close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2412548

код для вставки
Üec.. 10, E946.
T, s. WILSON ET AL
TORS IOGRAPH
Filed July 24, 1941
E
2 Sheets-Sheet l
THU?,
T. s. WlLsON ET Az.
2,412,548
TORSIOGRAPH
Filed July 24, 1941
v
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Dec. 10, 1946
amsn
-UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,548
TORSIOGRAPH
Thomas Sydney Wilson and Richard Zdanowich,
London, England, assignors to l). Napier & Son
Limited, London, England, a British company
Application July 24, 194i, Serial No. 403,932
In Great Britain July 29, 1940
8 Claims.
1
This invention relates to torsiographs and has
f r its object to provide a construction which has
not those disadvantages which are present in cer
tain ltnowh constructions of such instruments.
In order to have a clear perception of the pres
ent invention and the objects sought to be ob
tained, most torsiographs as proposed or in use,
operate` on what may be Called the seismographic
principle in that -for the recording of the tor
sional vibrations reliance is placed on the rela
tive movements of a mass, which is rigidly con
ected to the shaft whose torsional vibrations are
to be recorded, and a iiywheel which is flexibly
connected to the mass. The arrangement is such
that ‘under favourable conditions the mass vi
brates with the shaft while the flywheel is sub
stantially unaffected so that it can be regarded
as relatively stationary. Mechanical or electrical
means have been employed to enable the rela~
tive movement of these two
to be recorded
in various ways. An instrument of this type tends
have certain defects. For example, owing to
the necessity for a `flexible connection between
the il* wheel and the mass whose torsional vibra
tions are to be recorded, the instrument possesses
natural frequency of its own which interferes
with the recording of the torsional vibrations.
(Cl. 23d-5.6)
2
at least one axis which is in a determined posi
tion in relation to the shaft axis and is parallel
to but not coincident with the shaft axis, and a
stylus which is moved by and in accordance with
the movements of the pendulum mass with re
spect to the axis of the shaft as the shaft ro
tates, this stylus making a record> on a strip
which can move relatively to the stylus but ro~
tates as a whole with the shaft.
Accordingly, it is the main object of the pres
cnt invention to provide a reliable, efficient and
accurate device adapted to avoid the objections
heretofore noted prior instruments of this char
acter.
The invention may be carried into practice in
various alternative ways as shown more or less
diagrammatically and by way of example in the
accompanying drawings in which,
Figure l is a sectional elevation of a simple
form of the improved torsiograph.
Figure 2 is a similar View of a like arrangement,
but provided with means for adjusting the radial
distance of the fulcrum of the pendulum lever.
Figure 3 is again a similar view showing means
‘ for altering not only the distance of the pcndu~
lum fulcrum from the axis of the shaft, but also
the length of the pendulum arm.
owing to constructional limitations the
Figure él is a section through the fulcrum car
ñywheel cannot ‘ce regarded as relatively station
rying member on the line d--ii in Figure 3.
30
ary in that it does not ,rotate with a uniform
Figure 5 is an end view looking in the direction
speed. To ensure steady rotational speed the
of the shaft axis and showing a modified con
flywheel mass would have to possess an inñnitely
struction in which loi-filar suspension is employed
large inertia which- is of course impossible to pro
for the pendulum mass.
vide in practice. There are also almost inevitable
Figure 6 shows diagrammatically how two con
complications due to the mechanical orelectri
nected pend'ulums may be used and arranged.
cal means employed for obtaining the record and
Figure 7 shows similarly another arrangement
finally with this type of instrument any power
of two connected pendulums.
ful harmonic order of torsional vibrations in
Figure 8 is a diagrammatic view of another
variably tends to swamp out, obliterate or in
arrangement in which two connected pendulums
terfere with all or some of the weaker orders. 40 are used.
Hence an instrument of this type has to be fre
Figure 9 is a diagrammatic end view of a
fluently calibrated and tuned and the records ob«
simple system such as shown in Figure 8.
tained tend to be unreliable or unsatisfactory.
