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' Dec 17', I946.
' s, GODET ‘
'
2,412,612
DIRECTIVE RADIO SYSTEM
Filed Oct. 8, 1941
s Sheets-Sheet 1
Inventor:
Sidneg Godet,
by x/Wa
2W
His AttoT-T‘lgg.
Dec. 17, 1946.
‘
5.60051"
_
2,412,612
DIBECTIVE RADIO SYSTEM
Filed Oct. 8, 1941
’
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Fig.2.
Fig.3.‘
.
60
Fig. 4a.
‘ Voltage between
slip rings.
Fig. 4b.
Fig. 4c.
Voltage between‘
Voltage between
train brushes.
elevation brushes
Target below axis of rotation.
Fig. 5a.
'
Fig.5b.
.FigSe.
\/
l/l/
Target-right of axis of rotation.
; Fig. 6a.
'
‘
Fig. 6b.
I
-
F‘ig?c.
Target above axis of rotation.
Fig. 7a. _
,
Fig. 7b.
~ Fig. 7o.
Target left-of axis of rotation.
Fig. a
'
'
>
o
l
lkz£é\?_degnees
+
-
_
V
V
.
'
~
Inventor:
Sidney Gode’c,
.
‘
His Attorney.
2,412,612
S. GODET'
' ' DIRECTIVE RADIO SYSTEM
Filed Oct. 8, 1941
Elli
'
3 Sheets-Sheet‘. 3.
I
‘an? 7
Inventor:
Sidheg Goclet ,
‘
His Attorney
meme nee-17, 194s
2,412,612
"UNlTE ' STATES PATENT
IE -
2,412,612
DIRECTIVE RADIO SYSTEM
’
Sidney Godot, Schenectady, N. Y., asslgnor to
General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York
Applicatlon‘qctober 8, 1941, Serial No. 414,126
14 Claims.
(01. 250-11)
'
1
My invention relates to directive radio systems
and in particular to means for controlling auto
matically the direction of orientation of said
systems.
It has for one of its objects to provide means
responsive to received waves to control the direction of orientation of the receiving system in
at an angle of a few degrees to the axis of direc
tivity 2 of the antenna system and accordingly
the axis of dlrectivity 2 is rotated about the axis
6 of the shaft 3, its path of revolution comprising
the surface of a cone. Waves received from the
direction of the axis 6 are, therefore, received
with uniform intensity in all positions of the
a plurality of planes to maintain said direction
antenna system I in its rotation, except for such
. in correspondence with the direction of propaga
variations in intensity as may be produced by
tion of the received waves.
changes in the plane of polarization of the
A further object of my invention is to provide
antenna. The effect produced by such variations
means for automatically maintaining a directive
will later be discussed. Waves received from any
radiating system directed at a moving object
direction other than the direction of axis 6, how
on which waves radiated by said system impinge.
ever, affect the receiving antenna differently by
A further object of my invention is to provide 15 reason of its different orientation when the sys
means for producing from received waves a
tem is at‘di?erent points in its path and the
cyclical variation corresponding in its time phase
result is a periodically varying response of the
relation to the direction from which said waves
antenna to such waves. This periodically varying
are received together with means controlled by
response has a time phase relation dependent
said time phase relation to operate in accordance 20 upon the direction from which the waves are re
with said direction,
'
ceived with respect to the direction of orienta
Further objects‘ of my invention relate to the
tion 6 and, in accordance with my invention,
provision of particularly e?icacious means for
this time phase relation is utilized to control the
utilizing the time phase relation of said cyclically
orientation of the system, that is, to control the
varying response to control the orientation of 25 direction of the axis 6 to maintain that axis
the receiving system.
directed along the line of propagation of the re
The novel features which I believe to lbe char
ceived waves.
acteristic of my invention are set forth with
_ This cyclical variation in response of the sys
particularity in the appended claims. My in
, tem to waves received from directions other than
vention itself, however, both as to its organization 30 the direction of axis 6 may be produced either
and method of operation, together with further
by rotating the re?ector, the antenna, or both as
objects and advantages thereof, may best be un
desired. In systems where the re?ector is too
derstood by reference to the following descrip
large it is preferable to rotate only the antenna.
tion taken in connection with the accompanying
To vary the orientation the center of symmetry
drawings in which Fig. 1 represents an embodi 35 of the antenna may be rotated about the focus
ment of my invention; Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8
of the reflector without rotating the..antenna
represent certain characteristics thereof, and
itself. For reasons of mechanical simplicity of
Fig. 9 represents a modi?cation of my invention.
