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Патент USA US2412383

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Dec. 10, 1946.
Filed Aug. 4, 1940
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
' ZSnnentor
“ Dec. 10, 1946.
Filed Aug. 4, 1940'
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
men 0].‘
(Ittomeg’ .
Dec. ‘10,1946.
w. E. B'AKER
Filed Aug. 4, 1940
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
Snvenkgr _
‘Dec. 10, 1946.
w. E. B‘AKER
Filed Aug. 4, 1940
5 sheets-sheet 4
W/LuA/w 5 EAKEK.
Dec. 10, 1946.
,. 2,412,383
,W/LL MM 5 50x5:
Patented Dec. 10, 1946
William E. Baker, Swanton, Ohio
Application August 4, 1940, Serial No. 351,356
4 Claims.
(01. 261—~28)
The present invention relates broadly to the
handling, conditioning, and combustion of liquid
fuel. I have developed a complete system for
accomplishing this purpose, but certain portions
of the apparatus are of such 5', nature that they
pump is provided. That is, the pump system
withdraws liquid fuel from the tank or reservoir
and pumps it continuously past the metering por
tion of the pump and returns the unused volume back to the tank or reservoir. While the excess
can be used satisfactorily for purposes other than
may be controlled as desired, in the smaller type
units, I circulate from two to two and one-half
444,707 and 444,708 have been ?led to cover the
times the oil past the metering part of the pump
liquid handling apparatus or pump per se and
as is withdrawn by the metering pump and dig
the process of circulating, atomizing and burning 10 rected toward the atomizing portion of the equip
liquid fuel respectively.
ment. In larger unitsv where a greater volume
Broadly speaking, my system, ‘which will be
of oil or fuel is consumed, it is not necessary,
understood to include both the process and ap
for satisfactory results, to circulate such a. large
. paratus, may be divided into three phases: (1)
excess, although in all cases I prefer to pump from .
liquid fuel combustion. Divisional applications
circulation of the raw oil from a reservoir .to the 15 the tank more oil than is required.
The reason
atomizing equipment; (2) the atomization of the
oil involving breaking down and mixing thereof
for pumping the excess oil is to avoid surging,
air entrapment, or a de?ciency of oil which would
with air and delivery of-the oil-air mixture; and
(3) combustion of the oil-air mixture ‘including,
interfere with proper operation of the system as
a whole. Another advantage in pumping this
as a preferable feature, the addition of so-called 20 excess 'oil resides in the fact that a continuous,
secondary air at or in the region of the point of
steady supply of oil iscat all times available for
the atomizing section during operation thereof.
Each of the three phases of my system includes
It will of course be understood that ?uctuations
novel features and, when combined, give a sys
in the oil supply or presence of air in the line
tem that permits burning of various grades of 25 presents a dif?culty in holding a. constant-?re.
fuel oil as will be explained more fully herein
Even assuming that the exact amount of oil could
after. Speaking in generalities, ‘the problem of
be furnished for any given viscosity, I have found
burning the more highly re?ned fuel oils is not
thatthe viscosity of any given grade of oil varies
as di?cult as burning of the relatively cheaper
enough to throw any preselected conditions out
grades which are not as well or highly re?ned.
of balance, so that to safeguard against varia
The cheaper and poorer grades of fuel oil here
tions in oil vviscosities and the other factors, just
tofore have ‘presented certain difficulties as to
mentioned, I consider the pumping of excess oil
pumping, atomization, and combustion which
to and past the metering section to be of vital
have discouraged the use of such cheaper grades
importance. Itis important not only from the
of oil for general domestic and industrial heating,
angle of proper operation but also as a safety
except in those cases where proper and almost
factor avoiding as it does the possibility of too
constant maintenance could be provided for nec
much fire or too little ?re and danger of ex
essary cleaning and other matters making it pos- ' plosions. As a matter of convenience, it is wise to
sible to use such cheaper grades of oil. As is
keep air out of the fuel line because if there is a
generally known, in the domestic ?eld, such as 40 lack of oil supply, the safety control will kick out,
oil burning equipment for homes, burners have
necessitating manual resetting.
been designed to handle No. 3 oil.. No. 5 oil is
Although ‘the circulating portion of the pump
substantially cheaper than No. 3 oil, but the ordi
handles an excess of oil, measured amounts only
nary burner designed for handling No. 3 oil will
are permitted to ?ow to the mixing or atomizing
not give satisfactory service with No. 5 oil be
portion. The pump unit is adjustable to vary not
cause, in addition to inability to handle the
cheaper and dirtier, heavier oil, said equipment
does not give su?icient or'proper atomization of '
only the amount of oil circulated but also the
metering. section so that a predetermined meas
ured volume of oil is caused to be pumped to the
the oil. Furthermore, when the ordinary 3 oil
burner is furnished with 5 oil, the burner nozzle 50 The atomizer receives the raw oil and causes it
or tip cokes up in a relatively short time, with
to be mixed with a substantially greater volume
extremely unsatisfactory results if not failure of
of air, the resulting mixture being in the nature
the unit.
of a mist or spray.
Considering first the circulating phase of my
Especial attention is directed to the fact that
system, a combined circulating and metering 55 the atomizer is so designed and operated that
aagiaae's '
' 4
even cheaper,- .heavier grades of fuel oil'can be
' oil, it‘ has a higher B. t. u. rating per gallon than V
"the No. 3.oil and this, coupled with its lower
atomized or converted into a ?ne mist without
' so-called preheating to give a'mix which is freely
. ‘price; islindicative- of the fact that if it can be
’ used, heating costs will be substantially lower.
combustible in a highly e?icient manner and
without the formation of excessive carbon or
other . dii?culties ordinarily encountered‘ when
The problem has been to ?nd some satisfactory
and reliableway of using the oil.v
burning the relatively heavier grades of fuel oil.
‘Ordinarily, in the burning ‘or fuel oils. the oil
'is notlpremixed with air before vdiscl'lalrge from
The atomization of the lighter oils which are
distilledis not ‘nearly as‘ di?cult as the atomiza
tion of the ordinary commercial No. 5 oil which
the burner nozzle, but the air used is added at or 10 is understood not to be a distilled oil.