Figure l0 shows somewhat diagrammatically
According to this invention tcrsiograph rec
how such
arrangement as is illustrated in
ord isv obtained by a method in which the record ‘ Figures 8` and 9 may be carried out in practice.
is made by a stylus by a mass which, while sub
In each case the apparatus is conveniently
jected to centrifugal force as the shaft on which
mounted in some suitable manner on a part or
it is mounted rotates, will swing as a pendulum
member which may be termed a carrier and is
in accordance with the torsional vibrations of
formed on or connected to the shaft whose vibra
the shaft about at least one axis which is not 50 tions are to be recorded. In a simple arrange
coincident with the shaft axis. In carrying this
ment'the carrier may be in the form of a member
method into practice there is combined with the
provided, for example, with two flanges of which
shaft whose torsional vibrations are to be re
one A is adapted to be bolted on to the end of
corded, a mass which is mounted on that shaft
the shaft whose vibrations are to be recorded.
so that it can swing thereon as a pendulum about 55 The second iiange A1 has mounted thereon the
2,412,548
3
4
carrier is stationary or as it is rotating, not only
the distance of the pendulum fulcrum from the
carrier axis but also the length of the pendulum
Taking first a simple form of the invention as
arm. The member C4 which supports the pen
shown in Figure l, there is suitably pivoted on
the ñange A1 of the carrier a two-armed level` Cr dulum and provides a fulcrum is slidably mounted
in a suitable guide slot A2 in the carrier A1. A
which constitutes the pendulum by means of
worm’shaft M2 is mounted on the carrier in
which the torsional vibrations are recorded. On
radial disposition and extends through a threaded
the end of one arm B of this lever is a mass B1
bore in an extension C5 of the member C4, so
of suitable form which with the lever can swing
that the latter is moved radially of the carrier
about the fulcrum C as the shaft rotates and in
as the shaft M2 is turned. This shaft M2 can
accordance with the torsional vibrations of that
be
rotated by means of a bevel wheel K4 on the .
shaft. The second arm B2 of the lever is directed
end of this shaft and a bevel wheel L on a shaft
inwardly towards the axis Z-Z of the carrier.
L1 which is rotatably carried on the carrier axis
and in some cases may extend beyond that axis.
and has at its outer end a head L2 by means
On this arm there is mounted a stylus D of suit
of which this shaft can be turned. This will
able typewhich lies in contactwith a strip of mate
cause the radial distance of the fulcrum sup
rial E which travels from one roller E1 to another
porting member C4 from the axis of the carrier
roller E2 over a platen E3. The movements of the
to be varied. The pendulum lever B is carried
pendulum arm B will be recorded by this stylus D
with such a degree of magnification as may be 20 in a cup-like- member C5 With a stem C6 which
constitutes the fulcrum of the pendulum and
determined in accordance with the relation be
can oscillate freely in the supporting member C4
tween the distance of the stylus from the fulcrum
The pendulum rod B B2 passes through and across
C of the two-armed lever and the length of the
this cup-like member C5, being screwthreaded
pendulum arm B of that lever.
The drum or roller E2 on which one end of the 25 and free to slide therethrough but restrained
against rotation. On the pendulum rod within
record strip is wound is provided with a worm
the cup C5 is a bevel wheel B3 internally threaded
Wheel E4 which meshes with a worm G on a shaft
to engage the screwthread on the pendulum rod,
H rotatably supported on and coaxial with the
the arrangement being such that if this bevel
carrier and projecting from the face of the car
wheel is turned the pendulum rod B B2 will be
rier flange A1 along the carrier axis. On the
moved through the cup C5 thus altering the length
end of this shaft is a ball or like enlargement H1.
vof the pendulum arm B. With either the bevel
This shaft H can rotate with the carrier A A1
wheel B3 on the pendulum rod engages a bevel
and the shaft Whose torsional vibrations are to
wheel O on one end of a short shaft O1 which
be recorded and when so rotated the record strip
E will be stationary. When a record is required : runs through and can rotate within the fulcrum
stem C6 of the cup member C5. A worm Wheel
the end H1 of the worm shaft I-I is held against
O3 on the opposite end of this short shaft engages
rotation when the record strip will commence
the
worm shaft M2. When shaft M2 is turned
to move owing to the drum E2 being rotated about
relatively to the carrier by means of knob L2
the stationary worm G.
acting through shaft L1 and bevel gears L and K4
The mechanism is conveniently enclosed in a
the distance of the pendulum fulcrum from the
casing J through an opening in which the
carrier axis will be varied and at the same time
pendulum arm B projects.
the length of the pendulum rod will be altered.