the system, however, the antenna itself may also
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, I have
be rotated about its point of symmetry. This
shown in the upper right-hand corner thereof, 40 results in a cyclical variation in response due to
in a very conventional way, a radio system which
changes in polarization of the antenna. This
may comprise an antenna arranged within, as
variation is not objectionable, however, since it is
at the focal point of, a re?ector I. This re?ector
double the frequency of the rate of rotation of
I may comprise any conducting surface, prefer
the antenna and its effect is automatically elimi
45
ably in the form of a surface of revolution. Com
nated in the system presently to be discussed.
monly such re?ectors are of a paraboloidal form
The shaft 3 is arranged for rotation about both
having the antenna at the focal point thereof.
the horizontal and the vertical axis. The bearing
This antenna, together with the reflector I may
6 is mounted upon a horizontal shaft 1, which
be considered to have a directivity pattern about
is mounted for rotation in bearings 8, and which
an axis 2, this axis being the axis of directivity 50 is provided with a gear sector 9, which cooperates
of the system. The reflector I, may suitably be
with a gear l0 driven by a motor I l whereby upon
mounted upon a shaft 3 arranged for rotation
operation of the motor I! the shaft 3 may be
in a bearing 4, and such other bearings as may
rotated in a vertical plane‘ about the horizontal
be required when driven by ‘a motor 5 arranged
axis ‘I thereby to project the axis of orientation
on the shaft. The axis 6 of the shaft 3 ‘extends 55 6; at any desired‘ angle in the vertical plane.
2,412,812
3
The bearings 8. supporting the horizontal shaft
1, may be supported upon a horizontal ring gear
l2, which cooperates with a gear l3 driven by a
motor l4 whereby upon operation of the motor
I4 the ring gear I2 is rotated in the horizontal
plane thereby carrying the shaft 3 horizontally
4
.
the commutator and which may be positioned,
for example, in the horizontal plane.
In the operation of the system as thus described
unidirectional potentials appear on condensers 33
and 34 having polarity and intensity dependent
upon the direction from which the waves inter
cepted by the antenna system arrive. The po
tential on condenser 33 is supplied between the
control electrodes 4| and 42 of a pair of electron
10 discharge devices 43 and 44, the anode circuits
plane.
of which include respective ?eld windings 45 and
The radio equipment associated with the an
46 of ‘a direct current generator 41, the potential
tenna may be considered to be represented by the
cube I'I shown on the drawings beneath the equip
of the latter of which is supplied to the motor ll,
'. which drives the antenna system in its orienta
ment thus far described. A transmission line ex
tends from this equipment to the antenna of the 15 tion in the vertical plane. The potential of con
denser 34 is supplied between the grids 48 and
system I, this transmission line being represented
49 of a pair of electron discharge devices 50 and
by a dotted line |_ 8 on the drawings, and extends
through the vertical shaft l6 into the horizontal ‘ 5| which include in their anode circuits the re
shaft 1, thence through an interconnecting mem- ' spective ?eld windings 52 and 53 of a direct cur
ber l9 to the horizontal shaft 3 through which 20 rent generator 54, the voltage of which is sup
plied to the motor l4, which drives the antenna
it passes to the antenna of the system I. These
in its orientation in the horizontal plane.
various shafts are hollow to enclose the trans
For a more detailed understanding of the oper
mission line l8. This line may comprise a central
ation of the system as thus far described, let us
conductor, which may be considered as repre
sented by the dotted line l8 and an outer con 25 refer to Figs. 2 to 7. Frequently apparatus, in
accordance with my invention, may be employed
ductor which is grounded.
in connection with echo systems in which waves
Rotatable joints 20 are provided at the left
are radiated from the antenna in the form of
end of the shaft 3 and at the left end of the shaft
short pulses of but a few microseconds duration,
l and at the bottom of shaft Hi to permit rota
tion of these respective shafts about their own 30 these waves being propagated in sharp beams
from the antenna system and being again re
axes.
ceived upon the antenna system after they are
Radio frequency potentials induced in the an
re?ected from a remote re?ecting surface. Such
tenna are supplied through the transmission line
impulses may be also utilized to operate radio
88 to radio equipment H where it is ampli?ed,
converted in frequency as desired, detected, and 35 equipment upon remote aircraft, for example,
about a vertical axis which may be considered to
comprise a shaft l6. Thus the antenna system
may be directed in any direction in the horizontal
the resulting pulses of unidirectional current are
supplied to a detector 2|. These unidirectional
pulses may occur at a frequency of about 2000
' cycles per second.
which, in turn, transmit other impulses which
may, be received in the receiving system.
Thus, .
in such equipment, the apparatus represented by
the cube l‘l may be considered as both a trans
As previously described the current supplied to 40 mitter supplying the antenna system and as a
receiver responding to waves intercepted by the .
the detector 28, comprising these unidirectional
antenna system.
pulses, may cyclically vary in intensity at a fre
The received radio frequency pulses are sup
quency corresponding to the frequency of rota
tion of the antenna system I. Thus, if the re 45 plied through transmission line l8 to the equip
ment I‘! where they are detected to produce 3mi
iiector i be rotated at 20 revolutions per second
directional current pulses such as those repre
the current supplied to the detector 2| is modu
sented
at 80 in Fig. 2. These pulses are then
lated at a 20 cycle rate. Thus a potential is pro
supplied to detector 2|. The intensity of these
duced upon the load resistance 22 and shunt con
denser 23 of the detector 2| having a 20 cycle
modulation. This 20 cycle modulation is supplied
through a coupling condenser 24 and potentiom
eter 25 to the grid of an ampli?er 26 where it
pulses may be considered to vary in a sine wave
50 fashion when the direction from which said waves
are received does not correspond with the direc
tion of the axis 6, this sine wave variation having
a frequency equal to the rate of rotation of the
_ is ampli?ed and supplied through a transformer
system |. This modulation of the pulses 60 is
2'0 to the control electrodes of a push-pull am 55 detected by the detector 2| to produce a unidirec
pli?er 28. The output potential from this push
tional voltage upon the resistance 22 having a
pull ampli?er 28 is supplied through a mechan
saw-tooth variation therein as indicated by the
ical recti?er comprising slip rings 29 and 30 and
curve 3| of Fig. 3. This voltage 6| is ampli?ed
commutator segments 3| and 32 to a pair of con
by the ampli?er 26 and supplied through trans
densers 33 and 34.
60 former 21 to the grids 62 and 63 0f the push-pull
This mechanical recti?er may be suitably
ampli?er 28 in opposite phase. The transformer
mounted upon the shaft 3 for rotation therewith.
may be broadly tuned to the cyclic variation
The slip ring 29 may be considered to be con
which may, for example, be of a frequency of 20
nected to the commutator segment 32 and the
cycles per second and it eifectively removes the
slip ring 36 may be connected to the commutator
saw-tooth variation indicated in Fig. 3. The re
segment 3| as indicated by dotted lines on the
sult is a sine wave of voltage existing between the
drawings, the two commutator segments being in
anodes of the ampli?er 28. This voltage may be
the form of oppositely disposed semi-circles of a
considered as represented by the curve 64 of
single circumference. - The condenser 33 is con
Fig. 4(a).
.
nected-through choke coils 35 and 36 between a 70
This voltage is then supplied through the me
pair of brushes 3'! cooperating with the commu
chanical recti?er, comprising the slip-rings 29
tator segments 3| and 32, and which may be dis
and 30, and the commutator segments 3| and 32
posed, for example, in the vertical plane. Con
denser 3ll is connected through choke'coils 38
and 39 between the brushes d0 cooperating with
cooperating with two pairs of brushes 31 and 40,
to the condensers 33 and 34, each of which is con'_
nectcd between a respective pair of said brushes.
5
2,412,012‘
6
.,
The e?ect or the mechanical recti?er is to reverse
below the axis. When the wave is received from
the pol ‘ ty of the alternating current wave sup
plied‘ to each pair of brushes twice in each cycle 1
a source whose direction is to the left of the axis
of rotation a unidirectional potential appears
upon condenser 33 as represented by the line ‘Id of
of the wave, the reversal occurring at the brushes
3'! being displaced by 90 degrees in the cycle from
the reversals which occur at the brushes 40.
Thus, for example, if the voltage supplied between t
the two slip rings 29 and 30 be represented by
Fig. 7(1)), this voltage being ‘of opposite polarity
to that ‘represented by the line 12 in Fig. 5(b).
No voltage appears upon the condenser 34.