For. sake of ‘simplicity, as a specific application .
in the vicinity of the nozzle'.- In‘ my system, the I
premixing 0f the air with oil is an important
feature, and the completeness of the premix. and
the extent or degree of atomization of the oil
(even the lower grade oils such as No. 5) is ‘evi
denced by the fact that the atomized oil-air mix
of my liquid fuel system, I have illustrated and
'will describe its adaptation as a domestic heat-s >
ture can, be piped from the atomizer, passed. I
However, in no- sense of- the word is v _
the-system restricted to this particular ?eld, as
smaller or larger unitscan be made to handle
more or less oil per hour. . ,The same system can
and in ‘some instances, with modi?ed nozzle
. through a distributor, and fed to one or more
nozzles remote from the atomizer itself. vThis
means, be used for large industrial purposes, en- ,
gines, and in fact any place where oil. burning
itself renders the burning of fuel oil akin to the
equipment isat present used and also in new '
burning of gaseous fuel. The ability to pipe the - ‘?elds where the ordinary oil burning equipment is not satisfactory and where it is customary to:
oil mist from-the atomizer to some remote point
_ characteristic and the characteristic of the ?ame ‘
or points increases the ?eld of use for oil burning '
' employ a gaseous fuel. ~
equipment and the cost of burning oil with my
Other objects and advantages’ of the invention
system is extremely favorable as compared to the
will become more apparent during the course of
cost of gaseous fuel,
the following description when taken in connec
withthe accompanying drawings.
~ ‘Brie?y stated,
by the
a rotating
of the
‘In the drawings wherein like numerals arelem
having connection with a vacuum inducing means 80 ployed to designate like parts throughout the
which ‘draws air and oil in proper ratio ‘into
space. provided within said rotating member.
Fig. 1 is a perspective view showing a complete
The rotating member and associated parts are of
unit with the\ cover removed ready -for associa
‘metal and‘by virtue ofv their relative movementj
' establishing turbulence, coupled with the presence
of relatively high vacuum, the oil and air are
thoroughly mixed, with the oil being. broken down
.or dispersedinto mist form which can be caused
tion with a-?re box;
to pass through a bore or tube by means of rela
‘ I
Fig, 2 is a ‘vertical transverse section through
one form of'the pumping: and metering appa- ’.
'Fig. 3 is a transverse sectional view- through
one form of atomizing apparatus;
tively slight pressure, which is ‘further indica 40
Fig. 4 is a section taken'on‘ line 4-4 ‘in Fig. 3;
iization attained.
Fig. 5
Fig. '6
Fig. 7
Fig. '8
tion as to the degree and completeness of atom
- The third phase of the system abovereferred
to involves the combustion of the atomized fuel.
9 is a vertical longitudinal section through
The fuel is directed through one or more nozzles, . 45
a section taken on line‘S-i in Fig.
a section taken on line-i-Bin Fig.
a section'taken on ‘line '|—'| in Fig.
a section taken on line‘il;8 in Fig.
the bore of individual nozzles being controlled by
ne form of nozzle including means-‘for control
the oil rate per hour for which it is designed.
ling theapplication of secondary air;
Fig. 10 isa detail of the vane or air directing
To e?ect proper combustion, the nozzleis sur
rounded with means designed for surrounding
means arranged around the .nozzle illustrated in
the discharged oil with a blanket of air which 50 Fig. 9;
maybe referred to as secondary air. A suitable
Fig. 11 is an enlarged sectional view showing ’
blower is provided to induce the necessary ?ow of
a distributing means employed when the atom
air circumferentially around the nozzle and, by
ized fuel is to be piped to one or more burners
suitable vane means, the path or direction of
remote from the atomizing unit; and
> ?ow of the secondary air is‘ controlled to give 65
Fig. 12 ‘is a. transverse section“ through a por
proper relationship with the discharging atom-.
tion thereof.
ized oil. More speci?cally, the air is caused to
, ' Referring to
1,‘ it will be noted that the '
‘swirl exteriorly of the oil dischargingfrom the
assembled“ unit is compact,v being carried upon
nozzle. The character of the flame itself, wheth
the support 20. A single electric motor 2! is all
er it be longand narrow or short andbushy, is to that is necessary to operatethe equipment, and
determined in part at least by the particular shape
' for the particular uni-t illustrated and about to
of the burner tip, pressure applied to the fuel~
be described, a one-quarter horse powermotor is
passing through the burner tip, and‘ direction'of . Y _ large enough. The pumping and metering .ap
paratus shown in detail in Fig. -2_is designated in
movement ofthe atomized fuel as itleaves the
burner tip.
65 its entirety in Fig. 1 by the numeral 22. The
For purposes of this application, No. 3 oil will
atomizing apparatus shownin detail in Fig. '3
be considered-as representing a high grade, well
designated in Fig. 1 in its entirety by the numeral
refined oil, whereas No. 5 oil will be considered _
as representing thepoorer grade of oil. How
partially in Fig. 9 is designated in its entirety in
ever, it will of course be understood that fuel oil
. is used herein by way of example rather than
The nozzle and associated parts illustrated, .
Fig. 1 by the numeral 24. '
, .
The apparatus 22 and the apparatus 23' are
limitation, as it is intended that the word "011”
driven by means 01' a, common drive shaft 25 oper-'
will‘include any ?uid fuel. Asa practical mat
ated by the pulley 26 connected by means of the
ter, commercial No. 5 oil is extremely poor quality
belt 21 to the pulley 28 carried by‘ the motor shaft
with relation to No. 3 oil. "Because it is a heavier 75 29; As will be explained later, the atomizing ap
paratus 23 is operated directly by the shaft 25,
while the pumping and metering apparatus is
connected to the shaft 25 by gear means con
tained within the gear box, designated in its en
tirety by thenumeral 30 in Fig. 1.
The present invention is in no way concerned
with any particular electricalvcontrol devices.
However, I do make use of automatic electrical
controls to effect starting and stopping of the
apparatus and also to provide'necessary safety
Broadly stated, when using the cheaper grades
will have a greater displacement than the head
42, which makes it possible to circulate more oil
than can be pumped to the atomizer. ‘The barrel
4!! is keyed to the drive shaft 31 by the key 44
carried by the shaft and received in a slot formed
in the barrel. Thereby, upon rotation of the
shaft 31, the barrel rotates at the same speed
within the bushing 45 pressed into the casing or
housing 46.
The housing and bushing are of ,
course stationary and are provided with suitable
ports through which the oil is received and part i
of which is withdrawn‘ by the metering end and
of oil such as No. 5, it is advisable at the start
pumped to the atomizing section. As shown par
of a .cycle to employ gaseous fuel. Normally, the
ticularly in Fig. 8, which is a section on line 8—8
gaseous fuel is used for less than a moment and, 115 in Fig. 2, the circulating end of each of the cylin
as shown in Fig.1, the flow of gaseous fuel is
ders‘ has a port 41 extending outwardly‘ through,
controlled by means of the magnetic'valve 3|.
the barrel. The oil intake pipe 34 is fastened to
In those areas where natural or arti?cial gas'is
the housing by means of a threaded boss 48
not readily available, container gas such as Phil
communicating with the port 49 extending
gas or Pyrol gas can be very satisfactorily em
ployed without inconvenience because the amount
of gas required for the operation is quite insig
20 through the housing 46. The port 49 is disposed
in the same plane as the ports 4'! formed in the
barrel 4!! and communicating with the closed end
of the cylinders 6|. The bushing 45 is provided
The normal ?ring of the atomized fuel after
with a. slot 50 which extends from the point B in
starting by gas is done by means of electrodes, 25' Fig._ 8 to the point C. As will be explained later,
and two electrodes are illustrated and designated
operation of the pump causes the oil to flow in
by the numeral 32 in Fig. 1. The flow of current
through the pipe 36 and to fill the groove in the
vto these electrodes is likewise controlled by well
bushing between the points B and _C. A second
known automatic electrical devices.
groove 51 formed in the bushing 55 and in the
As an additional precautionary measure, a 30 same plane as the groove 50 extends from the
magnetic type of valve 33 is associated with the
raw oil supply line to positively shut off the flow
of oil should by any chance dirt or other foreign
point D to the point E as shown in Fig. 8. This
groove 5| communicates with the passageway 52
which leads to the valve device 53.
matter get into the system; Normally, the valve
In Fig. 2 is shown the means employed for
33 is not required but is installed nevertheless as 35 operating the pistons. Pivotally mounted upon
an additional safety factor; On the other hand,
the end 54 of the housing is a thrust bearing 55
successful operation of the apparatus does not
pivoted by means of the pin 56 and adjusted
require use of the valve 33.
about its pivot point by the adjusting screw 51.
Beginning ?rst with the oil pumping and
A hardened ring member 58, having a ball-race
metering apparatus 22 in Fig‘. 1, the raw oil is 40 59, is mounted upon the thrust bearing.
drawn from‘ the tank through the pipe 34 in Fig. 1,
Each of the pistons, as shown in Fig. 2, is
which is also shown i'nFig. 2.
provided with a hardened end 60. Each of the
In Fig. 2, the main drive shaft 25 of the ap
pistons is preferably made from hardened steel
paratus carries the worm 35 meshing with the
and each has an end 60 adapted for contact with
Worm wheel 36 keyed to the pump driving shaft 45 the face of the ring 58. The end 60 of each piston
31 which rotates in the direction of the arrow
shown in Fig. 8.
is, broadly speaking, cone shaped to correspond
In the particular pumping
approximately to the operating angle of the
mechanism illustrated and, as particularly shown
in Figs. '7 and 8, there are four cylinders and
disc 58.
The pistons are normally urged outwardly of
50 the cylinder by means of coil springs 6| sur
a four pistons, each piston, in effect, being two pis
tons. Each of the pistons, designated in their
entirety by the letter A, comprises the portion 38
and the relatively thicker portion 39.
rounding the pistons bearing at one end against
The part I
the cylinder barrel and at the opposite end on
the ?ange 62, preferably formed as an integral
38 is used for pumping and circulating the oil
part of the piston.
and the part 39 is used for the metering and 55 - _ As shown in Fig. 2, the left hand piston is in
pumping of the oil to the atomizing section. The
its wide open position and the right hand piston
pistons operate in the pump barrel 40. The cylin
is in its closed position.
ders tll formed in the barrel have a bore, a por
To facilitate rotation of the cylinder barrel
tion of which is of greater diameter than the
and associated parts, a roller bearing unit 63,
other portion; that is, the end of the bore receiv- no illustrated in Fig. 2, is placed between the bushing
ing the part 38 of the piston A is of ‘less diameter
than that part of the bore receiving the piston
end 39. In the apparatus illustrated, the diam
eter of the end 38 is approximately three-eighths
64 pressed into the end of the housing, serving
as a sleeve bearing for the shaft 31 and the ?ange
65 formed at the end of the cylinder barrel.
The opposite end of the drive shaft 31 has a
of an inch and the diameter of the end 39 is 65 detent 56 receiving the spring-pressed ball 61
approximately seven-sixteenths of an inch, which ,
produces the shoulder 62 employed as a cylinder
head'of annular formation to take care of the
metering and pumping of the metered oil to vthe
atomizing section.
Roughly speaking, the cubic displacement of
the end 43 of the piston is approximately two to
two and one-half times the cubic displacement
of the annular head 62 and, as the two pistons
operate together, it will be seen that the end 38
having in operative relationship therewith the
coil spring Eli seated in the cavity 69 formed in
the end 53 of the housing,
The main function of the .ball and detent con
70 struction is to assist in holding the oil seal parts
together so that the oil seal, designated in its
entirety by the numeral it, will function properly.