In the modified construction shown in Figure 2
The pitch of the thread on the radial shaft M2
the pendulum lever may be mounted so thatthe
and of that on the pendulum rod B B2 together
radial distance of its fulcrum C from the carrier
with the dimensions of the bevel gearing may be
axis can be varied, if necessary while the appa
Ydetermined so that the distance of the pendulum
ratus is in use on a rotating shaft. To eñect
mass B1 from the carrier axis will not be varied
this adjustment the fulcrum of the pendulum
while the radial position of the pendulum ful
lever is mounted on a member C1 which can slide
crum and consequently the length of the pen
radially on a rod A2 on the carrier. This ar
dulum rod are being altered. At the same time
rangement comprises a rotatable radially ar
of course the distance of the stylus from the
ranged threaded shaft K which engages a nut
fulcrum of the pendulum rod will vary in relation
C3 forming part of the member C1 which carries
to the varying length of the pendulum rod itself.
the fulcrum C of the pendulum. This threaded
shaft K carries at its inner end a bevel pinion 55 The stylus D as shown in Figure 3 can slide on
the rod B2 being guided by any suitable guide
K1 meshing with one or the other Yof two bevel
means, not shown in the drawings. Alternatively
pinions L on a shaft L1 rotatably mounted within
the stylus may be adjustably fixed on the rod B2.
the worm-carrying shaft H. These two pinions
Either of the above described arrangements
L are arranged oppositely and the shaft L1 is
movable in the axial direction by means of a head 60 may be applied to a lpendulum having bi-ñlar
suspension. in that case as shown in Figure 5
L2 on its outer end to bring one or the other
the pendulum mass B4 is carried, for example to
of the pinions L into engagement with the pinion
wards its ends, by two rods B5 B5 to the ends of
K1 so that the threaded radial shaft can be
which the» mass is pivoted at B7. Each of these
rotated in either direction as desired. When
rods passes through a fulcrum member C8 mount
the head L2 on the outer end of the shaft L1 is
ed in a supporting member C9 radially movable
held, if the carrier is rotating, or if the head L2
on the carrier. By means of bevel gearing and
itself is turned when the carrier and torsiograph
mechanism as described with reference to Figure
are stationary, the radial position of the fulcrum
3, or by other suitable mechanism, the lengths of
C ofthe pendulum lever B will be varied. Such
an arrangement enables movement of the ful~ 70 the twin pendulum rods B5 B6 can be altered with
respect to their fulcra C and these fulcra can be
crum member C1 of the pendulum to be effected
moved simultaneously with respect to their radial
in either direction while the shaft and carrier
distances from the axis of the torsiograph car
A A1 continue to rotate in one direction.
In the modification shown in Figures 3 and 4 l rier. One of the pendulum rods B5 which is ex
means are provided for varying, either when the 75 tended for the purpose in the direction of the
various parts described hereunder as comprised
in the torsiograph.
5
2,412,548
carrier axis has mounted on it, preferably in an
adjustable manner, the recording stylus D'.
6.
length of the rod P are determined so that the
virtual point of suspension of the pendulum By
In a further arrangement shown diagrammati
cally in Figure 6, a compound pendulum may be
will liel along the rod P between the point Q and
employed comprising two separate pendulum
By.
masses X and Y each on a separate rod.
A practical construction of such an arrange
ment may for example be as shown in "Figure l0
The
ñrst of these pendulum masses X is mounted on
one end of a rod X1 whose other end is pivoted
at X2 on
one end of a rod X3 whose other end
is pivoted at a point X4 on the carrier which may
or may not be coincident with the axis or" the
carrier. This rod X3 may be referred to as an
extension in the direction of the carrier axis of
the first pendulum rod X1. The second pendu~
the place where the rod P extends from the mass
wherein the drive is mounted on a shaft D’. The
bi-ñler suspension of the `pendulum rod, in ac~
cordance with known practice in a pendulum
damper device, may be effected by employing
rollers or pins which ñt loosely inside holes in
the several parts.
