LINOLEUM TYPE
COVERINGS
Donald H. Spitzli, Summit, and Ralph W. Charl
an
ton, Montclair, N. J ., assignors to Congoleum
Nairn Inc., a corporation of New York
No Drawing. Application January 8, 1945,
Serial No. 571,967
7 Claims. (Cl. 106-18)
1
2
This invention relates to smooth surface cover
4.85 and 5.05. The oil is then mixed with the
ings suitable for covering ?oors, walls, furniture
resin component of the cement and a conven
or the like, and relates particularly to smooth sur
tional metallic drier, and the reaction is com
pleted as in method 1.
face coverings of the linoleum type.
It is a purpose of this invention to provide a
Method 3.—-The raw or untreated drying or
smooth surface covering of the linoleum type
semi-drying oil is oxidized and polymerized to a
soft light colored mass of gel-like consistency
known in the art as “blown oil" at temperatures
of the order of 160° F. to 220° F. by mechanical
which is ?re-retardant. It is a purpose accord
ing to certain embodiments of this invention to
provide a smooth surface covering of the linoleum
type which is scorch resistant in that it is highly 10 agitation in the presence of excess air and con
resistant to dis?gurement or other permanent in
ventional metallic driers. This gel-like product
jury due to such causes as lighted cigarettes or
is subsequently fluxed and agitated with the resin
cigars coming in direct contact therewith. It is
constituents of the linoleum cement at tempera
tures in the neighborhood of 300° F. to promote
a purpose according to preferred embodiments of
this invention to provide a smooth surface cov 15 further polymerization and until the desired gel
ering of the linoleum type not only which is
like consistency is established. A portion of the
blown oil may be replaced by more completely
scorch resistant but also which is ?re retardant
to the degree that it can be exposed to very high
oxidized oil such as that produced by the scrim
combustion inducing temperatures with substan
process wherein the oil is oxidized in the pres
tially no propagation of ?ame.
20 ence of air in the form of a ?lm applied to a
Conventional linoleum coverings of the type
fabric according to the Walton process (British
which have been on the market for many years
Patent No. 209 of 1860).
comprise a suitable strain resisting backing such
After the linoleum cement has been prepared,
it is mixed with the ?ller material, the mixing
as burlap or a bituminized felt and a decorative
ordinarily being accomplished by a. series of
and wear-resistant surface layer of linoleum com
position. The linoleum composition generally
comprises about 30% to 45% by weight of lino
kneading and mixing operations until the desired
thorough incorporation of the ?ller material is
leum, cement in the form of an oxidized drying
accomplished.
or semi-drying oil, generally linseed oil, which
The resulting linoleum composi- _
tion in the desired color or colors is then molded
has been ?uxed with a resinous material such as 30 into sheet-like form and is applied to the strain
resisting foundation or backing as by calender
rosin constituting about 15% to 35% by weight
ing or pressing so as to become integrally united
of such linoleum cement. The ?ller used with the
therewith. At the time of application to the
linoleum cement comprises a mixture of an or
backing, the linoleum composition has not at
ganic ?ller such as wood flour, ground cork or
the like together with mineral fillers, and pig 35 tained the hardness and toughness desired in the
?nished product and for this reason the linoleum
ment which imparts desired color.
is subjected to a seasoning or “stoving” at ele
In the preparation of linoleum cement, there
vated temperatures until the linoleum composi
are different procedures which can be used, the
tion attains the desired properties as a result of
most desirable being enumerated below.
Method 1.‘—The raw or untreated drying or 40 further oxidation and polymerization of the dry
ing oil component of the linoleum cement.
semi-drying oil is subjected to mechanical agi
The linoleum product that is produced accord
tation and controlled oxidation and polymeriza
ing to the conventional process above mentioned
tion at a temperature of the order of 160° F. to
is notable for the fact that it is highly resistant
220° F. in the presence of the entire resin con
tent of the cement and in the presence of conven 45 to abrasion and has satisfactory resistance to in
dentation under load and at the same time is
tional metallic driers until a mass of light gel
resilient and ?exible. It is also attractive in ap
like consistency is obtained. This process is gen
pearance. The fact that linoleum possesses this
erally referred to as the Wood-Bedford process
desirable combination of properties accounts for
(British Patent No. 7742 of 1893).
Method 2.--The raw or untreated drying or 50 its successful adaptation and widespread use as
semi-drying oil alone is subjected to controlled
?oor coverings or other coverings which are re
vigorous mechanical agitation in the presence of
quired to be tough and highly resistant to wear
an excess of air at temperatures of the order of
while at the same time of attractive appearance.
160° F. to 220° F. to provide a partially oxidized
While proposals have been made from time to
liquid oil of dielectric constant at ‘75° F. between £35 time i013 modifying the manufacture of linoleum
2,412,303
3
4
coverings, the commercial practice has remained
appearance of ?ame is considered the measure of
the ?re retardance of the material undergoing
test. The ?rst appearance of ?ame refers to
?ame occurring at the surface of the linoleum.
However, any ?ashes or flames which appear in
the smoke and travel to the linoleum are to be
very much the same for many years. This has
i been due to the requirements for successfully fab
ricating the product and to the properties which
are essential in the ?nished product. In order to
be successfully manufactured, the linoleum com
position must be “workable,” that is, the lino
leum cement must be capable of being worked
considered .as a ?rst appearance of ?ame.
The
foregoing test is extremely severe, since the open
up with the ?ller to form a plastic mass having
gas ?ame tends to ignite any in?ammable ma
good body which is not crumbly or “cheesy,” and
terial in the smoke or fumes evolved from the
which, on the other hand, is not excessively ther
sample even if the temperature which the sample
moplastic so as to become unduly softened in pro
has attained is well below the ignition tempera
ducing the linoleum composition by means of
ture of the evolved gases. The temperature of
the conventional mixing equipment. Moreover,
the sample rises during the course of the test to
this plastic mass must be capable of being sheeted 1. well above such ignition temperature. A conven
out as by calendering to provide a smoothlayer
tional linoleum floor covering of 1A3" gauge com
free of surface irregularities and must retain its
monly referred to as “battleship” linoleum will
form during the subsequent seasoning or “stov
begin to ?ame in about 130 seconds, and there
ing.” The ?nished product must be resistant to
after burns freely and will continue to burn after
wear and to indentation under load and at the
the electric heating current is discontinued until
same time should be resilient and ?exible for if
the sample is consumed except for any non-com
it is excessively hard and brittle or “short,” the
bustible ash residue.
covering will crack and disintegrate in use.
When the time in seconds to ?rst appearance
While conventional linoleum composition has
of flame is of the order of 230 seconds, the re
many desirable features and advantages, it has
sistance to ignition and burning is high and the
the disadvantage of having very little resistance
product affords a high degree of protection
to scorching upon casual contacts with burning
against propagation of ?ame. Such products
material as by accidental contact with lighted
can readily be produced in the practice of this
cigarettes, cigars, matches or the like. It is not
invention. When the time in seconds to ?rst
of uncommon occurrence for a lighted cigarette to .‘
fall on a linoleum which is used as a floor covering
or as a covering for a table or desk, the cigarette
continuing to burn where it has fallen. In such
case ordinary linoleum becomes badly scorched
and an unsightly burn or scar is left which cannot
be removed.
Conventional linoleum is likewise unsuitable
when high‘ resistance to ?re upon exposure to
very high temperatures is desired, as, for example,
tremely high ?re retardance and of even higher
?re retardance can readily be manufactured in
the practice of this invention.
It is a further advantage of this invention that
?re retardant coverings of the linoleum type hav
ing very high scorch resistance and very high
resistance to ignition and burning can readily be
manufactured by the usual technique and equip
ment used in the manufacture of ordinary lino
leum. The ?re-retardant composition of this in
vention has good workability and can readily be
formed into products of the linoleum type. The
?nished product is especially notable for its
in the construction of ships as a covering for a
metal ?ooring or a metal partition. In the event
of ?re on one side of such metal ?ooring or par
tition, the ?ame will not pass through the metal
barrier, but the metal barrier may become so
highly heated that the covering material on the
opposite side will give o? in?ammable gases which
resilience and high abrasion resistance, being
comparable in these properties with ordinary
linoleum. It also affords satisfactory ?exibility
and high resistance to indentation under load.
ignite and thus cause propagation of ?ame on
the deck above or in an adjoining compartment
or room. Conventional linoleum falls far short
of meeting the ?re retardant requirements for
installations of this character.
‘ An extremely severe test for determining the
appearance of ?ame is of the order of 270 sec
onds, the protection against propagation of ?ame
is virtually complete and products of such ex
50
The new product of this invention can be i1
lustratcd in connection with the following de
scription of a typical embodiment thereof:
?re retardance of a covering of the linoleum type
consists in subjecting the covering to direct con
Perweight
cent by
Ingredients
tact with a metal surface heated to approximately
2000° F. The linoleum type covering is out into
Binder (equal proportions by weight of oxidized
two samples 11/8" x 8" which are secured by suit
linseed oil and chlorinated paraffin of about 60%
able tie wires to the opposite sides (with the back
chlorine content) _________________________________ __
22. 5
Asbestos ?ber _________________________________ __
23. 2
of each sample in direct contact) of an elec
Antimony trioxide
_r
27. 6
trical heating element having an effective heat 60 Ground limestone___
__________________________ ._
13.9
Iron oxide red _____ __
12.8
ing area of 1" x 6". The heating element consists
of .017" thick mild annealed steel supported hori
zontally ?at in any suitable way and connected to
In the manufacture of the new product the
an electric generator which is adapted to provide
binder is preferably prepared according to either
an open circuit voltage of approximately 80 volts
method 1 or 2 above described, although method
and to develop a current of approximately 180
3 may be employed, if desired. In the adapta
amperes when short circuited through the heat
tion of these methods using chlorinated para?in,
ing element. A suction blower is placed two feet
the chlorinated paraffin is introduced at that
above the sample to remove smoke. An open gas
stage of the process where resinous material is
?ame is positioned 1 inch above the test specimen
added to the oil in the above described methods.
and extends about 5 inches parallel to the test
In any such case, the oxidized oil and chlorinated
specimen. After the sample has been placed in
para?in are mechanically worked together at ele
position for testing, the gas ?ame is turned on
vated temperature (above about 160° F.) to pro
and-the‘ circuit is closed. The time elapsed be
duce a homogeneous, plastic, tough cementitious
tween .the closing of the circuit and the ?rst 75 material, although any means for accomplishing
106. COMPUSHIUNE;
M
COATING 0R PLASTIC
is
2,412,308.
a thorough commingling of the oxidized oil and
etc., which are the most common causes of scorch
chlorinated paraffin will afford some of the ad
ing linoleum installations.
vantages of this invention. After the binder
The abrasion resistance property is measured
has been produced in‘ a plastic gel-like condition
as the percentage weight loss which occurs when
the filler materials are then incorporated by U! a disc of the covering material 4 inches in diam
means of suitable conventional mixing machinery
eter is subjected to 5000 revolutions under the
and the resulting composition is formed into a
action of two weighted self-clearing rotating
sheet or layer, which ordinarily is from about
abrading surfaces 1/2 inch in width which operate
tic to 1A1. inch in thickness, the sheet or layer
at a ?xed distance from the circumference of
being made integral with a suitable backing such 10 the sample. A standard Taber Abraser is used.
as burlap by being pressed thereagainst while in
Indentation under load is determined by meas
uring the penetration resulting when a 200 lb.
a plastic and workable condition. Thereafter,
the product is seasoned in the same way that or
load is applied on a 0.282 inch diameter pin rest
dinary linoleum is seasoned, and, after season- .
ing, the product is ready for use.
The properties of the ‘product produced as
above described, the layer of ?re retardant com
position being 1/8 inch in thickness, are set forth
below in comparison with conventional battle
ship linoleum (of terra cotta color produced by
iron oxide red pigment) wherein the linoleum
composition is 1A; inch in thickness, the base in
ing on the surface of the sample for one minute,
and is expressed in percent of original thickness
of sample. Such a load is equivalent to 3200
pounds per square inch.
Resiliency is the elastic recovery which occurs
within the period of one minute after removal of
the 200 1b. load used in making the indentation
test and is expressed as a percentage of the origi
nal indentation.
Flexibility is expressed as the diameter in
inches of the smallest mandrel over which a 2
each case being burlap deeply embedded in said
composition.
25 inch wide sample can be ?exed 180° in about 5
Properties
rgtardant
lmnletlm
covering
Fire retardance _____ ..
310 seconds-_
Scorch reslstance_.___
Abrasmn resistance ____ __
seconds Without cracking or breaking.
Our new ?re C onventional
‘
battleship
linoleum
126 seconds.
Excellent.-__ Poor.
__
1.2% ______ ..
1.5%.
Indentation under load ______________ ._
20.5% _____ __
24.8%.
The abrasion, indentation, resiliency, and ?ex
ibility tests are carried out at approximately 77°
F. and 60% relative humidity.
It is seen from the foregoing that the new ?re
30
retardant covering of this invention has proper
ties of abrasion, indentation, resiliency and ?exi
bility comparable to high grade linoleum, but un
like ordinary linoleum, has excellent scorch resist
The ?re retardance is the time in seconds to 35 ance and very high ?re retardant properties. It
Resiliency _______________ _ _
~
Flexibility __________________________ __
635%
1%".
may also be mentioned that the new product of
?rst appearance of ?ame under the test pro
cedure described hereinabove. In connection
with this test it may be mentioned that in the
case of our new ?re retardant linoleum type
covering, the ?aming discontinued immediately
upon shutting off the current, instead of con
tinuing until the sample is consumed as is the
case with ordinary linoleum. Moreover, such
?ame as did occur in the case of our new product
was an inch or less in height and only a. few
pin-point ?almes occurred while in the case of
conventional linoleum a 7 inch ?ame was pro
duced and the flame extended throughout the ex
tent of the sample.
It is apparent that the new
product of this invention affords extremely high
resistance to propagation of flame even when sub
jected to temperatures approaching 2000° F,
The scorch test consists in placing an actively
burning cigarette on its side on the upper sur
face of a horizontally disposed sample of the
material to be tested, and permitting the cigarette
to burn out. Excellent performance is indicated
the invention as manufactured has a lustrous,
smooth and easily cleansed surface and is su
perior to conventional linoleum in these respects.
40
It is one of the features of the new covering of
this invention that the binder component of the
?re-retardant composition comprises a mixture
of an oxidized drying or semi-drying oil such as
linseed oil and chlorinated para?iin in certain
critical proportions. The binder component of
the ?re retardant composition should contain
from 40% to 60% by weight of the oxidized drying
or semi-drying oil and from 40% to 60% by weight
of the chlorinated para?‘in. Preferably the binder
component consists entirely of the oxidized oil
and chlorinated para?in although it is not with
out the scope of this invention to employ minor
amounts of resins, such as oil soluble phenolic, or
?lm-forming materials, such as ethyl cellulose, or
plasticizers, such as methyl ester of rosin, or mix
tures thereof, useful in modifying the workability
of the binder, so long as the oxidized oil consti
tutes at least 40% by weight of the total binder
when, upon removing the cigarette residue and
and the chlorinated para?in constitutes at least
rubbing the sample lightly, the effect of the
lighted cigarette is virtually non-discernable and (it) 40% by weight of the total binder. It is better
practice however, when at least 90% by weight
the surface is essentially unblemished. Poor per
of the binder component of the ?re-retardant
formance is indicated by a permanent darkening
composition consists essentially of the oxidized oil
or blackening of the surface of the sample, and
and
the chlorinated parai?n.
possibly some surface consumption of the ma
The oxidized oil may be any drying oil such
terial, so that an unsightly area is produced
as linseed oil, perilla oil, dehydrated castor oil or
which cannot effectively be diminished or ren
the like, or a semi-drying oil such as soya bean
dered less objectionable by rubbing, washing or
oil, or mixtures thereof although, linseed oil or
polishing. Performances which may be termed
other oil of the linseed oil type is normally to be
“good” or “fair” lie between “excellent” and
preferred. The oil may be whole oil or may be an
“poor.” The scorch test wherein a lighted ciga
oil from which certain non-hardening or unoxi
rette is used, is a useful test since the tempera
ture at which any cigarette will burn is very
nearly the same and is typical of the tempera
ture of burning paper scraps, lighted matches,
glowing embers from a ?re place, lighted cigars, -
dizable constituents have been removed or may
comprise reaction products with polybasic acids
or anhydrides such as maleic acid or phthalic an
hydride. Any such whole or modi?ed drying or
2,412,303
7
8
semi-drying oil is referred to herein and in the
highly thermoplastic mixture.
Chlorinated
para?in acts differently from chlorinated rubber,
claims as a “siccative” oil. When it is stated that
the oil is “oxidized” it is intended that the oil has
been brought to the gel-like stage as a result of
oxidation which is normally accompanied by more
or less polymerization.
The selected chlorinated paraffin or chlorinated
para?ins should have chlorine content of from
about 40% to about 80%. The chlorinated paraf
?n may vary somewhat depending upon the con 10
dition of the paraf?naceous material prior to the
chlorination treatment. Those chlorinated par
af?ns which are normally hard at atmospheric
temperature are preferably employed although
softer types of chlorinated paraflin may be em
ployed. The selection of chlorinated para?in or
in that it does not interfere with the oxidation
of the oil and permits the oil to be oxidized highly
and be adequately agitated with the chlorinated
para?in without excessive stiffening of the mass,
thereby providing a readily workable composition
which is not unduly susceptible to changes in
plasticity due to temperature changes. It is thus
seen that chlorinated rubber can be combined
only to a very limited extent with oxidized oil
due to non-compatibility, while, if chlorinated
rubber is mixed with an unoxidized oil, the oil
thereafter cannot be oxidized properly for the pro
15 duction of a linoleum composition which has
satisfactory physical properties and which has the
a mixture thereof will preferably bemade so as
to provide a binder having a chlorine content of
high ?re retardant properties that are attained
according to the practice of this invention.
about 25% to about 40%. In this connection, the
‘The amount of the binder component of the
term chlorinated para?in is to be regarded as 20 ?re retardant composition is likewise critical and
covering chlorinated para?in oil.
should be of the order of 20% to 35% by weight
The chlorinated paraffin and the oxidized oil
of the ?re retardant composition and preferably
are compatible and form a h0m0gene0us gel-like
is about 20% to 25% by weight of the ?re retard
cementitious material. The blended mixture has
ant composition.
good working properties which accounts for the 25
The balance of the ?re retardant composition
fact that very desirable coverings of the linoleum
in addition to the binder component should con
type can readily be produced therefrom. During
sist of ?nely-divided solid substantially non-in
the blending of the oxidized oil and the chlorin
?ammable ?ller material. Preferably mineral
ated para?in there is probably some interaction
?ller material is employed although organic ma
of a chemical or quasi-chemical nature induced 30 terial, such as organic ?ber or non-?brous or
under the conditions of elevated temperature and
ganic material which has been thoroughly treated
mechanical working although the precise nature of
with combustion depressant substances such as
the action is not completely understood. In any
ammonium sulfamate, ammonium phosphate, or
event the mixture of these materials is extraor
ammonium sulphate, to render it substantially
dinary in that the mixture possesses the work 35 non-in?ammable may be employed. A ?ller ma
ability, toughness, resiliency, etc., which are char
terial is regarded as non-in?ammable if it does
acteristic of the oxidized oil component and at
not give off gases or vapors which are ignitable
the same time imparts to linoleum composition
so as to burn with'a free ?ame when the ?ller is
?re retardant properties approaching the ?re
subjected in the form of a layer about 1/8 inch in
retardant properties imparted by chlorinated par 40 thickness to the temperature of an ordinary
a?in which has not been commingled with in?am
?ame, namely, a temperature of about 1000° F.
mable material such as an oxidized drying or
However, most of the combustion depressant im
semi-drying oil. In order to obtain this special
pregnants are somewhat water soluble, and for
combination of properties it is essential, how
this reason treated organic ?llers are not pre
ever, to employ the oxidized oil and the chlorin
ferred. It is desirable that the ?ller consist es
ated para?in within the proportional limits stated
sentially of water insoluble ?ller material. In
hereinabove. In such case one obtains the spe
order to provide good scorch resistance any or
cial advantages that are afforded by the combina
ganic ?ller material should constitute not more
tion of the chlorinated paraffin with the drying
than 10% by weight of the ?re retardant com
or semi-drying oil which has been converted by
position and it is preferable that the ?re retardant
oxidation and polymerization to the gel-like stage
composition be essentially free of organic ?ller
to afford a plastic, tough binder which imparts
material, .
?re retardance in very high degree in spite of the
It is essential that the ?re retardant composi
“large proportion of the combustible oxidized oil
tion contain at least 10% of ?ber. The ?ber ordi-v
component.
narily constitutes from about 10% to about 30%
The chlorinated paraffin which is employed in
by weight of the composition. The preferred
the practice of this invention is to be distinguished
?brous ?ller is asbestos, by which is intended any
from a substance such as chlorinated rubber.
asbestiform mineral ?ber such as chrysotile,
Chlorinated paraffin has a reasonably sharp melt
anthophylite, various amphiboles and the like.
ing point, and, if disposed in a ?lm, the ?lm tends 60 The ?ber may be of any length that lends itself
to be brittle unless mixed with a plasticizer where
to uniform incorporation in the composition.
upon the ?lm becomes sticky, soft and lacking in
Those ?bers falling within the groups designated
toughness. Chlorinated rubber, on the other
No. 6 and No. '7 according to the classi?cation of
hand, has no sharp melting point and decomposes
the Quebec Asbestos Producers Association that is
long before it can be heated to a freely ?owing 65 promulgated by the Canadian Government and is
liquid and forms hard, tough ?lms. Chlorinated
widely recognized in the United States and many
rubber will dissolve in oxidized oil only to a lim
other countries, have been found to be suitable.
ited extent while chlorinated para?in will readily
The ?ber should not be reduced in size to such
do so. If chlorinated rubber is mixed with the
an extreme degree as to lose its ?brous charac
raw ‘or untreated oil and the two materials are 70 teristics. Thus asbestos of the ?neness sometimes
subjected to oxidation together, the viscosity in
used in paints and which resembles a pigment
creases so rapidly that the oil cannot be agitated
lacks the ?brous characteristics of asbestos ?bers
adequately with the chlorinated material or be
and is not as desirable. In addition to asbestos
adequately oxidized before the oxidation opera
?bers, other mineral ?bers such as rock wool,v
tion has to be discontinued. The result is a soft 75 slag wool, glass ?bers and the like may be em
106. coumsmmis,
tomcat cs PiAsTlc
2,412,303
10
ployed in the ?nely-divided condition of the char
acter above mentioned although such ?bers tend
good scorch resistance and exhibited ?re re
also possible to employ organic ?ber, which may
tardance as evidenced by 235 seconds to ?rst ap
pearance of ?ame, which is a very great increase
in ?re retardance as compared with conventional»
linoleum composition. While the presence of
be either animal or vegetable, such as cotton, wood
‘ antimony trioxide has the eifect of promoting
to be more frangible and brittle than asbestos
?bers and are less desirable for this reason. It is
?bers, Wool, etc., if the ?bers have been ren
dered substantially non-in?ammable by suitable
chemical treatment. It is preferable, however, to
eliminate any organic material, as has been men
the more rapid production of ?re retarding gases,
the fact that antimony trioxide can be omitted
' while still retaining a high degree of ?re retard
1.0 ance is indicative of the surprisingly high ?re
‘retardance and combustion resistance that are
aiforded by the combination of chlorinated par
a?in and oxidized oil in the critical proportions
tioned hereinabove, both because such material
is less resistant to burning and scorching, and
because such material tends to be absorptive of
mentioned, notwithstanding that the oxidized oil
moisture and to swell when moistened, which
properties are undesirable in a covering of the 15 occurs in relatively large proportion.
In the manufacture of smooth surface cover
linoleum type under conditions of moisture ex
ings, the ?re retardant composition is molded to
posure.
a layer of desired thickness and should be at least
The ?ller component likewise should contain
one fortieth of an inch in thickness. Usually for
a substance such as ground limestone which acts
covering purposes the ?re retardant com
as a stabilizer inhibiting decomposition of the
20 ?oor
position is about 1/20 to about 1%; inch in thickness.
binder and neutralizing any liberated hydro
For covering walls, furniture and the like, the
chloric acid which would have a corrosive effect
layer of ?re retardant composition ordinarily is
on certain types of installation. The amount of
somewhat less in thickness usually 1/40 to T‘einch.
such material should be at least about 50% by
weight of the weight of the chlorinated paraf?n . , The ?re retardant composition is ordinarily made
integral with a strain resistant backing, but this
in the composition, and preferably is used in an
is not essential and the composition can, if de
amount by weight that is approximately equal
sired, be employed per se and without a backing,
to the weight of the chlorinated para?in in the
particularly when formed into tile-like bodies.
composition. Ordinarily the amount of ground
When the ?re retardant composition is made in
limestone will be of the order of 5% to 20% of the
tegral with a backing or foundation sheet, the
?re retardant composition. Other alkaline earth
covering can be made up into continuous sheets,
metal carbonates may be employed and, in this
similarly to ordinary linoleum, or in the form
connection, the term alkaline earth metal is used
of slabs or tiles of any desired size. If desired,
broadly as including magnesium. Thus instead
the backing material to be used can be rendered
of ground limestone, ground dolomite, which is
?re resistant by treating the combustible ?brous
a naturally occurring mixture of calcium car
material with a suitable ?ame proo?ng or com
bonate and magnesium carbonate may be em
bustion retarding chemical or by employment of
ployed.
mineral ?bers in whole or in part. However, par
The ?ller component of the composition may,
ticularly in the thicker coverings suitable for
of course, include suitable pigments for impart
?oors and the like, the product will have adequate
ing desired color to the ?re retardant composi
?re retardance even though an ordinary backing
tion. Any suitable pigment material may be
such as burlap or similar material is used. If
employed, although mineral pigments such as
desired canvas may be employed, and for lighter
iron oxide pigments, ochre pigments, and the
like are preferred. Other ?ller materials, such 45 weight products, cotton sheeting can be used as
the backing.
as mica, diatomaceous earth, silica, barytes or
the like can be used if desired as part of the ?ller
It is desirable in the manufacture of ?re re
tardant smooth surface coverings according to
component of the ?re retardant composition.
this invention, and it is an advantage of the prac
In the typical example of ?re retardant com
position hereinabove described the ?ller compo 50 tice thereof, to afford a covering comprising a
decorative and wear resistant surface layer which
nent of the ?re retardant composition includes
is comparable to ordinary linoleum in its physical
antimony trioxide. The employment of anti
properties. Thus it is desirable that the product
mony trioxide is essential when very high ?re
at 77° F. be capable of being ?exed 180"‘ about a
retardance is desired, namely ?re retardance
such that, under the ?re retardance test above 55 4 inch diameter mandrel in a period of about 5
seconds without cracking the layer of ?re re
described, the time interval to ?rst appearance
tardant composition and such a product is to be
of ?ame will be 2'70 seconds or greater. For this
regarded as “?exible.” Likewise the resiliency
reason the employment of antimony trioxide so
and resistance to indentation and abrasion are
as to constitute at least 20% by weight of the ?re
retardant composition constitutes preferred 60 preferably comparable to ordinary linoleum of a
quality meeting standard Federal speci?cation.
practice. The amount of antimony trioxide or
More generally, covering structures embodying
dinarily will be between 20% and 40% by weight
this invention have the advantage of being tough
of the ?re retardant composition. However,
when a lesser degree of ?re retardance is permis
and wear-resistant and are capable of with
sible, while still retaining good scorch resistance, 65 standing heavy tra?ic without undue wear or
rupturing or other premature failure.
the amount of antimony trioxide may constitute
While this invention has been described in con
less than 20% by weight of the ?re retardant
composition or may even be omitted altogether.
nection with certain speci?c embodiments of the
Thus, for example, a ?re retardant composition
invention, it is to be ‘understood that this has
wherein the binder consisted of equal proportions 70 been done for illustrative purposes only and that
of chlorinated para?in and oxidized linseed oil
the practice of this invention is subject to varia
and constituted 22.5% by weight of the ?re re
tardant composition, and the balance of the com
tion within the scope thereof as de?ned by the
language of the following claims.
position consisted of 23.2% of asbestos, 41.5%
We claim:
of ground limestone and 12.8% of pigment, had 75
1. A smooth surface covering of the linoleum
2,412,303
11
12
type comprising a decorative and wear-resistant
surface layer of ?re-retardant composition which
60% by weight of chlorinated paraffin having
is molded to a thickness of at least about one
fortieth inch and which consists essentially of a
a chlorine content of about 40% to about 80%
to form a tough, plastic cementitious material,
and said ?ller component of said ?re-retardant
composition containing alkaline earth metal
carbonate constituting from about 5% to about
20% by weight of said composition and at least
about 50% by Weight of the weight of the chlori
nated paraffin in said composition, and contain
ing substantially non-in?ammable ?ber consti
binder constituting fro-m about 20% to about 35%
by weight of said ?re-retardant composition and
uniformly commingled with said binder ?nely
divided solid Water-insoluble substantially non
in?ammable ?ller material constituting from
about 65% to about 80% by weight of said ?re
tuting about 10% to about 30% by Weight of
retardant composition, the binder component of
said composition.
said ?re-retardant composition comprising from
5. A smooth surface covering according to
about 40% to about 60% by weight of oxidized
claim 4 wherein said ?ber consists essentially of
and gelled siccative oil mechanically worked at
elevated temperature with from about 40% to 15 mineral ?ber.
6. A smooth surface covering of the linoleum
about 60% by weight of chlorinated paraffin hav
type comprising a decorative and wear-resist
ing a chlorine content from about 40% to about
ant surface layer of ?re-retardant composition
80% to form a tough plastic cementitious mate
which is molded to a thickness of at least one
rial, and said ?ller component comprising alka
fortieth inch and which consists essentially of
line earth metal carbonate constituting at least
a binder constituting from about 20% to about
about 50% by weight of the weight of chlorinated
35% by weight of said ?re-retardant composi
paraflin in said composition, asbestiform mineral
tion and uniformly commingled with said binder
?ber constituting at least 10% by weight of said
?nely-divided solid water-insoluble substantially
composition, and antimony trioxide constituting
25 non-in?ammable filler material constituting
at least 20% by Weight of said composition.
from about 65% to about 80% by weight of said
2. A smooth surface covering according to
?re-retardant composition, said binder com
claim 1 wherein the ?ller component of said ?re
ponent of said ?re-retardant composition con
retardant composition contains less than 10% by
taining from about 40% to about 60% by weight
weight of said composition of organic material.
3. A smooth surface covering of the linoleum 30 of oxidized and gelled siccative oil mechanically
worked at elevated temperatures with about 40%
type comprising a decorative and wear-resistant
to about 60% by weight of chlorinated paraffin
surface layer of ?re-retardant composition which
having a chlorine content of from about 40% to
is molded to a thickness of at least one-fortieth
about 80% to form a tough plastic cementitious
inch‘and which consists essentially of a binder
material, the chlorine content of said binder be
constituting from about 20% to about 35% by
ing not less than about 25% by weight of said
weight of said ?re-retardant composition and
binder, and said ?ller component of said ?re
uniformly commingled with said binder ?nely
retardant composition comprising alkaline earth
divided solid substantially non-in?ammable ?ller
metal carbonate constituting from about 5% to
material constituting from about 65% to about
80% by weight of said ?re-retardant composition, 40 about 20% by weight of said composition and
at least about 50% by weight of the weight of
the binder component of said ?re-retardant com
the chlorinated para?in in said composition, as
position containing from about 40% to about 60%
bestos ?ber constituting from about 10% to about
by weight of an oxidized and gelled siccative oil
30% by Weight of said composition, and anti
and from about 40% to about 60% by weight of
mony trioxide constituting from about 20% to
chlorinated paraffin of about 40% to about 80%
about 40% by weight of said composition.
chlorine content, and the ?ller component of said
7. A smooth surface covering of the linoleum
?re-retardant composition comprising an alka
type comprising a decorative and wear-resist
line earth metal carbonate which constitutes in
ant surface layer of fire-retardant composition
said composition at least about 50% by weight
of the weight of the chlorinated paraffin in said ‘’
molded to a thickness of at least one-fortieth
composition and substantially non-in?ammable
?ber which constitutes at least about 10% by
weight of said ?re-retardant composition.
inch, said ?re-retardant composition consisting
essentially of
Per cent by weight
4. A smooth surface covering of the linoleum
type comprising a decorative and wear-resist
ant surface layer of ?re-retardant composition
Asbestos ?ber ________________________ __ 10-30
Antimony trioxide ____________________ __ 20-40
Binder
______________________________ __ 20-25
which is molded to a thickness of at least one
Alkaline earth metal carbonate ________ __
5-20
fortieth inch and which consists essentially of
a binder constituting from about 20% to about
Pigment _____________________________ __
5-20
said binder consisting essentially of 40-60% by
35% by weight of said ?re-retardant composi 60 weight of oxidized siccative oil and 40-60% of
tion and uniformly commingled with said binder
chlorinated para?in of 40-80% chlorine content,
?nely-divided solid substantially non-in?am
and the chlorine content of said binder being
mable ?ller material constituting from about
not less than about 25% by Weight of said binder,
65% to about 80% by weight of said ?re-retard
and said alkaline earth metal carbonate consti
ant composition, said binder component of said
tuting in said ?re-resistant composition at
?re-retardant composition containing from
least about 50% by weight of the weight of the
about 40% to about 60% by weight of oxidized
chlorinated paraffin in said composition.
and gelled siccative oil mechanically worked at
DONALD H. SPITZLI.
elevated temperature with about 40% to about
RALPH W. CHARLTON.
70
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