As shown, a second spring H is effective upon
the opposite end of the oil seal to likewise assist
75 in holding the parts together, and the combined
the intakev
groove of the metering section and unused -_oil "
?ows through the exhaust pipe 88 and is re
Upon rotationof the shaft?‘l, the barrel is
rotated and as‘ the ring 58 is mounted in an m;
' turnédtothetank'.
The so-called metering koperation is‘handled
clined position, it will be seen that the pistons’.
are caused to work in and out of their respective
'Gtothe‘pointH inFlg. "I.
action of the two effectively prevents DQ519186 Q!
I oil through-the oil seal.
by the thicker diameter portions of the pistons
' previously'referred to asthe parts 39.
The parts
3-! of course 'operatein the enlarged end of'the
cylinders and each enlarged end has a- port 89
is moved past the groove 50, oil will be drawn
into said cylinder. Then, upon continued move 10 extendingv from‘ the cylinder outwardly. For
7 The pump isso timed that as each cylinder
. example, as shown in Fig. 7, the. top cylinder
of the figure is in communication with the groove
ment of the barrel in the direction of the arrow
in Fig. 8, each cylinder will be taken out of com
81 formed in the bushing.
' munication with the groove 50, slid past the land
It will be understood that the ?ow. of oil
F and then brought into communication with
the second groove 5|. In the meantime, as the 15 through the passageway '85, and groove 81 is
induced by the pumping end '38 of the pistons.
piston is riding on- the ring 5-8 forming an effective
As each of the metering portions of the cylinders
‘ cam, it is‘ moving within its cylinder and, when‘
is: in registration with the groove 81 some. of in communication withthe groove 5|, each piston
the oil
into the cylinder, depending,
is at that partof the stroke causing forceful ,
of course, upon the stroke of the piston which
movement of the oil into the groove and'through
in turn is dependent upon the "adjustment of
the passageway 52,-and into the control valve
assembly '53. It will of course be understood'that ' ‘the thrust ‘bearing and ring previously described.
'As the cylinder barrel is rotated in the direction '
each of the pistons, for example four, ‘goes
of the arrow in Fig. 7, the oil "is drawn into
the cylinder and is discharged therefrom-in a
, groove ‘90 disposed in the sleeve between points
through the same cycle as the others, so ‘that
each of the individual pistons serves ?rst/‘to
draw oil into the pump and each serves to force _ .
part of the oil intothe valve-53.
J ' and K.
The groove 80 is inthe same plane
as the groove’ll. It will‘be noted that there- '
In Fig. 8 the valve operating mechanism has
is a land between the points G and K. The oil
been. removed for sake of clarity. -By compar
ing Figs. 2 and 8, it will be seen that‘ the oil 30 discharged-from each cylinder and received in
the groove 90 is then caused to flow through the
being pumped through the passageway 52 is
passageway 9| shown in Fig. 7, and. thus con-'
received in the cavity 12. Mounted within the
veyed or forced into the cavity ‘92 clearly illus- '
cavity 12 is a‘bellows type .valve 13 carried by‘
trated in Fig. 2. By further reference to Fig. 2,
the screw‘ cap 14 threadedinto the end of the
it ‘will be noted that a cylindrical ?ltering screen opening. as shown. The bellows valve carries
the stem 15, at thev opposite. end of which is . 83 surroundsthe bushing-18 so that oil coming
from the metering‘pump is caused to pass
a self-aligning head 16 designed for cooperation
through the screen and into the ori?ce 94 ex
The stem 15 has a '
tending transversely through the bushing.’ _
' close ?t through the bushing, 18 and is such as
When ~the unit is not in operation, the self
. to prevent oil leakage between the stem and, 40
. with the needle valve 11.
aligning end 16 of the stem seats upon the needle
bushing. However, there is sufficient clearance
valve 11 so that no ?owing of oil is permitted .
- to permit reciprocation of the stem through the
to g0 through the conduit .95. However,_ when
operating, the oil coming from the metering
bushing, movement thereof being controlled by
the oil itself acting upon the bellows valve.
When the unit is not in operation, the valve
portion of the pump is received-within the cavity
is closed. At the start of a cycle, the pump
pumps the oil into the cavity 12, as has already
been explained, and when adequate pressure
- 92, passes through the screen and into the ori?ce
has been built up, normally about two pounds per I
stem so that the needle valve is opened and the
94. As previously mentioned, during pumping,
the bellows valve has been caused to slide the
square inch, the bellows valve is compressed; 50 oil permitted to "flow through the bore 95 of the
conduit 95 and onto the atomizing section,
that is, the end remote from the cap ‘M is moved
When the unit cuts off and the pressure is
toward the cap which slides the stern through
relieved, the bellows valve slides the stem and
the bushing and lifts the end 16 from the valve
associated parts in the opposite direction, which
Upon‘ such movement of the'valve, the port
CI in returns the port 19 to within the bushing, pre
19 formed transversely-through the stem'is moved - -
beyond the end 8d of the bushing 18 and is thus
brought into position where it may receive oil
from the chamber 12, The. stem is also provided
venting further ?ow of oil therethrough and,
_ likewise, the needle ‘valve ‘I1 is closed so that
there is no further ?ow of‘ oil to the pump or
from the metering‘section. I
with a second transverse port 8_l disposed be
In view of the fact that it is desirable to in
neath the port 19 and the center of the stem is
removed so that the two ports are in communi
cation with one another through ‘the passage
clude suitable straining and filtering means be—
tween the tank and the pump, the screen'93 is
used only as an added precaution but ordinarily
82 as shown in Fig. 2.
this requires-very little if any cleaning. ‘
_ It. will thus be seen that I have disclosed a
Thus, theoil ?owing into the port 19 passes 65
through the channel 82 and into the port 8|. I
Shown particularly in Fig.7, the port 8| reg
isters with the port 83 extending through the
pumping and metering device that will have a
wide application wherever the handling of a con
' stant and measured amount of ?uid is desired.
It is important that the two pistons produced
bushing and into the channelway 84. The oil
_ ‘then ?ows ‘through this port into the conduit 70 by having a single piston with different diameter sections be used, because in this way they have
85 formed through the bracket 86 which is a
the same'stroke and with no opportunity for one
part of the pump housing, as clearly shown.
piston gettingout of balance with the other. The
The oil thus passes to the metering portion ‘of
ratio of pumping capacities is ?xed by the rel
the pump going into a groove 8'! formed in the
bushing 45, which groove extends from the point
ative displacement between the two sections and,
in the particular illustration herein made, the
displacement of the pumping piston 38 is from
placement‘of the metering piston 39.
With this arrangement and control of ports
In operation, air is drawn in from bothfends
of the atomizer housing between the shaft and
the housing ?anges I08. The air intakes are
designated by the letter M. At the left hand
side of Fig. 3, the air passes through the channel
and .use of the bellows valve, a constant excess
. I09 into the enlarged part of the casing whereas,
supply of oil is at all times moved through the
at the right hand end of Fig. 3, the passageway
H0 is provided for passage of the air into the
two to two and one-half times that of the dis
port, from which the metering valve draws its .
measured supply of oil during operation of the
enlarged part of the housing. The air thus ad
apparatus. The same ratio between pumping of 10 mitted to within the atomizing housing is di
rected to the air grooves III through the open
raw oil and metering is maintained, for, as the
ing II! as shown particularly in Fig. 6. As a
cam ring 58 is adjusted to furnish more or less
oil by the metering device to the atomizer, a cor
matter of facttwhere the opposed piston con
struction is employed there are two conduits II2
responding increase or decrease of oil is pumped
by the pistons 38.
15 communicating with the air groove III, one at
each end of the enlarged part 99. The enlarged
Because of the presence of an abundance of oil
part 99 is a rotating valve operating in the cyl
in the groove 81, there is always more oil pres
inder de?ned by the wall I I3 which surrounds it.
ent than can possibly be drawn into the meter
This is the part of the apparatus wherein the
ing cylinder during the time that any given cyl
' inder is in registration with said oil groove.
.20 oil and air is mixed to give an atomized mixture.
The air is drawn into the groove HI because of
Although the metering pumps discharge the ‘
the suction which is created upon reciprocation
011 into the groove 90 and thus to the conduit 95,
of the pistons I02 and I03. As shown at the top
it will be understood that the atomization part
of Fig. 3, the two pistons are at their closest ap
of the apparatus gains its supply of fuel by its
own suction rather than as a result of positive 25 preach in their cycle. As they are caused to sep
arate, a vacuum of relatively high proportions
pressure built up by the metering pump just de
is created and the cylinders through the port
scribed. That is, there is su?icient pressure to
carry the oil from the metering pump to the
IIA communicate with the air groove in the
atomizer part 99 of the shaft.
atomizer but the pressure is not relied upon or
Likewise, the enlargement 99 is provided with
intended to be su?icient to actually force the oil 30
the oil groove II5 which encircles the valve and
into the atomizing section.
communicates with the air groove at the point N.
Describing now the atomizing or mistifying de
vice indicated generally by the numeral 23 in .
The suction or vacuum created by operation
- of the pistons draws oil through the conduit 95,
Fig. 1, reference is made to Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6.
The conduit 95 carrying oil from the metering 35 opening 98 and into the oil groove II5. An im
portant feature of the arrangement of the air
device has connection with the atomizer as
groove is that it is so located that there is no
shown in Fig. 4, being threaded into the housing
opportunity for centrifugal force or other fac
97.’ Extending through the housing 91 is the‘
tors to prevent proper movement of the oil and
passageway 98.
The main shaft 25 has an enlarged portion 99 40 air. For example, if the air groove I II continued
entirely around the valve as a circular groove,
provided with both oil and air grooves or slots.
As shown particularly in Fig. 3, the shaft 25 is
mounted upon the bearings I00 and IM disposed
approximately at both ends of the housing 91.
Although any number of cylinders andpistons
centrifugal force would be such in many cases
that the oil would stay in the groove and not
flow out of it. However, by carrying the groove
almost entirely around the valve by bending it
away-from the closed end “6 and causing it to
run obliquely as at H‘! to joinin the forming of
an arrowhead as at H8, this tendency toward
oil pocketing or accumulation is entirely avoided.
can be used, depending upon the size of equip
ment,'I prefer a minimum of four cylinders to
insure smooth operation. In the design illus
trated in Fig. 3, four cylinders are employed
The normal speed of rotation of the shaft and
which are, in effect, double cylinders as tandem 50
or opposed pistons operate in each cylinder, thus - atomizing valve is from 1000 to 2000 revolutions
per minute. While it can be operated at still
necessitating eight pistons for the four cylinders. ‘
' greater R. P. M.’s, to insure long life, operation
In Fig. 4 the cylindersare indicated by the let
within this recommended range is desired.
ters L, and in each of these cylinders is mount
The width of the air channel or groove is ap
ed for reciprocation the opposed pistons I02 and
proximately 1/4 inch and the depth approximately
I03. The movement of each individual piston is
1% inch. On the other hand, the oil groove or
induced by a cam ring I04 connected’to the shaft
ring I I5 is but 1% inch in width approximately,
25 through the radial thrust bearing I05. The
and about 3‘; inch deep.
angular mounting of the cam rings is quite
The atomization of the oil takes place, in the
clearly illustrated in Fig. 3 and, in this particular 60
main at least, while the oil and air is still within
instance, there is approximately a '7 degree angle,
the grooves hereinabove referred to as the air
and this can be varied one way or another d..
grooves. At least I feel con?dent, based on my
pending upon the capacity of the unit‘.
‘ observations, that the major part of the atomiza
Each pistonis urged outwardly of its cylin
der by spring means I00 encircling the same ex 65 tion doesvso take place. ‘ This is undoubtedly due
teriorly thereof and, contacting with the end
to the and
with a by
the rotation of
of the
air '
?ange I01. Likewise, each piston has a contact
present as compared to oil coupled with the fact
button of hardened steel for riding upon the
that this action or mixing
taking'place in a
cam ring I04 which is also of hardened steel or
some other wear-resistant metal.
70 vacuum or partial vacuum created by the pistons.
The fact that the valve member is rotating at a
Upon rotation of the shaft 25, the cam rings
relatively high speed within its cylinder may also
will act upon‘ the pistons to causev them to be
forced inwardly of the cylinders and, as the low
contribute in a mechanical break down of the
oil, so to speak, further assisting in getting ex~
part of the cam passes the piston, the spring will
75 tremely ?ne atomization of the oil in the air.
cause it to be withdrawn.
2,419,388 '
4 The mixture so formed is of course drawn into
the cylinder between the pistons, although in, the
typeof construction where a single piston oper
communication with the ?rebox of, a furnace,
and Fig. 9 is an enlarged detail of the nozzle and
associated parts in such a type of installation.
In this case‘ the nozzle, ‘designated ‘in its ‘entirety
by thenumeral “I. is securely mounted upon the
end of the shaft 20 by means of the coupling. I22.
ates in a cylinder, suitable ports are arranged‘
' in the closed end of the cylinder. In any event,
the atomized fuel is drawn into the cylinder by
the action of the piston and is then discharged
Although the invention is not restricted to any‘
‘ by-contlnued operation‘ of the piston through the
I port H9 and through the bore of .the shaft indi
‘ cated by dotted lines I20 in the direction of the
arrow to the right of Fig. 3. The bore I20 is also
_ speci?cform of nozzle,‘ as the atomized fuel is ‘
of such caliber that it can be employed with many '
different kinds of nozzles and burned like gaseous fv '
fuel, nevertheless, where an installation is made
illustrated in dotted lines in Fig. 5.
and subject toaperiodic starting and stopping, it
In operation, the meteringvpump furnishes oil
isv extremely important that a properly‘ designed '
a to the conduit "with sufficient pressure to get
vnozzle be used to'avoid unnecessary coking and
the oil to. the'atomization unit, but positive han 15 o'thertrouble's. The particular nozzle illustrated
in Fig.‘ 9 is extremely veifllcient for ‘ordinary home
> dling of the oil within the atomization unit- is
vobtained ~upon- operation of the pistons within‘
oil burning equipment'as well as in other'places. the unit itself.
I '
Part of the'nozzle is shown in section in Fig.’
f The vacuum created by the pistons in the‘
9 for purposes of illustration.‘ The nozzle com
vatomlzin'g device draws in air from‘ outside of 20 prises the barrel I23 screwed upon the shaft I24
the housing, vthe air being drawn ?rst within the
to permit easy removal thereof and cleaning when
housing and then through suitable openings
necessary. Mounted within the barrel is a spring
through the cylinder web into the atomizing - pressed insert I25 normally'urged toward the
valve. The enlarged part 99 formed on the shaft
outer end of the nozzle by_ the coil spring I26. ‘
may be broadly referred to as the atomlzing valve.
The insert has a'longitudinal bore I21 extend
ing longitudinally through the intake portion
Thus, as stated, the‘ suction or vacuum created
by the pistons induces a forceful ?ow of air into i
the so-called air groove formed in‘ the circum
thereof, the atomized fuel passing from vwithin _
the insert outwardly'through the transverse open-
ings I28. The-atomized fuel is then located be
follows a tortuous path and, in the particular 30 tween ,the exterior of the reduced part of the in
' ‘ ference of the atomizing valve.
The air channel
sert and the inside surface of the harm] or in
' design illustrated, there are two of such grooves
the passageway I29. A cone tip I30 is formed at
the outer end of the insert and curved, spaced
vanes I3I maintain the insert in position to in
ways is sufficient to induce a ,?ow of oil through
, the circumferential groove “5 with the oil enter 35 sure a ?ow of the atomized fuel entirely around
the tip. The curving of the spacers induces a
. ing and mixing with the air in the air grooves.
mild swirling action as the atomized fuel passes
The turbulent action carried on in the presence
through the ori?ce ‘I32 formed at the extreme
of sub-atmospheric pressure-is sufficient to posi
‘which come together in the form of an arrow~
head. The passage of air through these passage
tively atomize or mistify the oil even when the
oil is relatively heavy such as No. 5 fuel oil.
The extent of atomization may seem amazing
considering the relatively simple manner in which
it is accomplished,,but the extent to which the
atomizing of the oil is accomplished is evidenced
~ outer end of the nozzle.
40 _ It has been my experience that if. the nozzle is _ "
mounted at the wall of the combustion chamber,
some coking results by‘ reason of the fact that
when the unit shuts oil’, the heat in the combus
tion chamber is excessive and has a deleterious _
effect upon the burner.
by the fact that-the atomized fuel can be burned
To overcome this objection, I mount the nozzle
in a position spaced from the combustion cham
ber, making use of a ?ared refractory shield I33
much in the same way as can ordinary gaseous
‘ fuel, including the piping-thereof after atomiza
which may be carried within a metal frame I34.
Continuing with the operation, the atomized
mixture is drawn into the cylinder and discharged 50 The mouth of the ?ared portion or end I35 has a
diameter sumcient that the ?ame will not strike
into the exit'port and through the bore I20. It
it. However, the distance between the end of
will be understood, of course, that the amount
the nozzle and the end I36 of the shield should be ' ,
of oil provided to the groove or oil cavity H5 is
a minimum of about three inches. This place
determined by the‘metering pump previously de
ment of the nozzle,v a minimum of three inches
~scribed. " Especially in‘ the larger installations '
where very substantial volumes of ‘air are'drawn
into the unit, it is preferable. that the. air be v
passed through a suitable ?lter to prevent con-,
tamination of the atomizlng device. On the
smaller units, such as the one illustrated, the 60
clearance-between the housing and shaft is su?‘l
ciently close and the action of the rotating shaft .
such ‘that in practice no troublesome dirt enters
from the combustion chamber, ‘is sufficient to
prevent coking of the‘nozzle as has been de?
nitely demonstrated and Prqven in actual use
In this construction, secondary air is used and _
the housing or casing I34 can be'formed to also '
house a blower I31. This is an ordinary air pro
peller of the noiseless‘ type and comprises gen
erally a drum I38. carrying thetransverse spaced
vanes I39. This blower may be mounted on the
> What is done with theatomized fuel as it leaves 65 forward end of the shaft of the motor 2I shown
in Fig, 1. It is preferable that the’ volume of
the atomizing unit is dependent upon the use to
secondary air be controllable, and this can be
which it is to be ‘put. Ina domestic heatingfur- '
done by shutter means or by varying-the speed
nace installation, the burner nozzle may be
of the fanitself; ‘
mounted directly ‘upon; the end of the shaft 25,
In Fig. 10 is shown a vane collar mounted
whereas in other cases the atomized fuel may be.
the system.
passed to a distributor and then furnished‘ to a
plurality of burners at some remote point or
The unit shown in Fig. 1 is a complete instal
lation capable of being mounted in operative
' around the nozzle and in spaced relation thereto
(see Fig. 9). This vane member I40 can be con
structed of metal and ?tted against the inner
surface ofthe refractory lining I33, The indi-v
vidual vanes I“ are curved so that when the sec- .
I ‘- '
ondary air passes between the vanes, a swirling
blanket of air is created between the ?ame and
the refractory shield. Naturally, the swirling
blanket of air mixes, at least in part, with the
atomized fuel and contributes to combustionv
thereof. The amount of secondary air introduced
is dependent upon the service to which the burner
ized fuel in one installation was passed from the '
atomizer through tubing having but a one-quar
ter inch bore for a matterof twelve to fourteen
feet before reaching the nozzle, and the ?ame‘ of
each of the four burners was quite similar to the
type of ?ame obtained when burning natural
is being put, but in all cases where secondary air I
In the smaller installations, secondary air may
be used, but in some cases its use may not be
resorted to because a more satisfactory ?ame is 10 required and in any event good combustion will
obtained than when the air merely ?ows in ab-‘
result even when there is no secondary air forci
sence of swirling.
bly applied by means of a blower.
In Figs. 11 and 12, I have illustrated one form
Although four conduits are shown in Fig, 12
of distributor which may be used where the at
intended to supply four different nozzles, it will
omized fuel is to be piped or supplied to a plural 15 be understood that a greater or lesser number of
ity of burner nozzles. In the construction of Fig.
nozzles can be furnished. In thiscase, of course,
9, all of the atomized fuel is consumed by a‘
the total capacity. of the plurality of burners
single nozzle, and this may be referred to as'a
would have to be properly related to the atomizer
direct burner unit.
which in turn would have to be furnished with oil
In Figs. 11 and 12 the fuel is divided and sup- 20v by a properly related pumping and metering
plied to more than one nozzle and this may,
device. These factors will be readily appreciated
broadly speaking, be referred to as a remote sup
by those versed in the art.
, "
. ply type of apparatus. The shaft 25, through
It will be noted that in both the pump and
is employed, I prefer that the swirling action be
- which the atomized fuel is carried away from the
atomizing unit. four ‘cylinders have been illus
atomizer, carries on its end the distributor head 25 trated. There is nothing critical about the num
rotor I42. The rotor has the cavity I43 and a
ber of cylinders and pistons which can be‘em- port I 44. The distributor cap I45 is carried on
ployed. Aspreviously stated, the use of four
the stationary support I46 and may be provided
cylinders has proven desirable as a minimum‘ be
with a plurality of pipes I41. In Fig. 12, four of
cause a uniform, -1 even flow of material is ob
such pipes are illustrated. Suitable sealing means 30 tained. vHowever, as units of- increased capacity
I48 is employed to prevent oil leakage. Upon
are made, it is ‘preferable to'increase the number
rotation of the rotor, which of course is at the
of cylinders and pistons to get the desired added
same speed as the speed of the atomizer, the
capacity. This is preferable to merely increasing
atomized fuel will be intermittently supplied to
the diameter of the-cylinders. I have personally
the plurality of pipes, that is, during the time
constructed units with sixteen cylinders for forty
that the port I44 is in registration with each pipe.
gallon an hour burners, and if still larger units
It might seem that by not providing a continuous
are desired the number of cylinders can be .fur
flow of fuel, the burners furnished by each pipe
ther increased, The same principles and same
would ?uctuate, but this is not the case.
mode of operation are used with the larger units
The main reason for providing a distributor of 40 as are used with the unit completelv described in
this kind is to prevent settling out of the oil from
detail in this application. In the main. the work
the atomized mix which might happen if a large
ing parts are lubricated by the fuel itself. but it
volume of the mixture were permitted to stagnate
will be understood thatexternal shafts and parts
in a conduit. I have discovered that where the
which do not come in contact with the fuel can
mixture is fed intermittently as by the rapidly
rotating rotor head, a constant supply of fuel
mixture is furnished ‘to each of the plurality of
burners without settling out of the oil and with
out interfering with constant, even combustion.
In some types of oil burning equipment, the
requirements are such that aburner capable of
handling large gallonage per hour is required.
In other cases, 'it is extremely desirable to have
a burner which will operate e?‘lciently with very
small oil consumption per hour.
Heretofore,' it -
has not been considered practical to operate oil
burners, especially with such grades of oil as No.
5, on anything less than about two and one-half
gallons per hour per burner and as a rule it will
be lubricated in theordinary manner. ~
Included among some of the obiections in the
art to the use of No. 5 oil, especially for domestic
purposes, are the matters of dirty ?re. incomplete
combustion, coking, and stoppage from ?re‘?uc
tuations. I believe that most of these difficulties
, have been due to improper and inadequate atom
ization of the fuel, and perhaps also improper de
livery of the atomized fuel to the burners.
Another di?iculty encountered has been bleed
ing of the lines or the system, permitting air to
enter which may result in a throw-out of the
safety device or failure to gain ignition.
The danger of bleeding is overcome in connec
tion with the pump because when the bellows
run higher, perhaps three or four gallons per 60
valve closes (Fig. 2), it traps the fuel supply 011 in
hour per burner. With the more highly refined
the line, so that the line is always full of oil.
- oils, the best that has been done heretofore has
A further factor that is of considerable impor
been a burner capable of operating with a mini
tance, especially when handling No. 5 oil, resides
mum of about ?ve quarts of oil per hour. It will
in the fact that with my apparatus, if the electric
be understood that I do not Wish to be considered
power fails, causing stoppage of the unit, and the,
as saying that no one has been able to do better
power is resumed again while the fire box is still
than this in a laboratory way, but with the com
hot, there is no danger of explosion because the
mercial equipment capable of giving reasonably
fuel is in such a ?nely divided atomized state that
satisfactory results, the above approximate fig
ures are correct.
TU it will ignite even if the gas lighter is not on.
This point is made because with the equipment With prior devices, with, which I am familiar, the
atomized No. 5 oil has been insufficiently atom
above described, I have been able to fumish-four
ized to respond properly under such circum
burners, each burner consuming but one pint of
stances, and if the gas pilot is not ignited when '
oil per hour and this was No. 5 oil of standard
commercial grade. Not only this, but the atom 75 theoil is thrown into the combustion chamber,
there is .grave danger of explosion because of de
layed ignition and undue accumulation-of fuel.
. groove and said deliverypassageway into succes
sive communication with each one of said second
I have previously explained that even with a
mentioned cylinders through _ their respective
ports, and means for reciprocating said pistons in Y
‘timed relation to the rotary movement of said
cold furnace, the gas pilot is left on for less than ~
a minute before the electrical ignition is adequate
‘ to handle the vaporized oil. "This is a further in
dication of the extent to which the oil is atomized ,
. atomizing valve to cause each of said-pistons to
be in its suction stroke, when its-respective cylinder is in communication with-said air passage
=omizati‘on, I get a clean ?re, freedom from coking,‘ _
way to setup a ?owing current of air through said
uniform ?re and general ‘low cost of operation, ,. 10 air passageway and to draw liquid from said liquid
and can get these results withvany grade of fuel
passageway into said ?owing current Of air and
-‘ oil which is ?owable atzero degrees Fahrenheit , ‘in its compression stroke when its respective cyl-v
without preheating or other conditioning of the
inder is in communication with said delivery pas
oil prior ‘to its pumping into the metering part of
sageway to deliver the mixture of atomized liquid
with my equipment. .As a result of this ?ne at- ' -
my apparatus.
15 and air from said atomizing valve.
It is to be understood that the form of the in
3. In apparatus for the transmission and I.
vention herewith shown and described is to-be. I atomization of'liquid fuel, a cylinder, a. plurality
taken as the preferred embodiment of the same
of cylinders arranged around said first mentioned
and that various changes in the shape,-size and
cylinder and each of said second mentioned cylin~ .
arrangement of parts. may be resorted to without 20 'ders having a port communicating with said ?rst ’
departingfrom the spirit of the invention or the
mentioned cylinder, a pair of pistons operating in
scope of the subjoined claims.
each of said second .mentio'ned cylinders one‘at
each end thereof, means for reciprocating each -
1. In apparatus for the transmission and - pair of pistons toward and away from one an
‘atomization of liquid fuel, a rotatable atomizing 25 other within their respective cylinder, a rotatable
valve having an air passageway offset with respect
atomizing valve‘ operating within said ‘first men
to the axis of rotation of said valve and extending
tioned cylinder, said atomizing valve having an
at an angle other than a right angle to its path of
annular liquid groove in- the outer surface there
bodily movement and a liquid passageway inter
of remote from said ports and also an air groove
secting said air passageway at an angle other 30V which crosses the liquid groove and follows a tor
than a right angle, meansfor providing a meas
tuous path, means for rotating the atomizing
ured and constant supply of liquid to said liquid
valve to bring the air groovetherein into com
passageway, means associated with said valve for
_munication with said cylinder ports. during part
setting up a ?owing current of air through said
, of such-rotation and out of communication during
air passageway to draw liquid from said liquid 35 other parts of such rotation, said air groove being
passageway into and mix‘ it with the current of
adapted to be 'in- communication with at least
air, means for rapidly rotating said valve while
one of said second mentioned cylinders at all
the ?ow of air through said air passageway is
times but only when' the pistons therein are maintained to produce a turbulence of the air and
creating a suction by moving away from one an
' liquid'to disperse and atomize the liquid so that 40 other, and a conduit for receiving the atomized
it will be conveyed b the air as a mist, and means
liquid from said atomizing valve.
for delivering the a omized fuel from said atom
4. In apparatus for the transmission and
izing valve.
atomization‘ of liquid fuel, a cylinder, a rotatable
2. In apparatus for the transmission and
- atomizing valve operating with'insaid cylinder, 9.
atomization of liquid fuel, a housing, a cylinder 45 winding air groove in the outer.‘ surface of said
within said housing, a rotatable atomizing valve
valve, means associated with-the atomizing valve
operable within said cylinder and having a cir- ' for setting up a ?owing current of air through
cumferentially arranged air groove extending in
a tortuous path, an annular liquid groove of rela
' tively smaller capacity- than the air groove open
ing into said air groove and a delivery passageway
_ said air groove, a'liquid groove in the outside sur
face of said valveintersecting said air groove at ,
50 a point intermediate its ends for introducing a _.
stream of liquid into' the ?owing current of air
within the air groove, means for‘ rapidly rotating
measured and constant supply of liquid to said
said valve while the ?ow of air through said air
liquid groove, a plurality of cylinders surround
groove is maintained to produce a turbulence of
ing said ?rst mentioned cylinder and each hav 55 the air and liquid to disperse and atomize the
‘ing a port communicating with said ?rst menliquid so that it will be conveyed by the air as a
' tioned cylinder, a piston operable within each of
mist, and means for delivering the atomized fuel
said second mentioned cylinders, means for rapid
from said atomizing valve.
‘ly rotating said atomizing valve'to bring said air
- leading from said valve, means for providing a
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