Thus suitably spaced apart
there may be two holes R of convenient dimen
lum mass Y is mounted on the end of a rod Y1 15 sions in the face of the carrier A1. The ñrst
which passes through an oscillating fulcrum
pendulum mass B602 is of elongated form with a
member Y2 pivoted to the carrier A1 at a distance
hole B333 of suitable size in each end. A pin or
from the axis of the latter. At the endr of this
roller S ci less diameter than the holes rests in
second pendulum rod Y1 which. lies on the side
each of the above-mentioned holes R in the cai'
of its fulcrum remote from the pendulum mass 20 rier and also in the hole B023 at one end of the
Y, this rod is connected at Y3 to the rodX3, this
pendulum mass. The latter is thus suspended at
connection being a sliding one. The recording
two points by the two pins S from the carrier, but
stylus may be mounted either on the rod X1 of
is free to swing as these pins roll in the holes in
the iirst pendulum or on the rod Y1 of the second
the two parts. There is a similar connection be
pendulum whichever may be convenient. The
tween this ñrst pendulum mass and the second
length or the second pendulum rod Y1 with re
and substantially similar pendulum mass B112
spect to its fulcrurn can be varied by sliding the
which has a hole Bid at each end and a pin S1
rod through its fulcrum member Y2. Such varia
which lies in each hole and also in the hole B173 in
tion will also move in a radial direction the slid
the corresponding end of the first pendulum mass
ing connection Y3 between the end of the second 30 Br2` The second pendulum mass B212 has a
pendulum rod Y1 and the rod X3.
screwthreaded rod P2 extending inwardly, that is
In yet another arrangement the recording
towards the axis Z2 of the carrier, with a weight
pendulum may be with two or more degrees of
P3 thereon whose position along this rod is ad
freedom. two connected pendulums being used
justable by rotation of the rod. The weight P3
and both lying on the same side of the centre of 35 is guided and held against rotation by guides T
rotation, For example in a simple form as shown
extending from the second pendulum mass B342.
in Figure 7 a. pendulum rod X5 pivcted at or about
The weight can be moved radially between these
the axis X6 of the carrier has pivotally connected
guides by rotation of the rod P2 through the bevel
to its end at X2 a second pendulum rod Y‘ï. In a
wheels P4, P5, A stylus D may `be mounted on
modiñcation of this arrangement shown in Fig 40 the rod P2 for marking on a suitably driven strip
ure 8 what may be called the first pendulum rod
of paper.
X8 is pivoted at a point X9 on the carrier suita
The constructional details may vary according
bly distant irom the axis Z oi" the latter and this
to the particular form in which the improved
pendulum rod is extended at X10 beyond the pen
tcrsiograph is made as indicated above,
dulum mass X11 thereon. On this pendulum rod 45
What we claim as our invention and desire to
or on its extension is pivoted at Y5 a second pen
secure by Letters Patent is:
dulum Y6 the position of whose fulcrum Y5 may
l. In a tcrsiograph the combination
a shaft
be movable along the rod X10. In this arrange
corded,
the
torsional
a
mass
vibrations
mounted
of
on
which
the
shaft
so
to
that
be it
ment the distance a and the lengths b and c are
constant and the distance d variable.
50 can swing thereon as a pendulum about at least
one axis which is parallel to but not coincident
A pendulum arrangement of this nature lends
with the shaft axis, a stylus moved by
in
itself to practical application with bi-ñlar sus
accordance with the movements of the said mass
pension of the pendulum masses. For example
relatively to the shaft as the latter rotates, said
as shown diagrammatically in Figure 9 the first
stylus being adapted to malte a record of its
pendulum mass Br may be suspended by twin 55 movements
on a strip of material carried on and
links Br1 from points on the carrier. The seo~
rotating as a whole with the shaft, and means
ond pendulum mass By may be similarly Sus
for moving the strip relatively to the stylus.
pended by two links 13g/1 from the ñrst pendulum
2. In a torsiograph the combination of a shaft
mass Bcc. The second pendulum mass By is pro
the torsional vibrations of which are to be re
vided with a rod P which extends towards the 60 corded, a carrier attachable to the shaft for ro
axis Z1 of the carrier and has thereon a mass P1
tation therewith, a mass mounted on the car
whose position along this rod can be varied thus
rier so that it can move relatively to the shaft
varying the radial position of the centre of grav
by swinging as a pendulum in a plane normal to
ity of the whole of the second pendulum and in
the shaft axis and about at least one axis which
this way naturally affecting the radialposition 65 is not coincident with the shaft axis, a stylus
of the centre 0f gravity of the whole pendulum
moved by and in accordance with the movements
system. The point of application of each pendu
of the said mass relatively to the shaft as the lat
lum is obtained by subtracting the pendulum
ter rotates, said stylus being adapted to make
length from the distance between the axis of ro
a record of its movement on a strip of material
tation Zl and the centre of gravity of the system. 70 carried on and rotating as a whole with the car
Here for the pendulum Ba: with a length l’ and
rier, and means for moving the strip relatively
centre of gravity at g, the effective point of ap
to the stylus.
