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Патент USA US2412366

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Dec. 10, 1946.'
Filed March 19. 1942
2 Sheets-Sheej'. 1
. Dec. l0, 1946.
2 sheets-sheet 2
Patented Dec. 10, 1946
Arthur Spencer, Benwell, Newcastle-on-'I‘yne 5,
and Johann Hermann Abbink-Spaink, .ies
mond, NeWcastle-on-Tyne 2, England, assignors
to Vickers-Armstrongs Limited, London, Eng
land, a British company
Application March 19, 1942, Serial No. 435,349
In Great Britain March 19, 1940
5 Claims.
(Cl. 121-41)
This invention relates to power transmissie
systems, of the repeater type, particularly ap
plicable to the fire control of guns, of the kind
wherein movement of the gun or other object to
be moved is dependent upon the relative dis
placement of two members, one member being as
sociated with the repeater apparatus forming part
of the -power drive controlled by the signal.
The invention is primarily concerned with such
electric distant transmission systems employing
two synchronous motors of the Selsyn type, one
unit constituting the initiating unit or transmit
ter and the other unit the cancelling unit or
receiver. Each unit has a three phase field and
a single phase salient two pole armature. In
such a system, the units are in wired connection
with a thermionic amplifier so that the latter is
controlled in its amplifying action according to
the angular displacement between the rotors of
the units, the output of the thermionic amplifier
position of the valve, the valve having either a
rotary motion or a combined sliding and rotary
movement. The invention is, however, also ap
plicable to any other form of electric transmis
5 sion system wherein movement of the gun is
dependent upon the relative displacement of
two members, one member being associated with
the signal and the other member being associated
with the follow-up apparatus forming part of the
10 power drive controlled by the signal.
In such electric distant transmission systems
where the movement of a signal, for example,
the rotor of the Selsyn initiating unit is used to
originate the movement of the repeater appara
15 tus, the position-of the signal relative to the
position of the repeater apparatus must be out
of coincidence before a movement of tht,` repeater
apparatus takes place in an endeavour to restore
concidence. In o-rder to maintain the velocity
20 of the signal equal to that of the repeater ap
being applied to a repeater motor in direct or
para-tus, an increase of mis-alignment between
indirect connection with the rotor of the can
signal and follower must give rise to a speed
celling unit, the system including an hydraulic
increase of the follower whilst a decrease of
power ampliñer for actuating the gun or other
mis-alignment must decrease the» speed of the
object to be moved as a result of angular move
ment of the repeater motor. In such a system
the rotor of the initiating unit is initially mov
able through the medium of a predictor or other
controlling mechanism, the output of the ther
The chief object of the invention is to correct
automatically for any angular lag or mis-align
ment between the signal and the follower, and
furthermore to correct for any electrical lag
' micnic amplifier and direction of current flow 30 which may occur in the system so as to obtain
being respectively proportional to the angular
displacement between the two units and the di
rection of displacement, movement of the re
peater motor thereby taking place according to
the direction of displacement and in accordance
with the output available from the thermionic
amplifier, the repeater motor, by virtue of its
direct or indirect connection with the rotor of
the cancelling unit, serving to bring the rotors
once more into coincidence whilst at the same
time transmitting the required motion to the
gun or other object to be moved through the
medium of the hydraulic power amplifier.
complete coincidence in the system throughout.
The hydraulic power amplifier hitherto used
incorporates a differential gear interposed be
tween the input shaft and the main controlling
valve controlling movement of the output shaft
leading to the gun elevating or training mech
anism. The invention consists broadly in the
interposition of a further diiîerential between
the repeater motor and the input shaft of the
40 hydraulic power ampliñer, the outer, or planet
carrying, member of the differential being driven
preferably through the medium of a further small
hydraulic power amplifier from the main con
trol valve operating shaft so as to advance the
input shaft of the main hydraulic power ampli
~fier automatically and thus obtain complete co
a form of electric distant transmission system
employing S‘elsyn units forms the subject of
copending application Serial No. 435,356, filed
March 19, 1942, whilst the hydraulic power am
l'incidence between the signal and follower. By
pliñer forms the subject of copending application
suitable correction of the gear ratio' connecting
Serial No. 435,348, filed March 19. 1942, the
the input shaft with the valve operating spindle
hydraulic power amplifier comprising an hy 50 this correction, may be increased, thus anticipat
draulic engine preferably of the swashplate ac
ing the electrical lag in the system.
tuated type employing a control valve for vary
In order that the said invention may be clearly
ing the volume of the supply of the fiuid me
understood and readily carried into effect, the
dium, the torque obtainable` on the output shaft
same will now be described more fully with ref
of the ampliñer being thus dependent on the
erence to the accompanying drawings in which
Fig. l illustrates díagrammatically the disposition
of the main component parts of the system, Fig. 2
detail in Fig. 3. The amplifier Il through the
medium of its output shaft i8 operates the dif
ferential gear 1 interposed between the motor
shaft 8 and input shaft It of the main hydraulic
plifler-the output shaft of which is connected to
the driven load, and Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section Ul power amplifier 9 so as to advance the input shaft
to correct for the two angular displacements here
through the supplementary power amplifier the
inbefore referred to. In this way the differential
input shaft of which is driven from the valve
gear 1 cancels the differential gear I3 situated in
spindle of the amplifier shown in Fig. 2. Figs.
the hydraulic power amplifier ii, thus eliminating
2 and 3 together correspond to Fig. 1 of the be
fore referred to application Serial No. 435,348 to 10 the angular lag. The gear ratio may be so chosen
that this correction also includes the angular lag
which cross reference is made for a more complete
which exists between roto-r 2 and rotor t, thus
disclosure of details.
tending to reduce the angular lag between the
In the construction illustrated, the apparatus
rotor` 2 :and the output spindle it to zero.
includes a Selsyn initiating or transmitter unit I,
' The differential gears l and i3 may be of any
the rotor 2 of which represents the position of the
suitable construction and are shown diagram
signal. The rotor of the Selsyn unit I is operated
matically. Referring in the first instance to the
from the output shaft of a predictor or other con
differential "l, driving and driven gear-wheels 2G
trolling device and is connected with a repeater
and 2I are secured to shafts 8 and i 4, gear wheels
electric motoru 3 through the medium of a therm
ionic amplifier 4 and by the same means is ccn 20 2l! vand 2 I meshing respectively with planet pinions
22 and 23 which themselves intermesh, the latter
nected with the winding of a rotor 5 of a, further
being mounted upon a planet carrier 24, the latter
Selsyn unit 6 constituting the cancelling unit o-r
being in geared connection as shown with the
shaft IB. The differential gear i3 is of identical
The electric motor 3 through the medium of a
or similar construction, similar reference numer
differential gear 'I drives the input shaft I4 of an
als being employed, the gear wheels 2t and 2l in
hydraulic power amplifier 9 which, through the
this case being attached to shafts I4 and I0, the
medium of its output shaft Il?, serves to move a
planet carrier 24 being in geared connection with
gun or other object in training or elevation. The
the shaft I5.
details of construction of this power amplifier are
For the purpose of understanding the differ
shown in Figure 2.
ential gears if it is assumed that the planet car
When therrotor of the Selsyn Unit I is out of
riei` 24 is held stationary, and remembering that
alignment with the rotor of the Selsyn unit t, cur
gears 22 and 23 are in mesh with each other, and
rent is delivered by the thermionic amplifier 4 to
also respectively in mesh with gears 20 and 2l,
cause angular movement of the repeater motor, in
it will be perceived that there is a direct drive from
a direction according to the relative direction of
shaft 8 to shaft I4 which, if gears 22 and 23 are
-displacement between the two Selsyn rotors.
alike and if gears 2li and 2l are alike, would have
The torque transmitted to the output shaft lí!
a one to one relationship. Next assume that the
is under the control of a valve I2 in the hydraulic
shaft I 4 is held stationary, and it will be apparent
power amplifier 9, the valve I2 serving to control
that rotation of the gear 2i! will cause the planet
the duantity 0f ñuid supplied to the ampliñer,
carrier 24 to rotate because the meshing gears 22
and the opening and closing of this valve I2 is
and 23 can “walk” around the gear 2i. Then, it
under the control of a differential gear I3 there
is clear that if both the gears 2l and the planet
in, shown in Fig. 2, the speed of the output shaft
carrier 24 are free to rotate there will be a dif
I0 being determined by the opening of the valve
ferent action-and as so far discussed the like
and being therefore a function of the'angular dis
differential gear at I3 will through the movement
placement between the input shaft I4 and output
of the` planet carrier control the valve I2 to in
shaft I0.
turn control the rate of rotation of the shaft Iii.
It will thus be seen that in accordance with the
As so far described the differential gears intro
above description and ignoring the function of
the differential gear 1 interposed .between the re 50 duce their differential action which, in the case
of differential I3, is designed to control the valve
peater motor and input shaft I4, there is in the
I2. Returning to the differential gear l, it is ap
firstV case an angular displacement between
parent that the action of the differential can be
the signals, that is to say, between the rotor of the
modified by applying a control or restraint on
initiating Selsyn unit and the rotor of the Selsyn
either the shaft I4 with its gear 2| or the planet
cancelling unit whose shaft forms a continuation ‘
carrier 24. Here it is the planet carrier 24 which
of the main shaft 8 of the electric motor. There
is utilized, and this is done as explained by the
is a further angular displacement between the in
additional power amplifier Il operated from the
put shaft i4 of the hydraulic power amplifier and
shaft I5 that is driven from the planet carrier of
its output shaft lli' and this displacement increases
the differential I3, the control coming back to the
in value with the speed of rotation.
shaft I8 and the gear in mesh with the periphery
As a result of langular movement of the repeater
ofthe planet carrier 24 of the diñerential l.
motor 3, the valve I2 will be partially opened, the
Remembering that the electric motor 3 is under ’
output shaft Il) being also rotated but not to such
the control of the amplifier ¿i always trying to
an extent as to obtain complete coincidence.
keep the Selsyn unit 5, which is the follow-up or
By the provision of the differential gear 'I be
cancelling unit, in step with the unit I and further
tween the repeater motor shaft and the input
remembering that the valve i2 is operated by the
shaftV I 4 of the hydraulic power amplifier, this lack
differential I3 so that the function of angular dis«
of coincidence is rectified. between the motor shaft
placement between the shafts I4 and I2 is deter
8 and the input shaft I4 of the hydraulic power
amplifier 9. The valve spindle I5 of the valve l2 70 mined by the extent of opening in valve l2 v(it is
apparent that the component of motion of one of
associated with the hydraulic power amplifier op
two differentially operable members will vary with
erates the input spindle I5 of a further small
the resistance to movement of the other com
hydraulic power amplifier I'I which is constructed
ponent), it should now be apparent that while
and adapted to operate in the same manner as
the hydraulic power amplifier 9, and is shown in 76 the differential I3 wi11 introduce the angular dis»
is a longitudinal section through the power arn
hydraulic torque amplifier. In practice` a con
trolling valve I9 is included in the oil outflow pipe
herent >characteristics of such a construction as
leading from the small hydraulic power amplifier
disclosed will introduce a lag. But the magni
with the object of restricting the oil flow through
tude of- this lag, reflected in the speed of the shaft
I5, can be used to control a second differential in C: the amplifier and eliminating immediate response
to minute rapid fluctuation of the main controlling
the same drive (remembering that shaft 3 is in
valve in the main hydraulic power amplifier.
alignment with shaft I4 so Idifferential l is inter
The dials and pointersl shown are included
posed in the shaft drive between the follow-up
merely to show more clearly the operation of the
motor 3 and the differential i3), the control of
the differential 1 from the planet carrier of dif 10 apparatus and form no part of the invention.
What we claim and desire to secure by Letters
ferential I3 being utilized to cancel the lag in
Patent of the United States is:
troduced by the differential I3.
l. A power transmission system of the follow
The hydraulic power amplifiers 9 and I1 may,
up or repeater type including a repeater motor,
as aforesaid, be assumed to be of identical con
15 a hydraulic power ampliñer having an input
Referring now particularly to power amplifier
shaft, a controlling valve, and an operating shaft
9 (Fig. 2), rotation of shaft IB is obtained by slid
for said valve, and a differential gear operated
ing the Valve I2 so that oil under pressure in pipe
from the input shaft of the power amplifier for
25 passes through port 26 to actuate the pistons
operating said shaft for said valve, having in
of the swashplate arrangement, while simultane 20 combination therewith an additional differential
ously the sliding movement of I2 uncovers port 2l'
gear interposed between the repeater motor and
to exhaust the oil through pipe 28. Conversely,
said input shaft for the purpose of lag correction,
if hydraulic valve I2 is being slid in the opposite
said last named differential gear including an
direction, port 2l is exposed to the pressure side
outer or planet carrying member and means
and portlZS becomes the exhaust side, while natu
driven from said valve operating shaft for oper
rally the swash plate turns the opposite direc
ating said member so as to advance the input
tion. It will be seen that rotation of shaft I4 via
shaft of said hydraulic power amplifier auto
placement between the shafts I4 and I5, the in
gears 24 and 29 causes the valve I 2 to slide as in
dicated above on account of the worm gear 35, and
that at the same time, it causes shaft I5 to rotate.
On account `of the differential gear I3, it will
be noted that rotation of shaft Il! always tends
to close the sliding valve I2, and that therefore
for a ‘given load the amount of displacement of
valve I2 from its neutral posi-tion determines the
speed of shaft IIB; equally there must therefore
be a displacement between shaft I4 and I0 in order
matically to obtain complete coincidence between
the signal and follower.
2. A power transmission system, as claimed in
claim l, including an additional hydraulic power
ampliñer interposed between said valve operating
shaft of the power amplifier and the outer or
planet carrying member of the additional differ
ential gear.
3. A power transmission system, as claimed in
claim 1, said additional hydraulic power ampli
ñer being interposed between said valve operating
to rotate shaft Ii), and the higher the speed and
the greater the load, the greater valve opening is
shaft of the power amplifier and the outer or
required and the greater is the angular displace 40 planet carrying member of the additional differ
ment between I4 and I0.
It will also be appreciated that the amount of
angular displacement between I4 and I0 is at all
times reflected in a corresponding angular dis
placement of the shaft I5. As the shaft I5 is
coupled to the input spindle I6 of another but
smaller hydraulic power amplifier, the shaft IS
and therefore the differential gear` l, will be ro
ential gear and including an oil supply pipe and
a controlling valve in said oil supply pipe for
restricting oil flow therethrough to thereby
dampen immediate response to minute rapid
“ fluctuation of the main controlling valve in the
main hydraulic power amplifier.
4. A power transmission system comprising a
Selsyn transmitter unit operated by the output
tated as a function of the rotation of I5, that is
shaft of a controlling apparatus, a Selsyn re
the amount of displacement from neutral posi
ceiver unit, a thermionic amplifier in wired con
tion of sliding valve I2, and that is in turn the
nection with said transmitter and receiver units,
amount of displacement between shaft I4 and
an electric motor in wired connection with said
shaft Iii. Rotation of the shaft I8 causes shaft
amplifier and energized by said amplifier as long
I4 to be advanced on the position of shaft 8, and
as there is lack of coincidence between said trans
consequently the angular lag obtaining at any
mitter and receiver units, the direction of rota
moment between it and IG is thereby cancelled, so
tion of said motor being determined by the direc
that angular displacement of the shaft 8 `gives rise
tion of misalignment between the units, said elec
to exactly similar angular displacement of shaft
tric motor being mechanically coupled with the
rotatable part of said receiver unit to rotate the
The above description is based on the assump 60 latter until alignment is restored, an hydraulic
tion that the same characteristic exists for the
power amplifier having a sensitive low torque
speed response of the repeater motor due to an
input shaft, a high torque output shaft and a
gular displacement between the rotors of the
valve controlling the flow of fiuid to the ampli
Selsyn units as for the speed response of the hy
fying mechanism, a differential gear connecting
draulic power ampliñer, due to the angular dis
' the low torque input shaft with said valve to
placement between the input shaft and output
effect its opening and closing movements and
shaft. Should these characteristics be sufficiently
different to matter in actual practice~ operation
of the ydifferential gear 7 can take place through
also connected with said high torque output shaft,
said output shaft operating the object to be con
trolled, said electric motor being in driving con
nection with the input shaft of the power ampli
the medium of cams or similar gearing to match
the resulting characteristics. The action of the
ñer, a differential gear interposed between the
small hydraulic power amplifier H is irreversible
driving connection on said electric motor and
for the torques dealt with, the output shaft form
said input shaft for the purpose of lag correction
ing a “heeling” point for the differential gear in
and means driven from the operating mechanism
terposed between the electric motor and the main 75 of said valve and connected with said last named
diiîerentíal to advance the input shaft of said
ampliñer automatically to obtain complete co
tional differential and -including an oil supply
pipe incorporating a manually actuated control
incidence between the transmitter and receiver
5. A power transmission system as claimed in
claim 4 including an additional hydraulic power
ling valve for restricting oil ñow through said
amplifier interposed between the valve operating
mechanism of the main power amplifier and the
outei' o1' planet carrying member of the addi
additional power amplifier to thereby dampen
immediate response to minute rapid fluctuation
of the main controlling valve in the main hy
draulic power amplifier.
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