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Патент USA US2412443

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235% 1 _
3
cm-
"y 22,412,443
Y’ ’ SR €
10, v1946.
‘;
‘7
I R, E, CRQQKE
1m
2,412,443
COMPUTING FIRE CONTROL DATA
Original Filed Oct. 6,‘ 1955
5 Sheets-Sheet 1'
Fig. 1.
VEN'TOR
Raymond il'rldz'ooicfe
BY
ATT RNEY
“MUM
232»? “was 3 mm.
Dec. 10, 1946.
- R, E, CRQQKE
2,412,443
COMPUTING FIRE CONTROL DATA
Original Filed Oct. e, 1953
5 'Shéets-Sheet 2
/06
/o/
A
/5/
A52
INVENTOR‘
v
'
Ff)‘. '5' I
Rczymand E. Crooke
" _BY
5Z4
ATTORNEY
- ?35. WEEKS] U53;
I Dec. 10, 1946.
2,412,443
R. E. CROOKE
COMPUTING FIRE CONTROL DATA
Original Fil'ea Oct. 6, 19:53
5 Sheets-Sheét 4'
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dRH
RdB
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INVENTOR
Rqymond E Crooke
BY
’ ‘ATTORNEY
133v
“Luau a Mn»
slit
‘2,412,443
Patented Dec. 10, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,443
COMPUTING FIRE CONTROL DATA
Raymond E. Crooke, New York, N. Y., assignor
to Ford Instrument Company, Inc., Long
Island City, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application October 6, 1933, Serial No. 692,369
Renewed January 3, 1936
‘
21 Claims. (Cl. 235-615)
1
2
of a target may be resolved into components
This invention relates to the computing of
which represent the rates of change of bearing,
certain data for use in controlling the ?re of
range and, in the case of an aerial target, eleva
ordnance and while especially intended for use
tion. The apparatus then generates from these
with apparatus for controlling ordnance used
rates the bearing, range and elevation of the
against aerial targets, it may be employed with
target and provides a means by which the values
apparatus for controlling ordnance used against
of these quantities may be compared with their
surface targets.
measured or observed values until the generated
In general, the solution of ?re control problems
and measured values maintain agreement, under
includes three major steps which in brief are as
follows:
10 which conditions the course and speed will have
been accurately determined for use in connection
The ?rst step is to ascertain the position of
with predicting mechanism.
the target in space at any instant. In the case
The particular nature of the invention, as
of a surface target its position may be deter
well as other objects and advantages thereof,
mined in the two coordinates of bearing and
range, but in the case of an aerial target a third 15 will appear most clearly from a description of a
preferred embodiment as shown in the accom
coordinate, namely, elevation, is required in order
panying drawings in which
to completely determine the position of the target.
Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are diagrams to be used in
The second step is to predict in terms of the
coordinates in which the actual position of the
connection with an explanation of the problem in
target is ascertained the position of the target 20 volved herein;
Fig. 5 is a schematic representation of a por
at the end of the time of ?ight of the projectiles
tion of the apparatus;
in order that the latter shall burst as closely to
Fig. 6 is a similar representation of the re
the target as possible when the gun is aimed in
mainder of the apparatus;
accordance with the predicted position of the
target.
Fig, '7 is a perspective view showing in detail
25
the construction of the di?erentials used in the
The third step is to apply to the gun further
apparatus and represented conventionally in Figs.
corrections, such as those due to its ballistics, for
5 and 6‘;
tilt of its trunnions, and for parallax, in order
Figs. 8 and 9 show the conventional repre
to still further increase the accuracy of the aim
30 sentations of the differential as employed in Figs.
I ing of the gun.
The solution of the second step of the problem ' 5 and 6;
Fig. 10 is a perspective view showing the struc
usually includes the determination of the course
tural details of a device known as a component
and speed of the target since its position at the
solver and which is illustrated diagrammatically
end of the time of ?ight of a projectile will de
pend upon these factors. The values of these 35 in Fig. 1;
Fig. 11 is a vector diagram to be used in con
factors are also needed as a basis for continually
nection with the description of the device shown
generating, usually by means of an instrument
in Fig. 10;
known as a range keeper, the values of bearing
Fig. 12 is a view similar to Fig. 10 but showing
and range, and, in the case of an aerial target,
its elevation, to furnish information whereby 40 another device known as a vector solver which is
also shown diagrammatically in Fig. 1; and
the position of the target may be known during
Fig. 13 is a similar view of another form of
the intervals between observations or' when it
component solver of which two are shown dia
becomes temporarily obscured.
grammatically in Fig. 6.
It is to the second step in the solution of the
The problem presented by this case will appear
?re control problem that the present invention 45
most clearly from an explanation of Figs. 1, 2,
relates and more particularly to apparatus for
3 and 4 in all of which O~ represents the observing
accurately determining the course and speed of
station on land or on shipboard, as the case may
a target in order that these quantities may be
be, and T represents an aerial target. such as
used in connection with the determination of
its predicted position and the generation of the 50 an airplane. Fig. 1 is a plan View representing
values of the quantities on which its position
the problem as viewed from a distant point above
depends, such as bearing and range and in the
the surface of the earth, in which case the prob
case of an aerial target its elevation.
lem will appear as projected on the surface of
Brie?y described, the invention provides ap
the earth since all vertical components will not
paratus by which the estimated course and speed 55 appear as such. The target T will therefore ap
2,412,443
4
3
Component dR(l) is equal to dRH cos A and
pear to be located at a point D on the surface
component dR(2) is equal to (ill sin A, so that
of the earth. The line O—D will therefore rep
resent the projection on the earth of the line of
(1)
dR=dRH cos A-l-(ZH sin A
sight between the observing station and the
target, so that its length RH represents the hori C21
Component RdA(l) is equal to dRH sin A and
zontal range of the target from the station.
component RdA(2) is equal to (11-1 cos A, so that
ST is de?ned as a vector representing in direc
(2)
RdA=dRH sin A-l-dH 005 A
tion the course of the target and in magnitude the
It has been explained above that the compo
speed of the target as seen from the distant point.
In other words ST is the speed of the target in 10 nents dRH, RdA and RHdBH of the course and
speed of the target are rates of change expressed
the horizontal plane. The vector ST is shown
in linear measure of the quantities which they
as having been resolved into two rectangular
represent. Since bearing and elevation, which
components, one, dRH, along the horizontal pro
are two of the quantities used to determine the
jection of the line of sight and representing the
rate of change of the horizontal range RH. The 15 position of the target, are measured in units of
angular measure, it is necessary to convert the
other component, RHdBI-I, which is at right angles
linear components RdA and R'HdBH into quanti
to the projection 0-D of the line of sight, rep
ties representing such rates of change of angular
resents the linear rate of change of movement
movement in order that the bearing and eleva
across the line of sight and will be hereinafter
referred to as the linear de?ection component. 20 tion generated by the apparatus may be compared
with the measured bearing and elevation to ac
The angle designated TA, between the vector Sr
complish the purpose of the invention.
and the projected line of sight O--D is known as
In as far as the component RdA is concerned,
the target angle.
it is multiplied by the reciprocal of range, that
Fig. 2 is an elevation view representing the
problem as viewed from a distant point at right 25 is.
angles to the horizontal projection of the line of
l
sight and showing the target T located at an
R
angle of elevation A above the surface of the
which gives
earth. The line O—T in this case represents the
actual or slant range R of the target, while the 30
(3)
RdA x 11,: dA
line O--D represents the horizontal range RH,
that is, the range represented by the line O—D
which is the angular elevation rate. If dA be
of Fig. 1. The vector ST of Fig. 1 which repre
multiplied by time, t, increments of elevation AA
sents the course and speed of the target as viewed
will be obtained which may be compared with the
from a point above the surface of the earth will
observed elevation in order to furnish a basis for
appear in Fig. 2 as a vector E—T. This vector is
changing the estimated course and speed of the
resolved into two rectangular components, one
target until the values of elevation generated in
dRH, being the same as in Fig. 1 and representing
the apparatus agree with the measured values of
the rate of change of the horizontal range and
the other, dI-I, representing the rate of change
this same quantity, as will hereinafter be ex
in height H, or the rate of climb as it is sometimes
called, due to a vertical component of the move
ment- of the target, which, since it is an aerial one,
may have such a component. The length of the
plained in detail.
It has been explained in connection with Fig. 1,
that RHdBn is a linear component of the vector
ST at right angles to the line 0-D and referred
to a horizontal plane. This component is equal
to a linear component represented by RdBN in
vector E-T will accordingly be expressed by
which R- is the actual range and dBN is the rate
of change of angular de?ection in the inclined
Since the range R is measured along the line of
plane which contains the line of sight.
sight O—T and the linear change of elevation
From Fig. 2
is measured at right angles to this line and in 50
a vertical plane, it is necessary, as appears in Fig.
3, in order to obtain a basis of comparison of the
rates of change of these factors, to resolve the
vector E-—T into two rectangular components,
one, 11R, along the line O—T and representing
the rate of change of range R, and the other,
RdA, representing in linear measure the rate of
_R_H
cos A-—
R
or RH=R cos A. RHdBH may therefore be written
R cos AdBH. Since RHdBH:RdBN it follows that
(4)
RdBN=R><cos A><dBH
or
change of movement of the target perpendicular
to the line of sight and in a vertical plane con
taining the line O—T.
Fig. 4 shows the manner in which the com
ponents of Fig. 3 may be obtained from the com
60
(5)
In the apparatus disclosed the horizontal
course and speed of the target are resolved into
a linear component cZRH and another linear com
ponents of Fig. 2. The component dRH of Fig. 2
ponent RdBN. This last named component is
is resolved into a component dR< I) along the line
O—T and a component RdA(l) at right angles 65 then converted into the angular component dBH
thereto, both of these resulting components being
by multiplying it by
in linear measure. The component dI-I of Fig. 2
1
is resolved into a component dR(2) parallel to
the line O—T and a component RdA(2) at right
angles thereto. It is evident that dB is the 70 and see A in accordance with Equation 5. This
algebraic sum of the components dR(l) and
gives the angular bearing rate dBI-I in the hori
dR(2), the component dR(2) being regarded as
negative since it is measured in the opposite di
rection to that in which the component dR(I)
is measured from the point T.
zontal plane. This rate when multiplied by in
crements of time, At, will give increments of bear
ing AB for comparison with the observed bearing.