plication is at Q. In order to vary the distance
3. In a torsiograph the combination of a shaft
d’ between Z and Q the weight P1 is moved along
the torsional vibrations of which are to be re
the rod P. The mass of this weight and the
corded, a mass mounted on the shaft so that it
2,412,548
7
can move relatively thereto by swinging as a
pendulum about at least one fulcrum the axis of
which is parallel to and at a determined distance
from the shaft axis, means for altering the dis
tance of this fulcrum axis from the shaft axis,
a stylus moved by and in accordance with the
movements of the said mass relatively to the
shaft as the latter rotates, said stylus being
8
tance from the shaft axis, means for altering the
distance of this fulcrum axis from the shaft axis
While the shaft is rotating, means for altering
the effective length of the pendulum from its
fulcrum axis while the shaft is rotating, a stylus
moved by and in accordance with the move
ments of the said mass relatively to the shaft as
the latter rotates, said stylus being adapted to
make a record of its movement on a strip of ma
adapted to make a record of its movement on a
strip of material carried on and rotating as a 10 terial carried on and rotating as a Whole With
Whole with the shaft, and means for moving the
strip relatively to the stylus.
li. In a torsiograph the combination of a shaft
the torsional vibrations of which are to be re~
corded, a mass mounted on the shaft so that it
can move relatively thereto by swinging as a
pendulum about at least one fulcrum the axis
of which is parallel to and at a determined olis
tance from the shaft axis, means for altering
the shaft, and means for moving the strip rela
tively to the stylus.
7. In a torsiograph the combination of a shaft
the torsional vibrations of which are to be re
corded, a mass mounted on the shaft so it can
swing thereon about at least one axis which is
parallel to but not coincident With the shaft axis,
a second mass which can swing as a pendulum
from the said ñrst mass about at least one axis
which is parallel to but spaced apart from the
the
fulcrum
effective
axis, length
a stylusofmoved
the pendulum
by and infrom
accord~ 20 axis about which the ñrst mass swings, a stylus
moved by and in accordance with the movements
ance with the movements of the said mass rela
of one of the said masses relatively to the shaft
tively to the shaft as the latter rotates, said
as the latter rotates, said stylus being adapted
stylus being adapte to make a record of its
movement on a strip of material carried on and 25 to malte a record of its movement on a strip of
material carried on and rotating as a Whole with
rotating as a Whole with the shaft, and means
for moving the strip relatively to the stylus.
the shaft, and means for moving the strip rela
tance from the shaft axis, means for alteringr the
distance of this fulcrum axis from the shaft
axis, means for alteringr the eifective length of
the pendulum from its fulcrum axis, a stylus
moved by and in accordance with the movements
of the said mass relatively to the shaft as the
latter rotates, said stylus being adapted to make
by swinging from the carrier in a plane normal
tively to the stylus.
5. In a torsiograph the combination of a shaft
8. In a torsiograph the combination of a shaft
the torsional Vibrations of which are to be re
corded, a mass mounted on the shaft so that it 30 the torsional vibrations of which are to be re~V
corded, a carrier member attachable to the shaft
can move relatively thereto by swinging as a
for rotation therewith, a mass mounted on the
pendulum about at least one fulcrum the axis
carrier so that it can move relatively to the shaft
of which is parallel to and at a determined dis»
a record of its movement on a strip of material
carried on and rotating as a Whole with the shaft,
and means for moving the strip relatively to the
stylus.
to the shaft axis and about at least one axis
which is not coincident With the shaft axis, a
second mass which can swing as a pendulum
from the said first mass in a plane normal to
the shaft axis and about at least one axis which
is spaced apart from the axis about Which the
first mass swings, a stylus moved by and in ac
cordance with the movements of one of the said
masses relatively to the shaft as the latter ro
tates, said stylus being adapted to make a record
of its movement Ona strip of material carried
6. In a torsiograph the combination of a shaft
on and rotating as a Whole with the carrier, and
the torsional vibrations of which are to be re
means for moving the `strip relatively to the
corded, a mass mounted on the shaft so that it
stylus.
can move relatively thereto by swinging as a
THOMAS SYDNEY WILSON.
pendulum about at least one fulcrum the axis
RICHARD ZDANOWICH.
of which is parallel to and at a determined dis 50
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
767 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа