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Патент USA US2412387

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Dec.10,1946.
"
RWBRITTON
'
2,412,387
AERIAL MINE
Filed Dec. 2; 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Rob 21?‘
INVENTOR
Patented Dec. 10, 1946
Ans?
UNITED SATES
NT
2,412,387
AERIAL MINE
Roberta W. Britton, Ketchikan, Territory of
>
Alaska
Application December 2, 1941, Serial No. 421,300
4 Claims. (01. 102-9)
1
2
This invention relates to the art of aerial de
fense, and for its general object aims to provide a
balloon-carried bomb device capable of being sent
chamber occupying a diametrical position and
aloft either by civilian or military ground crews
intothe path of an attacking wave of hostile
"planes.
‘ It is ‘a more particular object of the invention
which is open at one end and at the other end is
exposed to the atmosphere by an axial duct, and
in' the wall of said chamber at longitudinally
spaced intervals are openings H and l2 over
which are applied percussion caps 13 and M func
tional to the explosives Ill. Removably ?tted in
to provide an aerial mine of this nature capable
said bomb chamber is a shell or casing member
'of being exploded automatically in response to
15, and formed in the wall of this casing are open
the rise of the mine to a predetermined and 10v ings It and I’! spaced in correspondencewith the
‘selectively variable height.
openings II and I2 and held in registration wtih
It is a still further and particular object to pro
the latter by a set screw l8. Between the regis
tering openings—which is to say the openings
vide an ‘aerial mine in which the bomb charge is
exploded by the force of impact of an attacking
Il-l? and the openings |2—l'l—the casing is
plane.
Y
'
.It is a still further object of the invention, look-
'ing to the safety of the ground forces; to provide
divided longitudinally by a diaphragm 20 to de?ne
separated cells at opposite ends thereof. Desig
nated by 2|, the inner of such cells is supplied
means for exploding the bomb charge in the event
‘with air through a neck extension IE’ on which
‘of the mine losing altitude as a result of "the
is ?tted a knurled cap 23 for trapping the ad
20 mitted air at ground-level pressure; 'The’ other '
escape‘ of gas from the supporting balloon.
Other objects and advantages, with the fore
or outer cell is designated by 22 and is of a vari
going, will become apparent in the course of the
able-pressure nature in that the same is closed
following detailed description and claims, the in
only by a protective cover 2d vented as at 24’.
vention consisting in the novel construction and
In such latter or variable-pressure cell 22 is a
in the adaptation and combination of parts here- ~iv Cl spring-loaded ?ring pin 25 functional to the per
inafter described and claimed.
In the drawings:
Figure l is an elevational View representing the
now preferred embodiment of the invention as
cussion cap l4 and arranged to explode the latter
- automatically in response to a rise of the aerial
mine to a'predetermined height. The spring for
the pin is denoted by 26, and as a means for nor
the same appears in the air.
Fig. 2 is a view taken to an enlarged scale and
mally holding such spring under compression I
illustrating the bomb device partly in elevation
and partly in longitudinal vertical section, the
supporting balloon being deleted.
forward latching position by a hinged ?nger 30
abutting the back wall of the catch at the free
end of the latter. Detailed in Fig. 3, it will be
seen that said ?nger is set by lodging its free end
_ Fig. 3 is a fragmentary transverse vertical sec
tion taken to a scale enlarged from that of Fig.
2 and on line 3-—3 of the latter to detail the pres
sure-controlled trip mechanism for exploding
employ a catch 21 fulcrumed as at 28 and held in
in'the notched extremity of one arm 3| of a bell
crank. and the other arm 32 of the bell-crank
serves as a trigger and is forked to straddle a
'
stem 33 having thereon a tripping collar 34. Said
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary longitudinal vertical 40 stem, which is attached to the diaphragm, ?nds
section detailing the adjustment arrangement by
a slide bearing in a cross-piece 35, and for-ad
means of which I am enabled to set the bomb for
justment purposes has its root end threaded to
e?ecting an operation of the trip mechanism at a
work in the threaded bore of a hub attachment
selected height.
3B of the diaphragm.
.7 Referring to said drawings, the bomb proper is
It is believed to be clear from the foregoing
denoted generally by the numeral 5 and has in its
that theexpansion of the trapped air Within the
the bomb charge; and
periphery - a hanger-lug 6 ?tted with a ring 1
throughwhich is received‘ a suspension cable 8
from a balloon 9, the balloon having a governed
displacement suf?cient to elevate the suspended -
bomb toa height necessary for the interception
cell 25 ‘caused by a lessening of the air pressure
within the exposed cell 22 as the balloon-carried
‘mine risesto a‘ higher altitude causes the shifting
collar 36 to trip the trigger arm 32 and ?re the
'1"Th6 bomb part of the mine is or may be of a
percussion cap M; coincident with the arrival of
the bomb at a height predeterminately governed
by the adjustment of the stem 33. It will of
spherical form carrying a suitable explosive load
course be understood that such automatic det
of attacking planes. ’
,
.
I0, and is provided centrally with a cylindrical 55 onating system ‘may be rendered inoperative
2,412,387
4
through the instrumentality of threading the
a distinct weapon separate and apart from the
stem into the attachment S3 to the forward limit
of its adjustment, in order thereby to locate the
concussive force, and is especially effective
against enemy personnel. Used either alone or
in conjunction with anti-aircraft ?re of ground
guns, losses of enemy planes can be expected to
be quite high with casualties much more severe
collar 3d such that its travel upon reaching the
balloon’s ceiling level will be short of contact with
the trigger arm 32. The end object of so ?xing
. the parts is to permit the bombs to be sent aloft
than has been heretofore experienced, and suf
in advance of the arrival overhead of an at
?cient in fact to perhaps largely eliminate “level
tacking Wave ofhostile planes, in consequence
run” bombingas an effective medium of attack,
laying a ?eld of aerial mines which, in their ll) losses considered.
release, are regulated as to buoyancy character
Describing now the structure which is em
istic of the balloons to have the mines occupy
ployed for exploding the bomb charge automati
aerial levels within which the attacking planes _
cally upon a loss of altitude, there is provided
will be expected to operate. Employed in this
within the constant-pressure cell 21 a spring
manner it is obvious that the pressure-differen 15 vloaded ?ring pin 40 functional to the percussion
tial method of ?ring the bomb charges is not
cap is and having its spring 4| held under com
applicable, and that detonation must be accom
pression by the lip of a bar 62 slidable longitudi
plished either
contact of the enemy plane
nally in bearings £33.
The bar lies in paralleling
with the bomb, or by other suitable means of
relation to a stem M which projects axially of
control. I have illustrated the bombs as having 20 the cell from the rear face of the diaphragm,
contact-detonating spine processes 3'5 formed
and formed on the bar is a ratchet tooth 45.
thereon, and it would seem as an adjunct to
Carried by the stem in complement to the ratchet
or in lieu of such detonating spines that radio
tooth is a pawl lit, the arrangement ‘being one
[waves might be advantageously employed to ac
in which the ‘pawl tracks freely over the tooth
tuate receiving sets carried by the aerial mines
in the expanding forward travel of the‘diaphragm
‘or, as another form of control, that the mines
but abuts the ratchet face to retract the bar and
be equipped with a clock mechanism functioning
release the ?ring pin lit} in response to acontrac
to detonate the bomb charges upon the ex
tive return travel of the diaphragm.
'piration of a predetermined time interval. While
The invention and the manner of its usage is
‘not illustrated in the drawings, it may be fur
ther mentioned that the efficiency of the mine
from the standpoint of direct-contact ?ring
would be augmented by having the suspension
believed to be apparent from the foregoing de
tailed description of the illustrated embodiment.
ring l’ bear against a detonating trigger nor
It is my intention that all forms of construction
and variation in detail comingwithin the scope
of the hereto annexed claims are to be, considered
mally held in inoperative positionby a spring
as comprehended by the invention.
arranged to be overpowered by the force of a sud
den tug upon the suspension cable 3, such for
example as would occur upon Contact of a plane‘
with the balloon Q as distinguished from the sus
What I claim is:
1. In an aerial mine, and in combination with
a balloon adapted to be released at ground level:
a ,bomb carried by .the balloon containing an
pended bomb.
explosive charge and providing mechanism op
eratively associated with the charge for explod
ing the latter, said mechanism comprising a
normally inactive ?ring pin supportedin func
tional relation to the charge, a spring applied
'
To here bring out the import of the provision
for exploding the aerial mine automatically in
response to the latter’s rise to an adjustable pre
determined height, appreciation must be had of
the technique of mass bombing as it is now car
as a powering load for the ?ringpin, displace
able locking means for releasablyholding said
spring under a compression set, .meansnormally
ing planes over the target and, customarily, to
inactive .to but .movable lintorengagement with
have these said planes travel a level path ata
said locking means for displacing the latter from
‘given altitude for some peI‘iOcl of time prior to JO its spring-holding 'positiomand means governed
the actual release of the bomb load, the purpose
by atmospheric pressure (and made responsive
'of this level flight being to facilitate a sighting
to a rise of the balloon-suspended bomb to la
‘of the target by the plane’s bombardier. In
predeterminedheight for causing the last-named
using the present invention as a defense against
ried out. The procedure, on the part of the
attacking force, is to send waves of heavy bomb
Li
this said level-bombing attack, it is only neces~
means to act upon‘ the locking means and dis
sary that the ground forces be enabled to de
termine the altitude of the approaching enemy
planes~and this information can be accurately
transmitted from a high-altitude observation
plane as well as by cross~checking ground in
balloon adapted to be released at ground level;
place the same from its spring-holding position.
2. In‘ an aerial mine: the combination of a
and a bomb carried thereby containing an ex
plosive charge and providing mechanism for ?r
struments-and a multiplicity of the described
aerial bombs are then released, having been ?rst
set to thedetermined altitude for their explosion
action. Given a large-scale bombing attack by
enemy planes, it is, moreover, quite feasible to
ing said charge, said ‘?ring mechanism compris
release a score of the aerial bombs set for one
hold the same in a loaded condition, means nor
altitude, another score for another altitude, and
still other scores of aerial bombs for still another
altitude or altitudes, creating a barrier of ex
ploding bombs substantially blanketing a given.
rangeof altitude lyingin the path of the bomb
ing planes. Itis not intended or necessarily
expected that more than a few of the exploding
aerial bombs will destroy attacking ‘planes by
direct contact, but the ?ying shrapnel becomes
ing a ?ring pin supported in functional relation
to the charge, a spring for powering said pin
to "?re the charge, displaceable locking means
arranged to engage said spring and releasably
mally inactive to but movable intoengagement
with said locking means for-displacing the latter
from its spring-holdingposition, and devices op- '
eratively associated with said locking means and
made responsive upon a rise ‘of the balloon-car
ried bomb to a predetermined height above its
point of release to displace said locking means
from its said spring-holding position'and permit
the spring to assert its power in energizing: the
: ?ring pin.
2,412,887
5
6
said charge upon a rise of the balloon-carried
3. Structure according to claim 2 in which
bomb to a predetermined height assumed to place
there is provided a second ?ring mechanism
the bomb in the ?ight path of enemy planes;
functional to the charge ‘and acting to explode
and bomb-‘carried means also functional to said
the latter in the event of the bomb rising to a
charge and made responsive to changing atmos
given height short of the elevation required to
pheric pressures for exploding said charge at a
operate the ?rst-named ?ring mechanism and
lower level below said assumed ?ight path but
then descending a distance less than the extent
elevated a predetermined distance above the
of rise.
ground point of release, said last-named means
4. In an areial mine, and in combination with
a balloon adapted to be released at ground level: 10 being made active only by a descending move
ment of the bomb from a height above the ex
a bomb suspended from the balloon and con
plosive level last mentioned.
taining an explosive charge; bomb-carried means
functional to said charge and made responsive
to changing atmospheric pressures for exploding
ROBERTA W. BRITTON.
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