Before describing the structure and operation
LUiJP
YIL-wuvr u h..."
5.
2,412,443
of the apparatus as a whole, as disclosed in Figs.
5 and 6, the differentials which are shown dia
grammatically in these figures will be described
in detail by reference to Fig. '7. Certain other de
vices shown diagrammatically in Figs. 5 and 6,
6
likewise be the algebraic sum of the inputs. Fig.
9 is a symbol used in Figs. 5 and 6 for represent
ing the differential under this other condition.
In this case the left hand arrow indicates an
input to the corresponding side of the differen
will be subsequently described in detail by refer
tial while the vertical arrow indicates an input
ence to Figs. 10 to 13, inclusive, while references
to its center. The outwardly directed right hand
to patents showing other devices in detail will be
arrow then indicates an output from the other
made at appropriate places in the following
side of the differential.
speci?cation.
In subsequent references to the two types of
10
Referring to Fig. 7 which shows a differential
differentials illustrated by the symbols of Figs. 8
of the bevel gear type, I is a bevel gear which has
and 9, the differential as a whole will be desig
integrally formed therewith a spur gear 2 adapted
nated by a reference character. The sides of the
differential will be designated by the same num
to connect the gear I to any desired external de
vice. The combination gear just described is ro 15 bers primed and double primed and its center by
the same number triple primed.
tatably mounted On a shaft 3. A similar combi
nation gear consisting of a bevel gear 4 and a
Referring to Fig. 5, 12 is a knob settable in
spur gear 5 is also rotatably mounted on shaft
accordance with the estimated horizontal speed
of the target. The knob is attached to a shaft
3. A member 6 is attached to the shaft and car
ries a pair of bevel gears 1 rotatably mounted On 20 I3 carrying a gear l4 adapted to be selectively
engaged with a gear I5 by longitudinal movement
screws 8 attached to the member 6. One end of
of the shaft I 3 by suitable manipulation of the
shaft 3 carries a gear 9 meshing with a gear ID
knob l2. The gear i5 is attached to the end of
of half the diameter of gear 9 and which is car
a shaft l6 which is provided with a suitable fric
ried by a shaft I I connected to another external
tion device IE’ to prevent accidental turning of
device. The combination gears l—-2 and 4-5
the shaft. The shaft I6 is also provided with a
are commonly known as the sides of the differen
tial, while the part composed of member 6, bevel
gears ‘I and screws 8 is usually referred to as the
center or spider.
mechanical stop I‘! for limiting the turning of
the shaft between certain values of target speed,
In the operation of the differential described
above let it be assumed that the side |—2 is ro
as for instance, between 0 and 220 knots per hour.
As an instance of a stop which may be employed
reference is made to Patent No. 1,317,914, Han
tated from any source through one revolution
nibal C. Ford, Apparatus for transmitting motion
while the side 4—5 is held ?xed. The center will
from one movable member to another, page 2,
rotate a half of a revolution in the same direction
lines 80-84. The shaft I6 is connected to one
‘ side [8' of a differential l8, the other side N3”
and correspondingly turn the shaft 3. If, on the
other hand, the side l-—2 be ?xed and the side
4-—5 be rotated through one revolution in the
of which is connected to a shaft l9 leading to
a pinion 29 for actuating a part of a'device known
same direction as the side [-2 was previously ro
as a component solver and designated as a whole
tated, the center will turn another half revolu~
tion in the same direction as it previously turned.
by 2|, this device being illustrated in detail in
Fig. 10 to which reference will presently be made.
As a result of these movements the center will
have turned one complete revolution and the
shaft H by virtue of the gear ratio between the
22 designates a knob adapted to be set in ac
cordance with the estimated true course of the
target, namely, the course of the target referred
to the north as a datum. This knob is carried
gears 9 and II], will turn two revolutions, that
is, the sum of the revolutions of the sides l-—2 45 on the end of a shaft 23 provided with a gear 24
adapted to be selectively engaged with a gear 25
and 4—5.
by longitudinal movement of the shaft 23. The
Any other amount of movement of the sides in
gear 25 is attached to the end of a shaft 26 which
the same direction will cause the shaft II to ro
is provided with a friction device 21 and is con
tate according to the sum of these movements.
In other words, the center of the differential will 50 nected to the side 28’ of a differential 28. As
will presently appear, the center 28"’ of this
furnish an output which is one-half of the sum
of the inputs supplied to the two sides of the
differential is movable in accordance with the
differential. The gears 9 and I0, however, double
true bearing of the target, namely, the bearing
of the target referred to the north. The other
the output of the center of the differential so that
the output of the center is actually the sum of the 55 side 28" therefore receives a movement equal to
the target angle TA. In further explanation of
inputs at the two sides of the differential. If the
the relationship between the quantities mentioned
sides are moved in opposite directions the center
will move in accordance with the difference be
above, reference is made, to Patent No. 1,827,812,
Hannibal C. Ford, Range and bearing keeper, and
tween the movement imparted to the sides, or, in
other words, the center will subtract the lesser 60 particularly to Fig. 13 and the explanation there
movement from the greater movement. In any
of. Side 28" is connected to a shaft 29 carrying
event, the shaft II will give an output equal to
a pinion 39 for actuating another part of the
the algebraic sum of the movements imparted to
component solver 2|. A shaft 3| is connected
the two sides.
between shaft 29 and the center l8"' of the dif
Fig. 8 shows a symbol used in Figs. 5 and 6 for 65 ferent'ial l8.
Referring to Fig. 10 showing in more detail the
representing the differential under the conditions
principal elements of the component solver 2! and
described above. The inwardly directed arrows
at the right and left indicate inputs to the sides
the differential [8 associated therewith, the shaft
[6, corresponding to the similarly designated
of the differential and the vertical arrow leading
from the center indicates the output of the dif 70 shaft of Fig. 5, carries a gear 32 engaging a pinion
33 on the side I 8' of the differential | 8. The shaft
ferential.
29 of Fig. 10 represents the similarly designated
It is not necessary that the center always fur
shaft of Fig. 5 and also the shaft 3| leading to the
nish the output of the differential for it and one
of the sides may receive the inputs and the other
center I 8"’ of the differential I 8, since in Fig. 10
side will then furnish the output which will 75 the center is shown as connected directly to shaft -
2,412,448
7
8
29. The side l8" of the differential carries a gear
34 engaging a gear 35 on a shaft I9 carrying a
the differential l8 will be ?xed. The shaft 29
will, through gears 44 and 30, turn the disk 42 to
alter the angular position of the slot 4| in ac
cordance with the estimated target angle. At
the same time the center I8’” of the differential
|8 which is attached to the shaft 23, will drive
pinion 20, these last two elements corresponding
to the similarly designated parts of Fig. 5. The
pinion 20 engages teeth on the periphery of a
disk 36 held in position by suitably supported
guide rollers 31. The disk is provided with a cam
groove 38 designed to displace a pin 39 extending
into it in accordance with the speed of the target
the side I8" and through gears 34 and 35, shaft
l9 and pinion 20, the disk 36 will be turned in uni
son with the disk 42 to maintain the carriage 46
when the disk is turned by manipulation of the 10 in the position to which it had previously been
set by operation of shaft l6. The angular posi
knob |2 of Fig. 5 with the gears l4 and IS in en
tion of the slot 4| and the carriage 40 therein will
gagement.
be altered, but the radial distance of the carriage
The pin 39 is attached to a carriage 40 suitably
mounted in a radial slot 4| in a disk 42 supported
40 from the center of the disk will remain con
by guide rollers 43 and provided with teeth on its 15 stant as it should under the assumed conditions
in which the target speed is not changing. It is
periphery engaging a gear 30, corresponding to
evident that either the estimated speed of the tar
the similarly designated element of Fig. 5, which
get or the estimated target angle may be set up
engages a gear 44 on the end of the shaft 29. The
in the component solver separately by rotation of
with the target angle since this quantity is the 20 one or the other of shafts IE or 23, Or these quan
disk 42 wil1 therefore be rotated in accordance
output of the differential 28 as previously ex
tities may be simultaneously set up in the device
plained.
by joint operation of these shafts.
The carriage 40 carries another pin 45 offset ra
Under all conditions of operation the move
dially from the pin 39 so that the latter can never
ment imparted to the carriage 40 will, through
the pin 45, correspondingly position the block 46
reach the center of the disk 36 although pin 45
may go to the center of the disk 42 under certain
conditions, such as zero target speed. If the pin
39 were able to reach the center of its disk, it
would remain there since rotation of the disk
would not dislodge it. The pin 45 is connected to
a block 46 the lower portion of which lies in a
slot 41 in the arm of a T-shaped slide 48 provided
with a rack 49 engaging a pinion 50 on a shaft 5|
leading from the component solver, as shown in
Fig. 5, to apparatus shown in Fig. 6 as will herein
after appear, as well as to the predicting appara
tus which may be associated with the disclosed
which will in turn displace the slides 48 and 53
in accordance with the components of the course
and speed of the target which they represent,
namely, RdBN and dRn, these outputs being trans
mitted by shafts 5| and 58 respectively to other
parts of the apparatus.
Fig. 11 is a vector diagram in which the line
O—D represents the direction in the device of
the datum line which corresponds to the hori
zontal projection of the line of sight in Fig. 1
and Sr is the vector representing the course and
speed of the target as set up in the device. The
length of the component O—D represents the
movement imparted to the slide 53 which is a
larly to a datum line in the device representing
the horizontal projection of the line of sight 40 movement along the projection of the line of
sight and represents the rate of change of the
O—D of Fig. 1. This means that the movement
horizontal range (HRH. The length of the com
of the slide represents the component RdBN
ponent at right angles to the component O—D
which, as previously described, is a linear deflec
represents the movement imparted to the slide
tion component equal to RndBn of Fig. 1. From
48, that is, the movement at right angles to the
Fig. 1 it will be seen that RHdBH=ST sin TA. The
horizontal projection of the line of sight, and
upper portion of the block 46 lies within a slot 52
representing the rate of change of bearing ex
in one arm of an L-shaped slide 53 mounted in
pressed in linear measure, that is, RdBN.
guideways 54 and 55. One arm of this slide is pro
Referring to Fig. 5, a shaft 59 is connected to
vided with a rack 56 engaging a pinion 51 on an
output shaft 58 leading from the component 50 the shaft l9 and to the side 60' of a differential
60. The center 60"’ of the differential is con
solver of Fig. 5 to elements of Fig. 6. The slide
nected by a shaft 6| to the rotatable contact arm
53 is arranged to move perpendicularly to the slide
apparatus. The slide 48 is arranged perpendicu
48 from which it follows that its movement is
62 adapted to engage one or the other of a pair
along the datum line representing the line of sight
of ?xed contacts 63 connected by conductors 64
in the device. This means that the movement of :‘A Di to a reversible motor 65 of any suitable type, the
shaft 66 of which is connected to the shaft I6.
slide 53 represents the component dRH of Figs. 1
A common conductor 61 leads from the motor to
and 2. From Fig. 1 it will be seen that
one blade of a switch 68. This blade and the
CZRHIST COs TA
As previously explained, the shaft I6 is operated
in accordance with the estimated horizontal speed
of the target. Assuming that the shaft 29 is sta
tionary the rotation of shaft l6 will through gear
32 and pinion 33 correspondingly turn the side N3’
of differential I8. Since the center |8"' is ?Xed
under the conditions assumed, the side IE” will
turn and through gears 34 and 35, shaft H3 and
pinion 20, turn the disk 36 to position the pin
38, carriage 40 and pin 45 radially of this disk
and the disk 42 in accordance with the estimated
speed of the target.
If, on the other hand, the shaft |6 be assumed
stationary and shaft 29 be turned in accordance
with the estimated target angle, the side l8’ of
co-acting blade carry contact points which are
60 adapted to be separated by inward movement of
the shaft 23, the free end of which then engages
and moves the longer contact blade. This latter
blade is connected by a conductor 69 to the longer
blade of a similar switch 10 adapted to be sepa
rated from its shorter blade by the travelling
member of the stop H as it approaches its lower
limit of movement. The shorter blade of this
switch is connected to the longer blade of a sim
ilar switch 10’ adapted to be separated from its
shorter blade by inward movement of shaft l3.
The shorter blade of switch 10' is connected to
the + terminal of a source of current.
The con
tact arm 62 associated with the differential 60
is connected by a conductor ‘II to other switches
to be hereinafter described, by which the circuit
FlllUi® l CH3.
o (a)?
2,412,443
10
of the motor may be established under certain
conditions.
In the operation of the differential 60 the move
ment imparted to the side 60’ by the shaft 59
will turn the center 60"’, the'shaft SI and the
arm 62 until it engages one of the ?xed contacts
'63 to prevent further movement of the center so
will be substantially the same as the input from
shaft 29 to the component solver. Since the shaft
59 is connected to the shaft I9 on the output side
of the differentia1 I8, the latter will perform the
same function with respect to the vector solver
as previously described in connection with the
component solver.
Resuming consideration of Fig. 5, a knob I01
be transmitted to the other side 60" and to a
adapted to be set in accordance with the true
shaft 12. As an illustration of a form of differ 10 bearing, B, of the target, is carried upon a shaft
ential which may also be employed for this pur
I08 which is adapted to be displaced longitu
pose, reference is made to Patent No. 1,842,160,
dinally. The shaft carries a collar I09 adapted,
Hannibal C. Ford, for Speed and distance indi
when the shaft is moved inwardly, to move the
cator, in which the differential is designated 25.
longer blade of a switch I I0 into engagement with
The shaft 12 leads to a pinion 13 for driving
its shorter blade to establish a circuit between
that the movement imparted to the side 60' will
certain elements of a device known as a vector
conductor ‘II which is connected to the shorter
solver and shown in more detail in Fig. 12. This
device resembles the component solver 2| to the
extent that by means of input shafts and gears
a pin may be positioned in direction and magni
tude in accordance with a vectorial representa
tion of a quantity, and will displace output slides
in accordance with certain components of the
blade, and a conductor I II leading to the — ter
minal of the source of supply. Attached to the
other end of shaft I08 is a gear II2 engaging a
vector represented by the position of the pin.
gear II2 additionally engages a gear H4.
The gear H3 is on the end of a shaft II5 lead
' The vector solver, however, differs from the com
gear II3, the face of the former gear being wide
enough to maintain it in engagement with the lat
ter gear when the shaft I08 is moved inwardly
sufficiently to close the switch, at which time the
ponent solver in being reversible so that under
certain conditions the slides become input ele
ing to the side “6' of a differential H6. The
is connected by a shaft 16 to a contact arm 11
adapted to move between a pair of ?xed contacts
18 from which conductors 19 lead to a reversible
which is provided with a friction device H9’ and
is connected to the driving element of an electro
other side H6" is connected to a shaft II‘! lead
ments and may be set in accordance with com
ing to elements of the apparatus shown in Fig. 6.
ponents to position a pin in accordance with the
The center “6'” is connected by a shaft II8 to
vector corresponding to- such components. The 30 the center 28"’ of the differential 28. The shaft
parts which in the component solver are asso
II8 drives a pointer I I8’ co-acting with a pointer
ciated with the pin to position it, then become
I I8” driven in accordance with the true bearing
the output elements of the vector solver.
of the target as observed by a suitable device, such
Referring to Fig. 5, a shaft 74 is connected to
as a director, forming part of the ?re control sys
the shaft 29 and the side 15' of a differential ‘I5
tem‘ with which the present apparatus may be
similar to the differential 60. The center 15"’
used. The gear H4 is attached to a shaft H9
magnetic clutch I20 which is shown diagram
matically since it may be of any suitable con
struction. The driven member of this clutch is
connected to the shaft 99 of the vector solver 86.
arm TI is connected by a conductor 83 to the
A knob I2I settable in accordance with range,
conductor ‘H. The side 15” of the differential 15
R, of the target is attached to one end of a longi
is connected by a shaft 84 to a pinion 85 operat 45 tudinally displacea-ble shaft I22 carrying a collar
ing elements of the vector solver which is desig
I 23 adapted to engage the longer blade of a switch
nated generally by 86.
I24. This blade of the switch is connected by con
Referring to Fig. 12, the shaft ‘I2 and pinion
ductor I25 to the conductor III and the shorter
13 correspond to the similarly designated ele
blade is connected by conductor I26 to the con
ments in Fig. 5 and the same is true of shaft 84 50 ductor -I 21 leading to the conductor 1 I. The shaft’
and pinion 85. The last named pinion engages
I22 carries a wide faced gear I28 continually in
teeth on the periphery of a disk 81 mounted in
engagement with a gear I29 on a shaft I30 which
guide rollers 88. The disk 81 carries a pair of
is connected to the side I3I' of a differential I3l.
motor 80, the shaft 8| of which is connected to
the shaft 26. The common conductor 82 of this
motor leads to the conductor 61. The contact
symmetrically arranged guide ways 89 between
The other side I3 I " and the center I3 I "' are con
which is slidably mounted a carriage 90 provided 55 nected to shafts I32 and I33 respectively, which
with a rack 9I engaging the pinion 13 on the
lead to elements of the apparatus shown in Fig, 6.
shaft 12 which extends through an aperture in
A pointer I33’ on the shaft I33 co-acts with a
the center of the disk. The carriage is provided
pointer I33” driven in accordance with the range
at one end with a bracket 92 which carries a pin
93 attached to a block 94. The lower portion of
as observed by a suitable instrument, such as a
range ?nder.
A gear I34 adapted to be engaged with the gear
the block 94 lies within a slot 95 in one arm of
a T-shaped slide 96 provided with a rack 91 en
gaging a pinion 98 on a shaft 99.
The upper portion of the block 94 fits within
a slot I00 in one arm of an L-shaped slide IOI
I28 when the shaft I22 is moved inwardly is at
tached to a shaft I 35 provided with a friction de
vice I35' and leading to the driving element of an
mounted in guide ways I02 and I03. The slide
is provided with a rack I04 engaging a pinion
of which is attached to the shaft I06 of the vec
tor solver 86. The circuits of the solenoids of the
I05 on a shaft I06.
clutches are established in part over a conductor
By virtue of the construction described above,
the pin 93 of the vector solver 86 will be posi
tioned similarly to the pin 45 of the component
solver 2| since the input from shafts 59 and ‘I2
I31 leading from the conductor 61, and connected
to a conductor I38 leading to the terminals of the
solenoids. The other terminals of the solenoids
are connected by a conductor I39 to a conductor
I40 leading to the conductor I 21.
A knob I4I settable in accordance with the ele
will be substantially the same as the input from
shaft I9 to the component solver. Similarly, the
input from shaftsv ‘I4 and 84 to the vector solver
electro-magnetic clutch I36, the driven element
vation, A, of the. target is attached to a, longitu
2,412,443
11
dinally displaceable shaft I42 carrying a collar
I43 adapted to engage the longer blade of a switch
I44 to bring it into engagement with the shorter
blade to establish a circuit including a conductor
I45 attached thereto and leading to conductor
I21. The conductor I I I is attached to the longer
blade. The shaft I42 carries a wide faced gear I46
12
the side I66" of the differential, instead of being
connected thereto by the shaft I61 in Fig. 6.
The gear I10 engages teeth on the periphery of
a disk I18 rotatably mounted in suitable guide
rollers I19. The center I66’” of the differential
is connected to a shaft I12 corresponding to the
similarly numbered shaft in Fig. 6. This shaft
carries a bevel’gear I80 engaging a similar gear
I8I on a shaft I82 which in turn is connected by
shaft I48 connected to the side I49’ of a differen
tial I49. The other side I49" is connected by a 10 bevel gears I83 and I84 to a shaft I85 carrying
the pinion I13 corresponding to the similarly
shaft I50 to a shaft I5I leading to elements of
numbered pinion in Fig. 6. The pinion I13 en
the apparatus shown in Fig. 6. The center I49’”
gages another pinion I86 on a shaft I81 mounted
is driven by the shaft I52 leading from elements of
in a bracket I88~depending from the disk I18.
the apparatus shown in Fig. 6. The shaft I50 car
The shaft I81 carries a gear I89 engaging a gear
ries a pointer I50’ co-acting with a pointer I50"
I90 on ariscrew shaft I9I which is rotatably
driven in accordance with the elevation of the
mounted in diametrically arranged lugs I92 pro
target as observed by a suitable'instrument, such
jecting from the disk I18. The screw shaftecar
as a director.
riesga block I93 slidably mounted in a slot in'the
Connected to the shaft I50 is a shaft I53 lead
disk’ I18 lying below and parallel to the screw
ing to a pinion I54 engaging a gear sector I 55 on a
shaft. The block I93 carries a pin I94 carrying
shaft I56 which carries at its upper end a cam
at its: other end a block I95, the lower portion of
I51 having a portion I58 of greater radius and
which ?ts within a slot I96 in a T-shaped slide
lying in the path of the inward movement of the
I91 provided with a rack I98 engaging a pinion
shaft I22 under certain conditions, as determined
I99 attached to an output shaft 200. The upper
by the position of shaft I56, and a portion I59
portion of the block I95 ?ts within a slot MI in
of lesser radius permitting the inward movement
one arm of an L-shaped slide 202 supported in
of the shaft under other conditions. A similar
guide ways 203 and 204. The other arm of the
cam I60 is attached to the other end of the shaft
slide is provided with a rack 205 engaging a pin
I56. In general this cam has its portion of greater
diameter I6I disposed in such a relation to the 30 ion 206 attached to another output shaft 201.
In the operation of the component solver just
corresponding portion I58 of cam I51 as to permit
the shaft I42 to be moved inwardly when such
described, assuming that values of elevation, A,
are being introduced by the input shaft I68, the
movement of the shaft I22 is prevented ‘by the por
continually in engagement with a gear I41 on a
tion I58 of cam I51 or vice versa, but the cams
are so proportioned that for certain positions of
the shaft I56 as will be explained more fully here
inafter, either of the shafts I22 or I42 may be
disk I18 will be correspondingly turned to alter
the angular relation in the device of the screw
shaft I9I in accordance with such' values. As
suming the shaft I 65 to be normally ?xed, the
side I66’ of the differential will be held ?xed
through the gears I14 and I15. The rotation of
moved inwardly without obstruction by the por
tions I58 and I 6| respectively. The gear I46 is
adapted, when its shaft I42 is moved inwardly, to 40 shaft I68 will, through gears I16 and I11, turn
the side I66" and also the center I66’”. The
engage a gear I62 on the end of a shaft I63 con
movement imparted to the latter element will,
nected to the shaft I35 whereby the drivinganem
through shaft I12, gears I80 and I8I, shaft I82,
ber of the clutch I36 of the vector solver may be
gears I83 and I84 and shaft I85, turn the pinion
selectively operated by the knob I2I or by the
I13 to compensate for the motion which would
knob I4I.
~
be imparted to the pinion I86 by the turning of
Continuing the explanation of the simpli?ed
the disk I18 if the pinion I13 were held ?xed. In
diagram of the apparatus, reference will now be
other words, since the pinion I13 turns in unison
made to Fig. 6. A knob I64 adapted to be set in
with the’ disk I18 no movement is imparted to
accordance with the estimated rate of change of
height, or rate of climb, dH, is connected by a 50 the pinion I86 and the parts driven therefrom
so that the radial position of the pin I94 is un
shaft I65 to the side I66’ of a differential I66, the
altered. as should be the case since the input
other side of which I66’ is connected by a shaft
shaft I65 is assumed to be ?xed.
I61 to 'a shaft I68 which is in turn connected to
If, on the other'hand, the input shaft I68 be
the shaft I5I leading from Fig. 5 and which is
operated in accordance with the elevation, A, by . regarded as ?xed and the input shaft I65 be
turned in accordance with changing values of
operation of the knob I4I as will hereinafter be
dI-I, the side I66" of the differential will be like
described in more detail. A shaft I69 connected
wise ?xed so that the movement imparted to the
to the shaft I 68 leads to a pinion I10 engaging an
side I66’ from the shaft I65 by gears I14 and
element of a component solver I1I which is shown
I15, will move the center I66’”. The shaft I12
in more detail in Fig. 13 which will presently be
will
be turned accordingly and drive the pinion
described.’ The center I66’” of the differential
I13 through the previously described shafts and
I66 is connected by a shaft I12 to a pinion I13 for
gears. Since the disk I18 is now ?xed, the pinion
operating another element of the component, sol
I13 will drive the pinion I86, shaft I81, gears I89
ver'I1I.
and I90 to turn the screw shaft I9I and corre
Referring to Fig. 13, the shaft I68 corresponds
to the similarly numbered shaft in Fig. 6, but is
shown as being connected directly to the pinion
I10 instead of by the interposition of shaft I69
of Fig. 6. The shaft I65 of Fig. 13 corresponding
to the similarly numbered shaft in Fig. 6, carries
a gear I14 engaging agear I15 attached to the
side I66’ of the differential I66. The shaft I68
is, in Fig. 13, shown as being connected directly
to a gear 116 engaging a gear I11 connected to
spondingly position the block I93 and pin I94.
The operation of component solver I1I in posi
tioning slides I91 and 202 is similar to the opera
tion of component solver 2I in positioning slides
48 and 53. Because the value dH introduced
into component solver I1I has both plus and
minus values the pin I94 is mounted and driven
so that it may pass across the center of the disk
I18 whereas pin 45 is movable in only one direc
tionfrom the center of disk 42. By setting disk
supra 215
Z6931
2,412,443
13
14
118 relative to pinion 110 so that the screw shaft
191 is parallel to the slot 196 in slide 191 when
the value of A represented by the angular posi
ciated with this apparatus. The shaft 211 car
ries a pinion 213 engaging a rack bar 214 for ad
justing radially of a disk 215 a carriage contain
ing a pair of balls 216. The disk 2| 5 is driven by
tion of shaft 168 is zero, it will be seen that the
a pinion 211 on a shaft 218 actuated in accord
motion imparted to the slide 191, and therefore,
to the output shaft 200 by the block 195, will be
in accordance with the quantity dH sin A. The
movement imparted to the slide 202 and the out
put shaft 201 will be in accordance with the
quantity dH cos A, both of these outputs being
employed as will hereinafter appear.
The shaft 58 entering Fig. 6 from Fig. 5, and
which is actuated in accordance with the quan
tity dRI-I by the component solver 21, is con
nected to the side 208’ of a differential 208. The
other side 208" is connected by a shaft 209 to
ance with time, if, from a constant speed source of
power. The movement imparted to the balls 216
from the disk 215 is transmitted to a roller 219
which is connected to the shaft 132 leading to
10 Fig. 5. Since the disk 2 I 5 is driven in accordance
with time and the movement imparted to the
roller 219 depends upon the radial position of the
balls with respect to the disk, 1. e., upon the quan
tity dB, the output of the roller 219 will be in ac
cordance with the product of these quantities or
AR representing increments of range.
The shaft 133 leading from Fig. 5 and operable
the shaft 151 operable in accordance with values '
in accordance with range R from the knob 121
of elevation A. The shaft 151 is also connected
is, in Fig. 6, connected to a pinion 220 engaging
by a shaft 169’ to a pinion 110' for actuating an
element of a second component solver 111’. The ’ a rotatable disk 221 provided with a cam groove
222 laid out radially in accordance with the recip
center 208"’ of the differential is connected by
rocal of range, 1. e.,
shaft 112’ to a pinion 113’ for actuating another
1
element of the component solver. The compo
nent solver 111' is structurally identical with the
component solver 111 and, therefore, is likewise
Above the disk is a pair of ?xed guide ways 223
disclosed in detail in Fig. 13. For convenience
within which is a slide 224, carrying a pin 225 ?t
the parts of this second component solver 111’
ting into the cam groove and, therefore, displace
which appear in Fig. 6, will be designated by the
able radially in accordance with the quantity
same reference numerals as are the correspond
1
ing parts of the other component solver, but with 30
primes affixed, and the same rule applies to the
input shafts I69’ and 112' and their pinions 110'
as the disk 221 is rotated in accordance with the
and 113’ respectively.
quantity R by shaft 133 and pinion 220. The slide
In the component solver 111' the pin 194' is
224 is connected by a rod 226 to a carriage con
positioned radially in accordance with the quan- ‘~ taining a pair of balls 221 of an integrator 228,
tity dRI-I. By setting disk I18’ relative to pinion
hereinafter referred to as the
110’ so that the screw shaft 191' is parallel to
1
the slot 196’ in slide 191’ when the value of A
represented by the angular position of shaft
integrator, which is of the same type as the in
tegrator 212. The disk 229 of the
168 is zero, it will be seen that the movement .
imparted to the slide 191' is in accordance with
the quantity dRH sin A and the movement im
parted to the slide 202’ is in accordance with the
quantity cZRn cos A, as will be evident from the
previous explanation of the’ component solver
111. Except for the different inputs, dH in the
case of component solver 111 and dRI-I in the case
l
R
- integrator is driven by means of a pinion 230
of component solver 111’—, the operation of
component solvers 111 and 111' is identical.
In as far as the differential 208 is concerned, ' '
it is identical with and performs the same func
tion as does the differential 166 used in connec
tion with the component solver 111, so that fur
ther explanation of the second differential is un
necessary.
on the shaft 218 in accordance with time, t.
The
roller 231 is, therefore, driven in accordance with
the product of
l
\
R
and t, or
i
R
which is the output of its shaft 232.
The output shaft 200 of‘ the component solver
111, which is operated in accordance with the
quantity dH sin A, is connected to the side 210’
The output shaft 201 of component solver 111
1,317,915, Hannibal C. Ford, for Mechanical
movement, and is shown herein in simpli?ed
form. A shaft 211’ leads from the shaft 2| I to
the predicting apparatus which may be asso
viously explained, is operable in accordance with
the quantity
which is operable in accordance with the quantity dH cos A, is connected to the side 233’ of a
differential 233. The output shaft 200’ of the
of a differential 210. The output shaft 201’ of
the component solver 111’, which is operated in 60 component solver 111', which is operable in ac
cordance with the quantity dRH sin A, is con~
accordance with the quantity dRH cos A, is con
nected to the side 233" of the differential 233.
nected to the side 210" of the differential. The
The center 233" " is therefore actuated in accord
center 210"’ of the differential is, therefore, ac
ance with the sum of the quantities applied to its
tuated in accordance with the sum of these quan
sides or in accordance with RdA as appears from
tities which, as appears from Equation I above,
Equation 2. The center is connected by means
gives the quantity dR representing the rate of
of a shaft 234 to a pinion 235 engaging a rack
change of range.
bar 236 to shift the balls 231 of an integrator 238
By means of a shaft 211 this quantity is ap
hereinafter referred to as the elevation in
plied to a variable speed mechanism 212 herein
tegrator. The disk 239 of this integrator is driven
after designated as a range integrator. This in
by a pinion 240 on the shaft 232, which as pre
tegrator may be of the type shown in Patent No.
i
R
2,412,443
15
16
Accordingly the output of the roller 24I is in ac
cordance with the product of the quantities RdA
and
t
and pinion ‘I3 the pin 93 of the vector solver 86
will be similarly positioned in accordance with
the estimated horizontal speed of the target.
The knob 22 and shaft 23 will be pushed in
R
wardly until the gears 24 and 25 are in engage
ment whereupon the switch 68 will be opened to
which gives increments of elevation AA. The
roller 24I drives the shaft I52 leading to Fig. 5.
A shaft 234' leads from shaft 234 to the predict
ing apparatus which may be associated with this 10
apparatus.
provide a break in the circuits of the motors 65
and 80, in the event that their circuits have been
closed at the switch ‘III’ by withdrawal of the
knob I2 after the estimated horizontal speed of
the target has been set up in the component solver
2| and the vector solver 86. The knob 22 will
be set in accordance with the estimated true
The shaft I68, which as previously explained is
driven in accordance with elevation A, drives a
pinion 242 engaging a disk 243 provided with a
course of the target and through shaft 26, side
cam groove 244 laid out in accordance with values 15 28’ of the differential 28 will be correspondingly
of the secant of A. A pair of ?xed guide ways
turned.
245 support a slide 246 carrying a pin 24‘! ?tting
As previously explained, the pointer II8' will
into the cam groove and therefore displaceable
indicate the observed true bearing of the target.
radially by it in accordance with the values of
The knob IO'I will then be turned to drive through
secant A, as the disk is turned. By means of a 20 shaft I68, gears H2 and H3 and shaft II5, side
rod 248 the motion imparted to pin 24‘! is trans
II6' of the differential ||6. Assuming the side
mitted to the balls 249 of an integrator 256, here
IIB” to be ?xed, the center II‘6’” will drive the
inafter referred to as the secant A integrator.
shaft II 8 and the pointer ||8’ connected thereto.
The disk 25| of this integrator is driven by a
The knob IO‘I will be turned until the pointers
pinion 252 on the shaft 232 which as previously 25 coincide, which means that the shaft H8 and
explained is operable in accordance with the
center 28"’ of the differential 28 will be set in
quantity
accordance with the observed true bearing of the
t
R
The roller 253 of this integrator receives a move
ment proportional to the product of the quan
target. Since the side 28’ is set in accordance
with the estimated true course of the target, the
30 side 28" will be moved in accordance with the
estimated target angle and will, through shaft
29 and pinion 38, correspondingly position the
tities secant A and
disk 42 of the component solver 2| to position
its pin 45 in accordance with this vector. At the
same time the shaft ‘I4 will turn the side ‘I5’ of
the differential 15 to move the center ‘I5’” until
t
R
which movement is transmitted by shaft 254 to
contact arm TI engages one of the ?xed contacts
a pinion 255 engaging the disk 256 of an in
tegrator 251 hereinafter referred to as the hear
‘I8, the motor 80 not being energized as its circuit
is broken at switch 68 as well as at switches III),
ing integrator. The balls 258 of this integrator
I24 and I44. The movement described above will
are positioned by means of a rack bar 259 en 40 then be imparted to the side ‘I5", shaft 84 and
gaged by a pinion 260 on the shaft 5| leading
pinion 85 to correspondingly turn the disk 81 of
from the component solver 2| of Fig. 5. The
the vector solver 86 to position its pin 93 in
movement imparted to the roller 26I will, there
fore, be in accordance with the product of the
accordance with the estimated target angle.
As a result of the operations described above,
quantities
the slides 48 of the component solver 2| and 96
t
of the vector solver 86, will be displaced in ac
R
cordance with the component RdBN while the
slides 53 of the component solver 2| and |0| of
secant A and RdBN, which will give increments
of bearing AB which are applied to the shaft II‘I 50 the vector solver 86 will be displaced in accord
ance with the quantity dRH. During this posi
leading to Fig. 5, since this shaft is connected
tioning of the component slides of the vector
with the roller 26I.
solver, the shafts 99 and I06 will run idle, since
In the operation of the apparatus described
the coils of the clutches I28 and I36 will be de
above, and assuming that the horizontal speed
and true course of the target have been estimated, 55 energized because their circuits will be open at the
switches 68 and/or ‘III’ as well as at the switches
the knob I2 and shaft I3 will be pushed inwardly
III], I24 and I44.
until the gears I4 and I5 are engaged. This oper
After the initial setting of the elements of the
ation will open the switch ‘III’ to break the cir
component and vector solvers in accordance with
cuits of the motors 65 and 86. The knob I2 will
be set in accodance with the estimated horizontal 60 the estimated speed of the target and the esti
mated target angle, the knobs I2 and 22 will be
speed and a corresponding movement will be im
retracted to disconnect them from the shafts
parted to the shaft I6 and the side I8’ of the
I6 and 26 respectively leading to the component
differential I8. Assuming that the center I8’ ”
and vector solvers and to close the switches 68
is ?xed, the movement will be transmitted to the
side I8" and the shaft I9 and pinion 20 to turn 65 and ‘III’ to permit the circuits of the motors 65
and 88 to be subsequently established by the
the disk 36 of the component solver 2| to position
differentials 60 and/or ‘I5 when the circuits have
the pin 39 in accordance with the estimated hori
been also established at one or more of the
zontal speed of the target. The shaft 59 and side
switches III], I24 and I44. The movement im
60' of the differential 60 will be correspondingly
parted to the slide 48 of the component solver
turned to turn the side 68" since the center 60' "
2| is transmitted through pinion 58 and shaft 5|
will be held ?xed as soon as contact arm 62 en
to position the balls 258 of the bearing integrator
gages one of the ?xed contacts 63. The motor 65
251 which generates the bearing AB, which
will, however, not be energized since its circuit
through shaft II‘I moves the side II6" of the
is broken at the switch ‘I0’ as well as at the
differential II6. Assuming the side H6’ to be
switches IIII, I24 and I44. Through the shaft ‘I2
45
5 231585.‘
2,412,448
17
18
?xed the center II 6"’ will be correspondingly
and shaft I06 are connected by the energized
turned to displace shaft H8 and pointer II8’.
If the pointer I I8’ departs from coincidence with
the pointer II8” it indicates that the observed
and generated true bearings do not agree.
If the generated true bearing is wrong, it is
clutch I36 to the shaft I35 which is held ?xed
by the friction device I35’. As the pin 93 of the
vector solver is repositioned, it will turn the disk
81 and through the pinion 85 and shaft 84, the
side ‘I5” of the differential ‘I5 will be correspond
ingly turned. As previously explainedthe side
due to errors in the rate at which this bearing
is generated by the bearing integrator 251. Since
‘I5’ has been turned in accordance with the move
one of the inputs of this integrator is the quan
ment of shaft 29. The difference between the
tity RdBN which is applied to the integrator by 10 movements of the two sides of the differential
will, through the center ‘I5’” and shaft ‘I6, turn
the shaft 5|, it may mean that there is an error
the contact arm 11 into engagement with one of
in this factor which is due'to errors in the speed
the ?xed contacts ‘I8 to establish through the cor
of the target and/or the target angle as set up
responding conductor ‘I9 the circuit of the motor
in the component solver. In order to correct
the error in the generated true bearing it is
80 since its common conductor 82 is connected
necessary to correct the error in the RdBN out
put of the component solver which in turn re
quires a correction of the errors in the estimated
by conductor 61, switch 68, conductor 69 and.
target, any correction to the true bearing as gen
shafts 29 and ‘I4 until the side ‘I5’ of the differ
switches ‘I0 and ‘ID’ to the + terminal of the
source of supply. The motor 86, will through its
speed of the target and/or the estimated target
shaft 8I, drive the side 28' of the differential 28,
angle. Since one of the factors on which the 20 and assuming its center 28"’ to be ?xed, the side
target angle depends is the true bearing of the
28" will be correspondingly driven as will the
erated in the apparatus must be applied to the
ential ‘I5 matches the side ‘I5” to cause the arm
target angle in addition to any correction of the
11 to open the motor circuit. This correctional
target angle due to errors in the estimated course 25 movement of the shaft 29 will be applied through
or speed of the target.
pinion 39 to the disk 42 of the component solver
Upon observing a departure of pointers H8’
2I to reposition the disk and therefore the pin
and I I8” from coincidence the knob I01 is pushed
45 in accordance with the amount by which the
inwardly to close the switch III] and bring the
pin 93 of vector solver 86 has been repositioned
gear II 2 into engagement with the gear II4, 30 by turning knob I01.
under which conditions the gears H2 and H3
The repositioning of pin 93 will also cause a
will still be in engagement on account of the
displacement of the carriage 90 of the vector
width of the former. The closing of switch IIB
solver which will drive the pinion ‘I3 and shaft ‘I2
establishes a circuit from the arms 62 and 11 of
leading to the side 60" of the differential 60.
the differentials 68 and ‘I5 respectively, through
The difference between this movement and that
conductors ‘II and 83 plus ‘II respectively, to the
imparted to the side 66' from the shaft I9 will,
switch I I0 and from it to the — terminal of the
through the spider 68"’ and shaft 6| turn the
source of supply. The closing of switch III]
contact arm 62 into engagement with one of the
will also establish a circuit from the + terminal
contacts 63 to establish over the corresponding
of the source of supply through switches ‘I0’ and 40 conductor 64 the circuit of the motor 65, the
‘I9, conductor ‘69, switch 68, conductors 61, I31
and I38, the coils of the clutches I28 and I36,
conductors I39, I40, I21 and ‘II, switch III] and
remainder of which circuit is the same as traced
in connection with motor 66. The actuation of
the motor 65 will, through shafts 66 and I6, drive
conductor III leading to the — terminal of the
the side I8’ of the differential I8 and regarding
source of supply.
45 the center I8’” as ?xed, the other side I 8" will
After the knob III‘I has been moved inwardly
through shaft I9 and pinion 20 turn the disk 36
as explained above, it is turned to drive the shaft
of the component solver 2I to reposition the pin
H5, side H6’ of the differential II6, center “6'”,
39 and therefore the pin 45 in accordance with
shaft H8 and pointer II8’ to cause it to coincide
the repositioned position of pin 93 of the vector
with pointer II8" driven in accordance with the 50 solver. When this condition is reached the sides
observed true bearing. At the same time the
60' and 60" of the differential 60 will be matched
shaft II8 will drive the center 28"’ of the differ
so that the contact arm 62 resumes its normal
ential 28 and, assuming side 28' to be ?xed, the
position and the circuit of motor 65 is opened.
side 28” will be moved and with it the shaft 29
The repositioning of the pin 45 of the com
and pinion 36 to turn the disk 42 of the component 55 ponent solver 2I causes a displacement of the
solver 2I an amount corresponding to the correc
slide 48 to change the RdBN output of the shaft
tion in true bearing required to match the point
5|. This will alter the position of the balls 258
ers H8’ and H8”. As the shaft 29 rotates it will
of the bearing integrator 251 to change the out
correspondingly drive the shaft 3| and the center
put of the integrator as applied to shaft “1.
I8”’ of the differential I8. Assuming the side 60 Since this shaft is connected to the side II6" of
I8’ to be ?xed, the side I8” will transmit a cor
differential II 6 and the side I I6’ may be regarded
responding movement to the shaft I9 and pinion
as ?xed, the center I I6’” will, through shaft. I I8,
20 to turn the disk 36 of the component solver
displace the pointer I I8’ in accordance with the
for the purpose explained in connection with Fig.
new generated true bearing. If the correctional
10. The rotation of shafts 29 and I9 will be trans 65 operation described above has been properly per
mitted by shafts ‘I4 and 59 respectively to the
formed, this pointer will coincide with the pointer
sides ‘I5’ and 60' of the differentials ‘I5 and 60.
I I8" showing that the generated true bearing of
Turning of the knob III‘! to match the pointers
the target is correct. If the pointers do not co
H8’ and H8" will also turn gear H4 and shaft
incide, the correctional operation is repeated as
,II9 which at this time will be connected to the 70 many times as may be necessary to accomplish
shaft 99 of the vector solver 86 since the coil of
the desired result.
clutch I 29 is energized as previously explained.
The previously explained corrections for errors
in the generated true bearing of the target may
The movement of shaft 99 will, through pinion
be made independently of its elevation, but in
98, displace the slide 96 to reposition the pin 93,
the slide IIII being held ?xed, since pinion I65 75 the case of corrections for errors in the generated
2,412,443
19
20
range of the target, and in its generated eleva
Similarly the initial elevation angle will also be
applied by shaft I69’ and pinion I10’ to the disk
tion, the latter quantity enters as a factor for
the following reasons.
Assume a target at a relatively low elevation,
less than 45° for instance, and approaching or
travelling away from the observing station at a
substantially constant height or altitude. In such
a case, errors in the estimated speed of the target
I18’ of the component solver I1I’.
The initial
elevation angle will also be applied through shaft
I68 and pinion 242 to the disk 243 which contains
the groove 244 laid out in accordance with the
secant of the elevation angle A.
Another preliminary operation is performed
with respect to range by turning the knob I 2| in
will be manifest primarily by differences between
the generated and observed ranges, since the 10 its retracted position and through shaft I22, gears
I28 and I29, shaft I30 and side I3I' of the differ
component of movement along the line of sight
ential I3I its center I3I’” will be driven, the side
will be relatively great as compared with the
I3I” being assumed ?xed. This will turn the
component of movement perpendicular to the
shaft I33 until its pointer I33’ coincides with the
line of sight in a vertical plane containing the
pointer I33" which indicates the initial observed
line of sight. On the other hand, in the case of
range of the target. The movement imparted to
a similarly moving target at a relatively high
shaft I33 will, through pinion 220, turn the disk
angle of elevation, above 45° for instance, the
22I which is provided with the groove 222 laid out
errors in estimated speed will be manifest pri
in accordance with the reciprocal of range.
marily by differences between the generated and
Another step in the preliminary operation of
observed elevations, since the component of move 20
the apparatus consists in setting the knob I 64 in
ment along the line of sight will be relatively
accordance with the estimated rate of change of
small as compared with the component of move
height of the target, or its rate of climb, to turn
ment perpendicular to the line of sight in a ver
shaft I65 to position the pin I94 of the com
tical plane containing the line of sight,
It is for the purpose of taking care of these two 25 ponent solver I1I as previously explained in con—
nection with Fig. 13.
conditions that the cams I51 and I60 are pro
The initial setting of the pin 45 of component
solver 2I in accordance with’ the estimated tar
get angle and speed of the target, will displace the
scribed. The selection of the particular knob
which shall be rendered ineffective under the con 30 slide 53 in accordance with the dRI-I component
corresponding to these'estimated quantities. By
ditions of operation is automatically determined
pinion 51, shaft 58, differential 208 and shaft I12’,
in accordance with the elevation angle A of the
the pin I94’ of the component solver I1'I’ will be
target as will presently appear. In order to in
positioned as previously explained.
sure greater ?exibility of operation the cams are
In Fig. 5, the cams I51 and I60 are shown in
arranged to provide a certain degree of overlap
the positions they occupy when the apparatus is
with respect to the knobs associated with them.
being used in connection with a target of rela
That is, the cam for the range knob will be so
tively high elevation. Under these conditions
designed as to allow this knob to be pushed in
the range knob I2I cannot be pushed inwardly,
wardly when the elevation angle is somewhat
greater than 45°, as for instance 50°, while the 40 but it may be manipulated to maintain the
pointer I33’ in coincidence with the pointer I33"
cam for the elevation knob I4I, will allow it to
in order that the observed range may be applied
be pushed inwardly when the elevation angle is
as desired through shaft I33 and pinion 220 to the
somewhat less than 45°, for instance 40°.
disk 22I, so that the reciprocal of range
As in the case of true bearing, another prelimi
nary step in the operation of the apparatus is 45
1
to adjust the elevation knob MI in accordance
with the observed elevation, as indicated by the
pointer I50", by turning the knob until the
may be continuously and correctly generated for
pointer I50’ coincides with the other pointer.
positioning the balls 221 of the
vided in connection with the range and elevation
knobs I2I, I4I, respectively, as previously de
This preliminary operation is performed by al 50
lowing the knob I4I to remain in its normally
retracted position and turning it to drive shaft
I42, gears I46 and I41, shaft I48 and side I49’
of the differential I49. The center I49’” being
assumed to be ?xed, the side I49” will be driven
to move shaft I50 and pointer I50’ attached
thereto. At the same time, through shaft I53,
pinion I54 and gear sector I55, the shaft I56 will
be turned to position the cams I51 and I60 so
that the portion of greater radius of one of them
shall lie in the path of one of the shafts I22 or
I42, while the portion of greater radius of the
other cam is lying out of the path of the other
shaft, except when the elevation angle is with
in the limits of the overlap of the cams in which
case both the knobs I2I and MI and their asso
ciated shafts I22 and I42 respectively may be
pushed inwardly.
1
R
integrator 228, the output of which,
i
R
is employed in the elevation integrator 238 and
the secant A integrator 250.
As far as the elevation angle is concerned, a
departure of the pointer I50’ from coincidence
with the pointer I50” indicates that the observed
and generated elevation angles do not agree due
to errors in the rate at which this elevation angle
is being generated by the elevation integrator 238.
Since one of the inputs of this integrator is the
quantity RdA which depends in part upon the
quantity dRH sin A, any error in the quantity
dRH due to an incorrect estimate of the speed of
The preliminary adjustment of the elements
the target and/or the target angle as set up on
above described will also take place in the case 70 the component solver 2I, will affect the output of
of shaft I5I which is connected to shaft I50 and
the elevation integrator. The error in the gen
this will cause the initial elevation angle to be
erated elevation angle may, therefore, be cor
rected by repositioning the pin 45 of component
applied to the disk I18 of the component solver
solver 2I to correspondingly change the dRn com
IN by shafts I68 and I69 and pinion I10 as de
scribed in more detail in connection with Fig. 13. 75 ponent of this solver to alter the output of the
Mums Maj
[III LUUQ II LQNQM
63.45
2,412,443
21
elevation integrator until the pointers I50’ and
I50” maintain substantial coincidence.
This operation is performed by moving in
wardly knob MI and shaft I42 until the gears I46
and I62 are in engagement, the cam I60 permit
ting such movement.
At the same time, the
affect the position of pin I94’ of the component
solver Ill’ and this will, in turn, affect the posi
tion of its slide I91’ and the movement of shaft
200' which represents the quantity dRH sin A.
As a result of this operation, the RdA input of
the elevation integrator, as represented by the
movement of shaft 234, will be altered to change
the output AA as represented by the movement
of shaft I52. The latter shaft will, through the
cuit is in part the same as previously described 10 center I 49"’ of the differential I49, displace the
side I49" and shaft I50 to displace pointer I50’
in connection with the switch “0 and in part
more nearly into coincidence with the pointer
through the conductors I21 and I45, switch I44
switch I44 will be closed to permit the circuits
of the motors 65 and 80 to be established by the
contact arms 62 and ‘I’! respectively. This cir
I50” depending upon the accuracy with which
and conductor III to the - terminal of the
the correcting operation has been carried out.
source of supply. The closing of switch I44 will
also establish a circuit from the + terminal of 15 The continued coincidence of the pointers will
indicate that the elevation angle as generated
the source of supply through switches ‘I0’ and
‘I0, conductor 69, switch 68, conductors 61, I31
in the apparatus corresponds to the observed
and I38, the coils of the clutches I20 and I36,
conductors I39, I40 and I45, switch I44 and con
elevation angle.
ductor III to the — terminal.
If the target be at a relatively low elevation
20 angle, the cam I60 will occupy such a position
that the elevation knob |4| cannot be pushed
After the knob I4I has been moved inwardly
inwardly, while the cam I51 will occupy such
it will be turned to drive through shaft I42, gears
a position as to allow the knob |2| to be pushed
I46 and 14‘! and shaft I48, the side I49’ of the
inwardly to permit correctional operations simi
differential I49. Assuming the center I49’” to
lar to those just described, since the effect of
be ?xed, side I49" and shaft I50 will turn the
the turning of knob I2| to drive the shaft I35
pointer I50’ until it coincides with the other
through gears I28 and I34 is the same as pre
pointer I50". The correctional movement im
viously described in connection with the eleva
parted to the shaft I50 will also be transmitted
tion knob I4I, because the shaft I63 associated
by the shaft |5| to the component solvers Ill
and I'll’ as previously explained in connection 30 with this knob is connected to the shaft I35.
The slide |0| and pin 93 of the vector solver 86
with the initial setting of the apparatus.
When the knob MI is turned under the as
sumed conditions the gear I46 will, through gear
may, therefore, be repositioned by manipulation
of the knob I2I. For the reasons previously ex
plained the pin 45 and slide 53 of component
I62, shafts I63 and I35, clutch I36, shaft I06
solver 2| will be correspondingly positioned to
and pinion I05, move the slide |0l of the vector
change the dRI-I output of this solver.
solver 86 to reposition the pin 93. At this time
Since the dR, input of the range integrator 2I2
the other slide 96 of the vector solver will be
is dependent in part upon the quantity dRH cos A
held ?xed, since shaft 99 is connected by the
as obtained from the component solver I‘II', an
clutch I20 to the shaft |I9 which is held by the
friction device H9’. The repositioning of pin 40 error in the quantity dRH will affect the (1R input
of the range integrator and accordingly its AR
93 will, except in certain exceptional cases, cause
output. When the latter output as applied to
a movement of carriage 90 to turn the pinion
shaft I32 and differential |3I causes the pointer
‘I3 and a turning of the disk 81 to turn the pinion
I33’ to remain in coincidence with the pointer
85. The movement of pinion ‘I3 will, through
shaft ‘I2, turn the side 60" of the differential 60. 45 I33”, it will show that the generated range is
correct and that the estimated course and speed
Assuming the other side 60’ to be fixed, the
center 60”’ will be turned until the contact arm
62 engages ‘one of the ?xed contacts 63 to estab
lish the circuit of the motor 65 as previously de
which serve as a basis for this generated range,
are also correct.
When the position of the cams I51 and I60 is
scribed. Also, as previously described, the motor 50 such that both of the knobs I2| and MI may be
pushed inwardly, either of these knobs may be
will then, through shafts 66 and I6, differential
used at the will of the operator for performing
I8 and shafts I9 and 59, drive the side 60’ until
the correctional operations described above, since
the contact arm assumes its neutral position.
the pinions I34 and I62 are connected to a com
The movement imparted to shaft I9 by this op
eration will, through pinion 20, alter the position 55 mon shaft leading to the vector solver, thus
permitting repositioning of its pin 93 by manipu
of the disk 36 of the component solver 2|.
lation of either knob.
The pinion 85 of the vector solver will, through
Reference has previously been made to the stop
shaft 84, turn the side ‘I5" and the center ‘I5’”
I‘! associated with the shaft I 6 and the switch
of the differential ‘I5 until its contact arm 11
‘I0 which is adapted to be controlled by the mov
engages one of the ?xed contacts ‘I8 to establish
a circuit of the motor 80, which, as previously
described, will through its shaft 8|, shaft 26,
differential 28, shafts 29 and ‘I4, drive the side
able member of the stop.
In the foregoing ex
planation of the operation of the apparatus, it
has been assumed that the switch ‘I0 has been
closed under the described conditions of opera
‘I5’ of the differential ‘I5 until the contact arm
assumes its neutral position. This operation will 65 tion, but in practice, under certain conditions of
operation, the switch will be open. The movable
be accomplished by a turning of the disk 42 of
member of the stop is arranged to engage the
the component solver 2| with the result that the
longer blade of the switch before it engages the
pin 45 will be repositioned in accordance with
member which constitutes the lower limit of the
the repositioning of pin 93 of the vector solver
by readjustment of the slide |0| of the latter. 70 stop, that is, the right hand member shown in
*Fig. 5.
The repositioning of the pin 45 will cause a re
adjustment of the slide 53 of the component
As previously explained, the pin 45 of the com
solver 2| with consequent change in the dRH
ponent solver 2|, may go to» the center of disk
output applied to shaft 58. The movement thus
42, as for instance, when the speed of the target
imparted to shaft 58 will, as previously described, 75 is zero. In the manner explained above, the pin
it it; :32 tr
2,412,443
23
24
93 of the vector solver 86 will also be similarly
positioned with respect to the disk 81. Under this
timated values of the course and speed of the
target and thereby positioning both vectors,
means for correcting the component elements re
condition the slides 96 and IIJI of the vector solver
lated to one vector according to observed posi
cannot be displaced to reposition the pin by ma
nipulation of the shaft II9 by knob I01 or shaft Ll tions of the target and thereby repositioning that
vector, and means under the control of the re
I35 by knob I2I, or knob I4I, as the case may be.
positioned vector for correspondingly reposition
The movable member of the stop I‘! is so related
ing the other vector.
to the switch ‘ID that when by turning of shaft
4. In a computing apparatus for use in gun
I6 the pin 45 of the component solver and the
pin 93 of the vector solver approach their central 10 ?re control, a mechanical vector representative
of the course and speed of a target, means asso
positions, the switch ‘III will be open to break the
ciated therewith for resolving the vector into
circuit of the coils of clutches I20 and I36 to
components, means for introducing estimated
deenergize the clutches and thereby disconnect
values of the course and speed of the target and
the shafts H91 and I35 from shafts 99 and I06
respectively during the remaining movement of 15 thereby positioning the vector, means for intro
ducing corrections in certain factors of the com
the slides as pin 93 goes to the center of disk 81.
ponents according to observed positions of the
This arrangement prevents the apparatus from
target, means for converting the component cor
getting into a condition in which the rate control
rections into correction values of the vector, and
knobs I01, I2I and MI would be ineffective for
means for applying the correction values to the
their intended purpose.
vector.
The operations have of necessity been described
5. In a computing apparatus for use in gun
as taking place consecutively in a certain order,
?re control, a mechanical vector representative
but it will be understood that in practice they
may take place in any order or even more or less
simultaneously according to the dictates of the ~
?re control problem which is to be solved by the
apparatus. In any event, the result will be the
accurate determination of the course and speed
of the target in order that these factors may
serve as a basis for the accurate determination
of other quantities dependent upon them, such as
the rate of change of bearing (ZEN, the rate of
change of range dB and the rate of change of
elevation dA. These outputs of the apparatus
are transmitted by the shafts 5|, 2I I’ and 234’ (.3
respectively to other mechanism for predicting
the future position of the target, which mecha
of the course and speed of a target, means asso
ciated therewith for resolving the vector into
components, means for introducing estimated
values of the course and speed of the target and
thereby positioning the vector, means for con
verting the components into linear and angular
rates representing components of movement of
the target, means for generating from said rates
a continuous indication of the position of the
target, means for introducing corrections into
said indication according to observed positions
of the target, means for converting the said cor
rections into correction values of the vector, and
means for applying the correction values to the
vector.
nism since it forms no part of the present inven
6. In a computing apparatus for use in gun
tion is not shown herein. The apparatus further
enables the generated values of bearing B, range ~10 ?re control, a mechanical vector representative
of the course and speed of a target, means asso
R and elevation A to be kept substantially cor
ciated therewith for resolving the vector into
rect in order that the information furnished by
components, means for introducing estimated
these quantities may be available whenever the
values of the course and speed of the target and
values of these quantities cannot be obtained by
thereby positioning the vector, computing means
direct observation of the target.
receiving the components and operable in ac
While a preferred embodiment of the inven
cordance therewith to generate linear and angu
tion has been shown and described, it will be
lar values de?ning the position of the target,
understood that the invention may be embodied
means for introducing corrections into said
in other forms and that various changes may be
made in structural details without departing 50 values according to observed positions of the tar
get, means for converting the corrections into
from its principles as de?ned in the appended
correction values of course and speed, and means
claims.
for applying the correction values to the vector.
I claim:
‘7. In a computing apparatus, the combination
1. In a computing apparatus, a pair of me
chanical vectors, component elements operatively
related to each vector, common means for posi
tioning the vectors, separate means for independ
ently positioning the component elements related
of a mechanical vector representing characteris
tics of the movement of an object, means oper
able by the vector for resolving the vector into
components bearing a predetermined relation
to a. datum line, a second mechanical vector
to one of the vectors and thereby repositioning
that vector, and means under the control of the 60 representing the same characteristics of the
movement of the object, means operable by the
repositioned vector for correspondingly reposi
second vector for resolving the vector into com
tioning the other vector.
ponents bearing the same predetermined rela
2. In a computing apparatus, the combination
tion to the datum line, means for displacing the
of a pair of mechanical vectors representing
second resolving means to alter the second vector
characteristics of the movement of an object,
and means operable by the second vector for
means for positioning the vectors, means inde
correspondingly altering the ?rst vector.
pendent of the positioning means for reposition~
8. In a computing apparatus, the combination
ing one of the vectors and means under the con
of a pair of mechanical vectors representing
trol of the repositioned vector for correspond
ingly positioning the other vector.
70 characteristics of the movement of an object,
means for positioning the vectors, means opera
3. In a computing apparatus for use in gun
tively connected to one of the vectors for gen
fire control, a pair of mechanical vectors each
erating values of a quantity representing the po
representative of the course and speed of a tar
sition of the object, a comparing device for show
get, component elements operatively related to
each vector, common means for introducing es 75 ing when the generated values of the quantity
235v EEGESTERS.‘
r 2,412,443
-
25
26
equal the observed values, means associated with
the comparing means and independent of the
positioning means for repositioning the second
in accordance with estimated values of target
vector and means under the control of the second
vector for correspondingly repositioning the ?rst
vector to affect the generating means operatively
connected thereto.
9. In a computing apparatus, a mechanical
vector representing "the estimated course and
speed of a moving object, means operatively con
nected to the vector for generating values of a
speed and target angle and elements operable by
said part for resolving the values into components
bearing a predetermined relation to the line of
sight to the target, mechanism operable in part
by the elements of one of the devices for gen
erating‘ values of quantities representing the po
sition of the target, means for comparing the
generated values of the quantities with observed
10 values thereof, normally rineifective corrective
means operable with the comparing means for
displacing the elements of the other device in
accordance with differences between the gen
a comparing device for showing when the gen
erated and observed values of the quantities to
erated values of the quantity equal its observed
values, a Second mechanical‘vector representing 15 alter the position of the part of this device, means
under the control of the part of the second men
the estimated course and speed of the object,
tioned device for correspondingly altering the
means associated with the comparing device for
position of the part of the ?rst mentioned device
altering the second vector in accordance with
and the elements operable thereby to cause cor
differences between the generated and observed
values of the quantity and means operable by 20 rectional adjustments in the generating mecha
quantity representing the position of the object,
the second vector for correspondingly altering
nism operable by these elements.
the ?rst vector to affect the generating means
13. In a computing apparatus, the combination
of a pair of devices each having a part settable
in accordance with factors representing the
movement of a target and elements operable by
operatively connected to the ?rst vector.
10. In a computing apparatus, a‘ mechanical
vector representing the estimated course and
speed of a moving object, means operable by the
the part for determining the components of the
vector for resolving the vector into components
factors in predetermined relations to the line of
bearing a predetermined relation to a datum line,
sight to the target, mechanism operable in part
mechanism operatively connected to the resolv
by an element of one of the devices for generating
ing means for generating values of a quantity 30 values of a factor representing the position of
representing the position of the object, a com—
the target, means for comparing the generated
paring device for showing when the generated
values of the factor with observed values thereof,
values of the quantity equal its observed values,
means associated with the comparing means for
a second mechanical vector representing the esti
displacing an element of the other device in ac
mated course and speed of the object, means
cordance with differences between the generated
operable by the second vector for resolving it
and observed values of the factor to alter the
into components bearing the same predetermined
position of the part of this device, means under
relation to the datum line, means associated with
the control of the part of the second mentioned
the comparing device for altering the second re
device for correspondingly altering the position
solving means in accordance with differences be 40 of the part of the ?rst mentioned device and the
tween the generated and observed Values of the
elements operable thereby to cause correctional
quantity to alter the second vector, and means
adjustments in the generating mechanisms oper
operable by the second vector for correspondingly
able by these elements.
altering the ?rst vector and the resolving means
14. In a computing ‘apparatus, the combination
operable thereby to affect the generating mech 45 of a component solver including an element,
anism operatively connected to such (resolving
means for setting the element in accordance with
means.
11. In a computing apparatus, the combination
of a device having a part settable in accordance
estimated Values of the target speed and target
angle and a slide operable by the element, mech
anism operable in part by the slide for generating
with estimated values of target speed and target
values of a factor representing the position of the
angle and elements operable by said part for 50 target, means for comparing the generated values
resolving these values into components bearing
of the factor with observed values thereof, a vector
a predetermined relation to the line of sight to
solver including an element, means for setting the
the target, mechanism operable in part by the
element of the vector solver in accordance with
elements for generating values of quantities
estimated values of the target speed and target
55
rep-resenting the position of the target, means
angle and a slide also included in the vector
for comparing the generated values of the quan
solver, means associated with the comparing
tities with observed values thereof, a second de
means for displacing the slide of the vector solver
vice having a part settable in accordance with
in accordance with differences between the gen
the estimated values of target speed and target
erated and observed values of the factor to alter
angle and elements operable by the part for 60 the position of the elementlof the vector solver,
resolving these values into components bearing
means under the control of the element of the
a predetermined relation to the line of sight to
vector solver for correspondingly altering the posi
the target, means associated with the comparing
tion of the element of the component solver and
means for displacing the elements of the second
the slide operable thereby to cause correctional
65
device in accordance with differences between the
adjustments in the generating mechanism oper
generated and observed value-s of the quantities
able by the last mentioned slide.‘
to alter the position of the part of the second de
15. In a computing apparatus, the combination
vice, means under the control of the part of the
of
a component solver having an element, means
second device for correspondingly altering the
position of the part of the ?rst device and the 70 for setting the element in accordance with values
of a factor and a slide operatively related to the
elements operable thereby to cause correctional
element, a vector solver having an element, means
adjustments in the generating mechanism oper~
for setting the element of the vector solver in
able by these elements.
accordance with the values of the factor and a
12. In a computing apparatus, the combination
of a pair of devices each having a part settable 75 slide operatively related to the element of the
2,412,443
28
27
vector solver, means for displacing the slide of
the vector solver and the element related thereto
and means under the control of the element of
the vector solver for correspondingly displacing
the element of the component solver and thereby
the slide related to this element.
16. In a computing apparatus, the combination
of a component solver having an element, means
for setting the element in accordance With values
of a factor and a pair of slides operatively re
lated to the element, a vector solver having an
element, means for setting the element of the
vector solver in accordance with the values of
the factor and a pair of slides operatively related
to the element of the vector solver, means for
displacing the slides of the vector solver and the
element related thereto and means under the con
trol of the element of the vector solver for cor
respondingly displacing the element of the com
ponent solver and thereby the slides related to 20
this element.
17. In a computing apparatus, the combination
of a component solver having a pin and a slide
operatively related to the pin, means for setting
the pin in accordance with the values of a factor,
a vector solver having a pin and a slide opera
a. target, mechanism responsive thereto to be set
in accordance with a resultant evaluation of the
estimated course and speed of the target, means
for resolving said resultant evaluation into linear
components thereof, transformation means to
transform said components into certain other
components of movement of the target compa
rable with observable components thereof, means
for checking said transformed components with
said observable components, a second mechanism,
and means operable to set the same in accordance
with the corrections of the transformed com
ponents, said second mechanism acting to correct
the values of the course and speed of the target
represented by said first mechanism.
20. In a computing apparatus, a pair of mech
anisms, means for setting each of said mech
anisms in accordance with the estimated course
and speed of a target, means related to one of
said mechanisms for determining from the set
ting thereof linear components of the course and
speed of the target, transformation means to
transform said components into equivalent an
gular components of the movement of the target,
means settable in accordance with observed meas
ures of said angular components, means for
checking and correcting the transformed com
ponents from the observed measures, means for
converting the corrections into corrections for
tively related to each other, means operable by
the setting means for setting the pin of the vector
solver in accordance with the values of the factor,
a clutch having driving and driven elements, 50 the linear components and applying the latter
corrections to the ?rst mechanism, and means
means for actuating the driving element, an op
bringing said ?rst mechanism into agreement
erating connection between the driven element
with the second mechanism to correct the esti
and the slide of the vector solver, means under
mated course and speed.
the control of the setting means for disconnect
21. In a computing apparatus, the combination
ing the elements of the clutch when the pins of
of a component solver having a vector element
the solvers are being set by the setting means,
and component slides operatively related to the
means under the control of the actuating means
element, a vector solver having a vector element
for connecting the elements of the clutch whereby
and component slides operatively related to the
the operation of the actuating means will displace
the slide of the vector solver and the pin related 40 element, means normally operable for setting both
vector elements in accordance with estimated
thereto and means under the control of the pin of
values of the course and speed of a target, means
the vector solver for correspondingly displacing
for setting a member in accordance with the
the pin of the component solver and thereby the
bearing of the target, means for setting a mem
slide related to this pin.
18. In a computing apparatus, a plurality of
means respectively actuated in accordance with
the estimated course and the estimated speed of a
target, mechanism responsive thereto to be set
' her in accordance with the range of the target,
means for setting a member in accordance with
the elevation angle of the target, connectable
means selectively operable for adjusting the po
sition of one of the slides of the vector solver in
in accordance with a resultant evaluation of the
estimated course and speed of the target, means 50 accordance with movement of the bearing set
ting means, connectable means selectively o'per
for resolving said resultant evaluation into linear
able for adjusting the second slide of the vector
components thereof, transformation means to
solver in accordance with movement of the range
transform said components into certain’ other
setting means and the elevation setting means,
components of movement of the target compar
able with observable components thereof, means 55 power means under the control of the slides of
the vector solver and energized only when the
for checking said transformed components With
connectable means are selectively operated for
said observable components and correcting said
adjusting the elements of the component solver
transformed components, means for converting
and the vector solver, and means controlled by
said corrections into linear correction values of
the course and speed of the target, and means for 60 the member settable in accordance with elevation
for preventing simultaneous adjustment of the
applying those correction values to said mech
anism.
second slide of the vector solver by the range set
19. In a computing apparatus, a plurality of
ting means and by the elevation setting means.
means respectively actuated in accordance with
RAYMOND E. CROOKE.
the estimated course and the estimated speed of 65
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