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Патент USA US2412481

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Dec. 10, 1946.
T. o. SUMMERS, JR
2,412,481
FRICTION-ACTUATED ERECTING MECHANISM
Filed Oct. 22, 1942 '
F311.
4644
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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I N VEN TOR.
22/04/45 0. jam/£25 277?.
ATTORNEY.
Dec. 10, 1946.
T. o. SUMMERS, ‘JR
2,412,481
FRICTION-ACTUATED ERECTING MECHANISM
Filed Oct. 22, 1942
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Patented‘Dec. 10, 1946
2,412,481
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,481
FRICTION -ACTUATED ERECTING
IWECHANISM
Thomas 0. Summers, Jr., Los Angeles, Calif.
I Application October 22, 1942, Serial No. 462,943
14 Claims. (Cl. 74--5)
1
This invention relates to gyro-verticals.
An object of the invention is to provide an
_ erecting mechanism which is particularly adapt
ed for, but not necessarily limited to, use in con
junction with an electrically driven gyroscope
for the reason that instead of placing dependence
upon the reactive forces of air jets for the de
velopment of erecting torque, as is conventionally
done in the case of air driven gyro-verticals, it is
a?ecting positive and dependable caging of the
instrument.
A further object in this connection, is to pro
vide a caging instrument for a gyroscopic device
of the general character indicated, designed to
operate upon the principle of bringing an erect
ing force to bear upon the gyroscope in such di
rection that the gyroscope actually erects itself
to that position in which a detent enters a suit
motivated by forces derived from the gyroscope’s 10 able socket and thereby locks the gyroscope in
caged position.
rotor and applied to the gyroscope in the form
The invention possesses other objects and
of an erecting torque through the agency of
valuable features, some of which, with those
mechanical drag such as friction.
enumerated, will be set forth in the following
A more detailed object in this connection is to
provide a gyroscope erecting mechanism which 15 description of the preferred embodiment of my
invention, illustrated in the drawings accom
takes the form of a moving element or rotor
panying and forming part of the speci?cation.
which turns at constant predetermined rate, and
It is to be understood that I do not limit myself
the rotation of which is resisted by an element
to the showing made by the said drawings and
which is stationary, at least insofar as the rotary
motion of the rotor is concerned, and thereby de 20 description, as I may adopt variations of the
preferred embodiment within the scope of my
velop a. dragging force exerted against a suit
invention as de?ned by the claims.
able portion of the gyroscope offset from the axes
Referring to the drawings;
'
of its support, and in a direction substantially
Figure 1 is a horizontal, medial, sectional view
perpendicular to the precedent displacement
thereof, so as to cause the gyroscope immediately 25 taken through a gyroscopic instrument embody
ing the principles of the present invention.
to erect itself back to its initial, predetermined
Figure 2 is a view in side elevation of the
position.
internal, operative mechanism of the instru
A further object is to provide a drag-actuated
erecting mechanism, comprising cooperatively
ment of Figure 1, the housing of the instrument.
associated rotor and stator elements as described, 30 being shown in longitudinal, medial, vertical sec
tion taken upon the line 2—2 of Figure l, with
wherein the stator element is arranged to con
the direction of view as indicated.
form to whatever movements of the gyroscope
Figure 3 is a detail view in transverse, vertical
may eventuate, within reasonable limits, and in
such a manner as to offer negligible, if any, re
section taken upon the line 3-3 of Figure 2, with
sistance to the freedom of movement of the gyro
35 the direction of view indicated by the arrows, to
scope.
A further object is ‘to provide drag-developing
show the control for the caging device.
Figure 4 is a longitudinal, medial, vertical sec
tional view of both the housing and the opera
stator elements for an erecting mechanism of
tive mechanism therein.
the general character indicated, which are actu
ated by the force of gravity, and which, there 40 Figure 5 is a transverse, vertical, sectional
view taken upon the line 5-5 of Figure 4 with
fore, are substantially uniform and fully de
the direction of view as indicated.
pendable in tlieir operation.
'
A still further object is to provide an erecting
Thatv embodiment of my present invention,
which has been chosen for illustration and de
mechanism as described, in the design of which
particular attention has been paid to compact 45 scription, is encased within a housing 6 of suit
able size and con?guration to adapt it for mount
arrangement, so as to reduce the over-all di
ing upon the instrument panel of an aircraft, and
mensions of the assembled instrument, and light
ness, for the reason that this type of instru
having a lens or window 8 in the exposed end of
ment is designed primarily for use as an aid to
the housing 6. Mounted within the housing 6
the navigation of aircraft.
50 is a gyro-vertical construction indicated in its
Another object of my present invention is to
entirety at 9. This gyro-vertical 9 comprises a
provide a caging device for a gyroscopic in
gyroscope H, supported for freedom of move
strument of unusually e?cient, compact, and
ment about mutually perpendicular horizontal
simple design, and of such a nature that it af
axes, and in substantial neutral equilibrium
fords'the utmost convenience to the operator in 55 through the expedient of a gimbal construction
2,412,481
4
rotor 12 is iournaled, so that one end, preferably
I3, supported as by axially aligned bearings I _4
and It for oscillation about a horizontal, longi
tudinal. major axis. The rotor bearing casing I1,
its upper end 42, protrudes from' the top of the
rotor bearing casing l1, thus providing a spin
the window 8, it is preferable to support the
so to design and correlate the mass with the ro
tor that it functions regardless of the direction
ning and vertically extending pin of cylindrical
within which the rotor I2 is journaled. as by
means of axially aligned bearings E8, the axis of Cl form, which is disposed in convenient location di
rectly above the intersection of the major and
which is normally vertical, is supported in the
minor axes of the gyroscope, to serve as the rotor
gimbal l3 for oscillation about a horizontal axis,
element of the erecting mechanism.
which is perpendicular to that of the bearings
In order to provide a suitable mass against
I4 and I6, as by axially aligned bearings I9. The
after hearing I4 for the gimbal rlng I3 is sup 10 which the rotor 42 may engage, and thereby de
velop by friction the lateral thrust necessary to
ported by the after wall 2i of the housing 6; but
produce the desired erecting torque, and, further,
since the front wall of the housing 6 contains
forward bearing i6 by means of a post 22, rigid
with the housing 6 and extending radially in
wards therefrom, and in such position within
which the wandering of the gyroscope may take,
I have designed the mass in the form of a plural
ity, preferably ' a pair of crossed, substantially
semicircular stators 43 and 44 mounted for os
the housing 6, with respect to its longitudinal
dimensions, that a space is left between the post
22 and the window to accommodate the indicat
which conceals the operating mechanism of the
cillation about mutually perpendicular axes, and
preferably for oscillation about the major and
minor gimbal axes, respectively. This arrange
instrument from view.
ment is merely a matter of convenience, inas
ing media and a suitable background shield 23, i
It might here be ex
much as the erecting mechanism would also op
.plained that inasmuch as the gyro-vertical mech
erate were the stator mas'ses 43 and 44 mounted
anism of the present invention is applicable with
equal e?icacy to several different types of indi 25 for oscillation about other mutually perpendicu
lar axes, as, for example, each of the stators
cators, the indicating media 20 rhosen for illus
tration are more or less diagrammatic, and are
could very conveniently be mounted to oscillate
shown in an exemplary, and not a limiting sense.
about an axis either higher or lower than as illus
trated, The two masses are mounted for oscil
The gyroscope H is of the electrically driven
type, hence the rotor I2 thereof includes a core 3| 30 lation independently of each other and each
about an axis which is perpendicular to a vertical
supporting windings 32 of suitable design which
plane which includes one or the other of the gim
are cooperatively associated with stator windings
bal axes. In the described modi?cation, the out
33, so that when energized, the rotor I2 is caused
er stator mass is journaled upon a pair of pins 46,
to spin at suitable speed. Means are provided
for conducting energizing current to the motor 35 carried by the housing 6 of the instrument, which
are axially aligned with each other and with the
34, of which the described rotor and stator wind
minor gimbal bearings l9 when the gimbal I3 is
ings, 32 and 33 respectively, are essential parts;
disposed horizontally. This stator mass 44 is of
but inasmuch as the details of this means for
semicircular form, and extends upwards from one
energizing the motor form no portion of the pres
ent invention, no need arises for description or 40 pin 46 in an arcuate path closely adjacent the in
ner surface of the housing 6, and closely adjacent
the upper end of the rotor 41, and thence down
illustration of the energizing circuit in the pres
ent application.
Means are provided for erecting the gyroscope,
i. e., for causing it automatically to maintain a
predetermined attitude, preferably with the axis
wardly in a continuation of the same arcuate
45
path to its point of attachment to the other pin
46, as clearly shown in Figure 5. The inner sta
tor mass 43 is of similar form, but of slightly less
of spin of the rotor I2 vertical. Being electrically
diameter so that it can move independently of
‘driven, there is no ?ow of air associated with the
the outer stator 44. The inner stator 43 is car
instrument of sui?cient magnitude to permit the
ried by a pair of axially aligned pins 41 and 48
erection of the device to be operated by the re
active forces of air jets. Instead, the erecting 50 which are carried by the gimbal ring I3 in axial
alignment with the bearings l4 and i3 by which
mechanism depends for its operation upon forces
the ring 13 is journaled. In order that the rotor
derived from a suitable drag; in the present mod
42 of the erecting mechanism may engage both
i?cationpfrom mechanical friction, with the re
of the stator masses 43 and 44, it extends through
sult that I have so designed the mechanism that
a longitudinally extending slot 51 in the inner
it includes cooperatively associated rotor and sta
stator mass 43 and therebeyond into a slot 52 in
tor elements adapted to be brought into frictional
the under surface of the other stator mass 44, as
engagement with each other whenever the gyro
best shown in Figures 4 and 5. ‘The parts are so
scope wanders from its normal position. One of
proportioned and arranged that the centers of the
these elements, preferably the rotor element, is
carried by the freely suspended gyroscope, and 60 arcs described by both stators 43 and 44 lie in
the point (indicated at 53) of intersection of the
the other, i. e., the stator, is carried by the struc
major and minor gimbal axes with the result that
ture which supports the gyroscope, with the re
if relative rotary motion of the gyroscope about
sult that the side thrust developed as a result
either or both of the gimbal axes occurs, the align
of the frictional interengagement between the
rotor and stator applies a torque to the freely sus 65 ment of the rotor 42 with the stators 43 and 44
will not be altered. For example, when the gyro
pended gyroscope in such a manner and in such
scope II is accurately vertical, and the airplane
direction that the torque acts as an erecting
carrying the instrument goes into a dive, rotary
torque, causing the gyroscope immediately to
motion of the housing 6 about the transverse
precess itself back to its normal position by the
application of forces derived from the gyroscope’s 70 gimbal axis will occur, causing the stator 43 also
to turn about this minor gimbal axis, moving
rotor, in accordance with the well-known prin
longitudinally past the rotor 42, the axis of which
ciples of gyroscopic action.
remains stationary due to the stabilizing effect
A convenient and exceedingly effective man
of the gyroscope, with the result that should any
ner of providing the rotor element of this struc
ture is by extending the shaft 4!, by which the 75 deviation of the gyroscope about the major axis
5
2,412,481.
occur, while the described displacement of the
housing 5 obtains, thus producing lateral move
ment of the rotor 42, it will bear against the 1on
gitudinally extending inner stator 43 in precisely
the same manner as though the ship were in level
?ight, but at a different point in the length of
the stator from the center thereof, with which the
rotor 42 is in alignment when the instrument is
ference between the rotor 42 and either end, of
the slot 52. In the case of the stator 43, its slot
5| is of su?icient length to make ample pro
vision for pitching at as great an angle as 60°
on each side of the vertical. It should be ex
plained, however, that the length of the slots
SI and 52 is subject to'variation, and therefore‘,
that the extent of deviation of the ship from
perfectly horizontal. _
level ?ight which can be experienced without
Since both stators 43 and 44 extend upwards 10 interference with emcient operation of the in
from their respective journal supports, they are
strument, is likewise subject to variation. Means
in unstable equilibrium. Consequently, whenever
are provided for preventing the rotor 42 from
any wandering of the gyroscope I I occurs, remov
coming into engagement of either end of either
' ing the axis of rotation of the shaft 4| from its
slot in the event that the ship carrying the in
normally vertical position, either or both of the 15 strument should vary its attitude more than the
stators 43 and 44 will be carried in that same di
extent for which the instrument has been de
rection in rotary motion about their respective
signed. The rotor bearing casing I‘I carries 9.
axes, by the engagement of the rotor 42 there
preferably cushioned stop 8| in such position
with, whereupon gravity will press the upper side
that it will engage the gimbal ring I3 just before
of the slot of whichever stator is thus moved 20 the rotor 42 reaches that position in which it
against the side of the rotor 42 which trails dur- ‘
could engage either end of the slot 5|; and simi
ing that displacement. ' This engagement between
larly, the gimbal ring I3 carries a preferably
cushioned stop 52 in position to impinge against
shaft 4| will develop friction, thereby generating
protruding lugs 53 rigid with the post 22, when
a force which is exerted by the stationary mass 25 the casing 6 rotates about the major axis of the
43 or 44, or both, as the case might be, against
gyroscope slightly less than the angular distance
the rotor 42, which, it should be remembered, is
required for the rotor 42 to reach the ends of
a portion of the freely suspended body. That
the slot 52. v
force, or the resultant which constitutes the com
The caging device, which is indicated in its
bination of forces in the event that both stators 30 entirety at I 0|, which has been incorporated
43 and 44 are acting simultaneously, will be ex
with the gyro-vertical of the present invention,
erted tangentially against the rotor-42 and there
also is actuated by friction between a rotating
fore in a direction perpendicular to the precedent
element carried by the rotor of the gyroscope
the stator and the rotating upper end 42 of the
displacement of the gyroscope. It is a well
and a friction element or stator carried by the
known principle of gyroscopic action that if an 35 housing 5 with respect to which the rotor spins.
erecting torque is exerted against a gyroscope,
The principle of operation of this caging device
the gyroscope will immediately precess in a di
is the same as that of the erecting mechanism
rection perpendicular to the direction in which
hereinabove described, inasmuch as alignment of
the erecting torque is exerted. Consequently, if
the parts necessary for caging is attained by
the gyroscope rotor I2 is spinning in a clockwise 40 erecting the gyroscope to proper position, and‘
direction as viewed in Figure 1, and if the gyro
scope wanders in a clockwise direction-as viewed
the force which is applied to the gyroscope so as
to cause it to erect itself in that manner, is de
in Figure 5, the longitudinally extending stator
.rived from the rotor I2, and controlled by a drag
43 also swings to the right as viewed in Figure 5,
causing the trailing edge of the slot 5| therein to
imposed by a stator element upon a rotary ele
ment carried by the shaft of the gyroscope rotor.
bear against the rotor 4|, thereby developing a
frictional thrust exerted by the stator 43 against
Moreover, the caging device is designed so that
it will function regardless of the position of the
gyroscope within the casing 6, and cause the
gyroscope to erect itself so that position in which
the rotor 42 in a direction perpendicular to the
direction in which the stator has been displaced
from the vertical, and to the left as viewed upon 50 the caging device can become effective. ' Toward
Figure 4.
This will cause the gyroscope to pre- ,
cess, swinging it back about the horizontal ma
this end, the rotor of the caging device, which
is indicated at I02,‘ comprises a dome-shaped
head, the outer surface of which substantially
jor gimbal axis in counter clockwise direction as
has the form of a spherical zone of one base, re
viewed in Figure 5, thereby returning the gyro
scope to that position in which the axis of its 55 ferred to herein for convenience as a spherical
arc. The center of the spherical surface de
shaft 4| is substantially vertical, at which time
scribed by the ‘outer face of the head I02 lies
the pressure of the mass 43 against the rotor will
at the intersection 53 of the major and minor
cease, and the erecting precession, consequently, .
gimbal axes; and the head I02 also is provided
terminate. As will be well understood, the action
of the outer stator 44 is exactly the same when 60 with a socket in the form of a cylindrical recess
I03 disposed co-axially with respect to the shaft
displacement of the gyroscope occurs about the
4| of the rotor I2 of the gyroscope. The stator
transverse or minor axis; and when the displace
element is a pin I04 substantially complementary
ment of the gyroscope constitutes a movement
inform to the recess I03 and carried by a re
thereof about both gimbal axes, then both sta
tors 43 and 44 will be brought into play simul 65 silient arm, such as a leaf spring I00, one‘end of
which is attached as by rivets I01 to the inside
taneously, resulting in a return precessional
of the housing 6. Associated with the spring I00
movement of the gyroscope to correct for the dis
is a control rod I08 J'ournaled in the base of the
placement thereof which has immediately pre
post 22 and extending through the front wall
ceded.
Since the slot 52 extends through substantially 70 of the housing 5 so that a knob I09 carried there
, by is accessible to the pilot to facilitate turning
180° measured angularly about the center of the
the rod I08. The inner end of the rod I00
are described by the associated stator 44, it is
carries an eccentric cam III,‘ which is provided
apparent that a ship carrying one of these in
at its portion of greatest diameter with a flat
struments can bank at substantially 90° to either
side of the vertical, without developing inter 75 H2 (see Figure 3). The cam III is disposed
2,412,481
8
with the axis of spin of the rotor substantially
vertical, the stators 43 and 44 will exert substan
tially no pressure against the rotor 42. However,
above the free end of the spring I06, the inherent
resilience of which presses its free end upwards
into engagement with the cam l I I. Hence, when
when the gyroscope assumes a position wherein
the cam III is turned to bring its portion of
the spinning axis is inclined, one or both of the
greatest diameter against the spring I06, the
stators will press with a portion of their weight
spring will be de?ected downwards, so lowering
against the rotor, thereby imposing a torque
the pin I04 that is clear of the head I 02. When
against the gyroscope which, if not neutralized,
in this position, the cam III presents the ?at
would operate as an erecting torque acting in a
II2 thereof to the spring, and the spring press
ing upwards thereagainst will serve to retain the 10 direction other than that necessary to cause the
gyroscope to develop the desired return preces
cam III against inadvertent displacement from
sional movement. The head I02 serves so to
its then position. The operator can, however,
neutralize whatever torque the stators 43 and 44
simply by turning the knob I09, turn the cam II I
might impose upon the gyroscope, since it is so
so as to bring the portion of least diameter into
alignment with the spring I06, so as to permit 15 mounted that its center of gravity is directly
below the intersection of the gimbal axes when
the spring I06 to press the pin I04 upwards so
the gyroscope is‘ in its normal position. It also
that it will, in the event that the recess I03 is
does not exert any torque upon the gyroscope
in registry therewith, enter that recess and ?rmly
except when the gyro is displaced from its normal
lock the gyroscope against rotation about either
position and, just as in the case of the stator
of the gimbal axes, or “cage” the gyroscope.
masses 43 and 44, it does exert torque upon the
However, in the event that the gyroscope is dis
gyroscope whenever the gyroscope is displaced
placed from that position in which the recess
from the vertical, and of a magnitude which in
I03 registers with the pin I04 when the spring
creases as the sine of the angle of such displace
I06 is released, the upper end of the pin will en
gage the curved surface of the head I02, thereby 25 ment. It is apparent therefore, that the torque
exerted by each of the stator masses and that
developing friction between the spinning head
exerted by the head I02 are in opposite direc
I02 and the stationary pin I04. The point of
tions about the gimbal axes, and that they both
engagement between the pin and the head will,
vary correspondingly as the position of the gyro
of course, lie in a radius of the head which ex
tends in the direction of displacement of the 30 scope varies. Accordingly, by designing the head
I02 to be of a certain weight as compared with
recess I03. The friction developed by engage
that of the stator masses 43 and 44, and by ar
ment of the pin against the rotating head will
ranging these parts with their respective centers '
exert a force against the head in a direction
of gravity in vertical alignment with and at suit
that force is offset from the axes of the gimbal 35 able distances from the gimbal axes, the two
torques are made to equilibrate each other and
support of the gyroscope, it will manifest itself
thus avoid disturbing ‘the neutral equilibrium of
as. an erecting torque perpendicular to the dis
the gyroscope.
placement which has preceded the engagement
I claim:
'
of the pin with the head. Consequently, the
1. A gyro-vertical construction comprising a
gyroscope immediately will be caused to precess 40
casing, a rotor journaled therein, spinning means
in that direction which will bring the recess I03
therefor, a gimbal supporting said casing for os
into registry with the pin I04, whereupon the
cillation about axes perpendicular to each other,
spring I06 will press the pin into the recess, thus
and erecting means comprising a normally verti
effectively caging the entire structure which is
perpendicular to that displacement, and, since
carried by the gimbal bearings.
45 cal pin revolubly mounted on said casing, rotat
As stated, the con?guration of the outer sur
face of the head I02 is that of a spherical arc.
Preferably, however, the head is relieved adjacent
its peripheral edge so that .the radius of curva
ture at this portion of the head is materially less,
the purpose being so to reduce the diameter of
the head at and adjacent its extreme edge that
should the gyroscope become displaced so far
about either or both of the gimbal axes that the
pin I04 no longer registers with any portion of I
the head I02, and the spring I06 then be released
permitting the pin I04 to move upwards to its
extreme upper position, the head I02 will, upon
return of the gyroscope toward its erect position,
ing means therefor, and a pair of masses freely
mounted independently of each other for oscil
lation under the in?uence of gravity about mutu
ally perpendicular axes, each of said masses hav
ing a slot therein extending in a plane passing
through the axis of oscillation thereof and said
pin being loosely embraced within both of said
,slots, said masses being substantially in equilib
in'um when said pin is vertical but being displaced
from position of equilibrium when said pin is re
moved from the vertical whereby they are pressed
by gravity into drag-exerting relationship with
the rotating pin and thereby generate an erect
ing torque acting on said casing.
2. A gyro-vertical construction comprising a
casing, a rotor journaled therein, spinning means
edge of the head I02 has passed over the pin,
therefor, a gimbal supporting said casing for os
whereupon the portion of the head of gradually
cillation about axes perpendicular to each other,
increasing radius will, as return motion of the
and erecting means comprising a normally verti
gyroscope progresses, be engaged by the pin I04,
cal pin revolubly mounted on said casing, rotat
.thus developing the friction which generates an
ing means therefor, and a pair of masses freely
erecting torque as described, the result of which
mounted independently of each other for oscil
is to cause return of the gyroscope to that posi
lation under the in?uence of gravity about mutu
tion in which the pin I04 and socket I03 are in
ally perpendicular axes, each of said masses hav
alignment, and the spring I06 is enabled to urge
the pin I04 into the socket.
70 ing a slot therein extending in a plane passing
through the axis of oscillation thereof and said
An important consideration in connection with
pin being loosely embraced within both of said
the caging device IN is that the head I02 there
slots, said masses being substantially in unstable
of contributes to the successful and dependable
operation of the erecting mechanism. When the
equilibrium when said pin is vertical, but being
gyroscope is disposed in its normal position, i. e., 75 displaced from position of equilibrium when said
move over the pin I04 until at least the extreme 60
2,412,481
9
pin is removed from the vertical whereby they are
pressed by gravity against the rotating pin to de
velop friction therebetween and thereby generate
tionshipf‘with the rotating pin and thereby gen
erate an erecting torque acting on said casing.
6. A gyro-vertical construction comprising a
casing, means for supporting said casing for
oscillation about mutually perpendicular hori
zontal axes, a rotor journaled in said casing for
rotation about a spinning "axis perpendicular to
an erecting torque acting on said casing.
3. A gyro-vertical construction comprising a.
casing, a rotor journaled therein, spinning means
gtherefor, a gimbal supporting said casing for
both of said axes of said casing, and erecting
oscillation about axes perpendicular to each
means comprising two masses freely mounted
other, and erecting means comprising a normally
for oscillation under the in?uence of gravity in
10
vertical pin revolubly mounted on said casing, ro
dependently of each other and about axes each
tating means therefor, a pair of masses freely
mounted independently of each other for oscilla
tion under the in?uence of gravity about mutual
of which is perpendicular to the vertical plane
which includes one of said axes of said casing,
both of said masses being in unstable equilib
ly perpendicular axes, each of said masses hav
ing a slot therein extending in a plane passing 15 rium and extending upwards from their respec
tive supports to cross each other above said cas
through the axis of oscillation thereof and said
ing in spaced apart relation, each of said masses
pin being loosely. embraced within both of said
having a slot ‘extending longitudinally thereof,
slots, said masses being substantially in unstable
a, normally vertical pin revolubly mounted in said
equilibrium when said pin is removed from the
casing
and extending upwards therefrom to be
20
vertical whereby they are pressed by gravity
embraced in both of said slots and make fric
against the rotating pin to develop friction there
tional engagement with at least one of said
between and thereby generate an erecting torque
masses when said pin is displaced from the verti
acting on said casing, and mass means mounted
cal, and means for rotating said pin, said masses
on said casing, substantially opposite said pin,
and eifective to equilibrate the gravitational 25 being substantially in equilibrium when said pin
torque exerted upon said gyroscope when said
masses are displaced from their respective nor
mal positions.
4.'A gyro-vertical construction comprising a
is vertical but being displaced from position of
equilibrium when said pin is removed ‘from the
vertical whereby they are pressed by gravity into
drag-exerting relationship with the rotating pin
casing, means for supporting said casing for 30 and thereby generate an erecting torque acting
on said casing.
oscillation about mutually perpendicular axes, a
7. A gyro-vertical construction comprising a
rotor journaled in said casing, and erecting
casing, means for supporting said casing for
means comprising two masses freely mounted for
oscillation about mutually perpendicular hori-'
oscillation under the influence of gravity inde
pendently of each other and about axes each of 35 zontal axes, a rotor journaled in said casing for
rotation about a spinning axis perpendicular to
which is perpendicular to the vertical plane
both of said axes‘ of said casing, and erecting
which includes one of said axes of said casing,
means comprising a'pair of stators disposed in
both of said masses being substantially in equi
spaced apart relation and crossing each other in
librium and crossing each other in spaced apart
relation, a normally vertical pin revolubly 40 mutually perpendicular planes, each of said
stators having a longitudinally extending slot
mounted on said casing and extending through
therein each of said stators being freely mount
at least a portion of both of said masses to make
ed for oscillation under the in?uence of gravity
frictional engagement therewith when said pin
about an axis normally coinciding with one of
is displaced from the vertical, and means for
rotating said pin, said masses being substantially ' said axes of said casing and each of said stators
extending partially around said casing in spaced
in equilibrium when said pin is vertical but be
relation thereto, and a rotor cooperatively asso—
ing displaced from position of equilibrium when
ciated with said stators and comprising a pin
said pin is removed from the vertical whereby
revolubly mounted in said casing and extending
they are pressed by gravity into drag-exerting
therefrom, said pin being embraced by both of
relationship with the rotating pin and thereby
said stators by extendinginto both of said slots,
generate‘an erecting torque acting on said cas
and means for rotating said pin, said stators be
ing.
ing substantally in equilibrium when said pin is
5. A gyro-vertical construction comprising a
removed from the vertical whereby they are
casing, means for supporting said casing for
pressed by gravity into drag-exerting relation
oscillation about mutually perpendicular axes, a
rotor journaled in said casing for rotation about ‘ ship with the rotating pin and thereby generate
an erecting torque acting on said casing.
a spinning axis perpendicular to at least one of.
8. In a gyro-vertical construction, a gyroscope
said axes of said casing, and erecting means
supported in substantially neutral equilibrium,
comprising two masses freely mounted for oscil
lation under the influence of gravity independ 60 gravity-actuated erecting means therefor com
prising means providing a rotor carried by said
ent of each other and about axes each of which
gyroscope, and gravity-actuated means asso
is perpendicular to the vertical plane which in
ciated therewith and providing a stator therefor
cludes one of said axes of said casing, both of
normally spaced therefrom but frictionally en
said masses being substantially in unstable
equilibrium and crossing each other in spaced 65 gaged thereby when said gyroscope becomes dis
placed from the vertical to develop friction
apart relation, a normally vertical pin revolubly
therebetween and thereby generate an erecting
mounted on said casing and extending through
at least a portion of both of said masses to make
torque acting on said gyroscope in a direction
normal to the direction of its precedent dis
frictional engagement therewith when said pin
is displaced from the vertical, and means for 70 placement, and mass means carried by said gyro
scope substantially opposite said rotor and ef
rotating said pin, said masses being substantially
fective to equilibrate the gravitational torque
in equilibrium when said pin is vertical but being
exerted upon said gyroscope when said stator is
displaced from position of equilibrium when said
displaced from its normal position.
pin is removed from the vertical whereby they
are pressed by gravity into drag-exerting rela 75 9. In a gyro-vertical construction, a casing,
2,412,481
11
means supporting said casing for oscillation
about mutually perpendicular axes, a rotor jour
naled within said casing for spinning about an
axis perpendicular to both of said axes of said
casing, means J'ournaled in said casing providing
oscillation under the in?uence of gravity about
mutually perpendicular axes, each of said masses
having a slot therein extending in a plane passing
through the axis of oscillation thereof, and said
pin being loosely embraced within both of said
slots, said masses being substantially in equilib
rium when said pin is vertical but being displaced
from position of equilibrium when said pin is re
moved from the vertical whereby they are pressed
a second rotor. and a pair of stators cooperatively
associated with said second rotor to be selectively
and frictionally engaged thereby upon displace
ment of said second rotor in any direction about
said axes of said casing from predetermined po
sition to develop friction therebetween and there
by generate an erecting torque acting upon said
casing in a direction substantially perpendicular
to its precedent displacement.
10. In a gyro-vertical construction, 'a casing,
means supporting said casing for oscillation
about mutually perpendicular axes, a rotor jour
naled within said casing for spinning about an
axis perpendicular to both of said axes of said
casing, means journaled in said casing provid
ing a second rotor, and a pair of stators cooper
atively associated with said second rotor to be
by gravity into drag-exerting relationship with
the rotating pin and thereby generate an erect
ing torque acting on said casing, said casing be
ing supported with its center of gravity offset
].
from said axes in a direction away from said pin
and in equilibrating relationship with said masses.
13. In a gyro-vertical, a combination of means
providing ,a support, ‘a gyroscope, means mount
ing said gyroscope upon said support for free
dom of movement abo‘ut mutually perpendicular
axes, and erecting means operable when said
gyroscope’s spinning axis becomes displaced from
predetermined attitude for applying torque to
selectively and frictionally engaged thereby upon
said gyroscope in a direction at right angles to
such displacement, said erecting means compris
ing torque-exerting means and a stator arranged
in cooperative relation with said torque-exerting
means to receive the reaction to torque exerted
thereby, said stator being pivotally mounted on
said support for movement with respect thereto
tially perpendicular to its precedent wdisplace
ment, each of said stators being mounted for 30 only about the axis of its pivotal mounting there
on, whereby said reaction is transmitted positively
oscillation about one of said axes of said cas
to said support, both said stator and said mount
ing and crossing the other adjacentthe position
ing means and the entire load carried thereby
of their engagement by said second rotor.
being pivoted with their center of gravity offset
11. In a gyro-vertical construction, a casing,
from said mutually perpendicular axes but sub
means supporting said casing for oscillation
stantially in equilibrating relationship with re
about mutually perpendicular axes, a rotor jour
spect to each other.
naled within said casing for spinning about an
14. In a gyro-vertical construction, a casing,
axis perpendicular to both of said axes of said
means supporting said casing for oscillation
casing, means journaled in said casing providing
displacement of said second rotor in any direc
tion about said axes of said casing from prede
termined position to develop friction therebe
tween and thereby generate an erecting torque
acting upon said casing in a direction substan
a second rotor, and a pair of stators coopera 40 about a plurality of predetermined axes, a rotor
journalled within said casing for spinning about
tively associated with said second rotor to be
an axis perpendicular to said predetermined axes,
selectively and frictionally engaged thereby upon
means journalled in said casing providing a sec
displacement of said second rotor in any direc-'
tion about said axes of said casing from prede
ond rotor, rotating means therefor, and a stator
termined position to develop friction therebe 45 carried by said casing-supporting means and dis
tween and thereby generate an erecting torque
posed in the path traversed by said second rotor
acting upon said casing in a direction substan
upon displacement thereof in at least one direc
tion about one of said predetermined axes, said
stator extending through a material distance in
a plane passing through said one of said prede
termined axes whereby engagement between said
second rotor and said stator is independent of the
position of said second rotor with respect to any
other of said predetermined axes,‘ engagement
between said second rotor and said stator de
tially perpendicular to its precedent displace
ment, each of said stators being mounted for os
cillation about one of said axes of said casing
and crossing the other adjacent the position of
their engagement by said second rotor, each of
said stators being arcuate about a center lying at
the intersection of said axes of said casing where
by said second rotor remains in alignment with ,
each of said stators while moving longitudinally
thereof.
12. A gyro-vertical construction comprising a
casing, a rotor journalled therein, spinning means
therefor, a, gimbal supporting said casing for os
cillation about axes perpendicular to each other,
and erecting means comprising a normally ver
tical pin revolubly mounted on said casing, ro
tating means therefor, and a pair of masses
freely mounted independently of each other for
veloping friction therebetween and thereby gen
erating an erecting torque acting upon said cas
ing in a direction substantially parallel to said
predetermined axis, the combined weight of said
60 casing and all parts attached thereto which move
angularly therewith about said predetermined
axes, being such as to substantially equilibrate
gravitational forces exerted directly against said
casing by said stator.
'
THOMAS 0. SUMMERS, JR.
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