-
. It will thus be seen that the discharge devices
the curve 66 of Fig. 4(a) then the voltage appear
50 and 5l- respond to the unidirectional voltage
ing between one pair of brushes 31 may be con 10 on condenser 34 to control the direct current gen
sidered to be of the'form represented by the curve
erator 54 to cause it to produce a unidirectional
65 of Fig. 4(b), and that appearing between the
potential having an intensity dependent upon the
other set of brushes 40 may be considered to be of
projection of the angle between the direction 0!
the form represented by the curve 66 of Fig. 4(c). " the source of the received waves and the axis of
The choke coils 35, 3B, 38 and 39 are of sui?ciently
orientation 8 upon the horizontal plane and hav
great inductance substantially to remove the al
ing a polarity ‘determined by the direction of this
.ternating, or variation, component of the waves 65
angle from that axis in the horizontal plane.
'and 6G with the result that no voltage appears ' This voltage causes operation of the motor M in
upon condenser 33, since the wave 65 is symmetri
such a direction as to rotate the antenna system
cal with respect to the zero axis 67. A unidirec 20 in the horizontal plane in a direction toward the
tional voltage does appear upon condenser 34,
direction of the source of the received waves.
since the wave 66 is not symmetrical with respect
Discharge devices 43 and M respond in a simi
to the zero axis, this voltage being represented by
lar way ‘to the voltage across condenser 33 to
the distance between the dotted line 58 and the
control the generator 31 to cause it to produce
zeroaxis 69 of Fig. 4(c), this distance represent
voltage which when supplied to motor ll causes
ing the average value of the wave 66. Thus con
it to rotate the antenna, system in the vertical
denser 34 assumes. a charge and accordingly one
plane in a direction toward the direction of the
of the control grids 48, or 49, of the discharge de
source of the received waves. In this way it will
vices 50 and 5| becomes more positive than the
be seen that the direction of orientation 6 of
other, with the result that one of these devices 50 30 the antenna system may be maintained directed
and 5| passes more current in its anode'circuit
than the other. These anode currents ?ow from
a source, the positive terminal of which is indi
cated at 10 through the two windings 52 and 53 of
the generator 54 and the respective discharge de 35
vices 50 and 5! back to the negative terminal ‘ll
of the source. The result is that a voltage is pro
automatically at the source of the received waves,
which may be reflecting surface such as a re
mote aircraft upon which waves from the same
antenna system impinge and from which they
are re?ected.
The direct current generators Ill and 58 may of
course be of any suitable type the voltage of which
duced by the generator 56 of a certain polarity
is controlled in intensity and polarity by field
which is supplied to the motor It, which in turn
windings such as those shown at 45 and t6 and
‘rotates the antenna system i‘ in the horizontal 40 at 52 and 53, respectively. I prefer that these
plane to such a position that the voltage repre
generators be of the type commonly known as sented by the dotted lines 68 of Fig. 4(c) disap
Amplidynes.
pears.
Of course, in the operation of systems such as
The curves of Figs. 4(a) , 4(b), and 4(0) may be
that here described the phenomenon of hunt
considered to represent conditions which exist 45 ing is likely to occur, that is, for example, if
when the wave is received with maximum inten
voltage appears upon condenser 34 causing gen
sity from a direction in the vertical plane below
erator 55 to produce a voltage to drive the mo;
the axis of orientation 6, for example.
tor It in‘ one direction, it may be that, due to
If we assume that these waves are received from
inertia of the system and the like, the motor is
a source whose direction in the horizontal plane
does not stop when the voltage On condenser 36
islto the right of the axis of orientation 6 of the
disappears but continues and drives the antenna
antenna system then the corresponding voltage
past the desired point, thereby producing a volt;
relations are those represented by the curves of
age of opposite polarity on the condenser 38.
Figs. 5(a) , 5(1)) and 5(0) .
This in turn brings about a reversal of polarity
If the target be above the axis of rotation in-the
of the voltage supplied by generator 5d to the
vertical plane then the voltage conditions repre
motor it, which in turn reverses the direction
sented in Figs. 6(a), ‘6(b) and 6(0) exists, and
of rotation of the antenna, which may, again,
similarly, if the waves are received :‘from a source
move too far, this hunting operation about the‘
whose direction in the horizontal‘pl'ane is to the
desired point continuing inde?nitely. To coun
left of the axis of rotation, then the voltage con
teract this eifect the voltage from the generator
ditions will be those represented by Figs. 7(a),
53 is utilized through discharge devices 30 and M
7 (b) and 7(0).
\
to modulate the screen grid potentials of the dis
It will be seen that when the wave is received
charge devices 50 and 5| thereby'to change the
from a source whose direction is to the right in
the hcrizontal'plane a voltage represented by the
dotted line 72 in Fig. >5(b) appears upon'the'con
denser 33 and no voltage appears upon condenser
conductivity of these devices in a direction op
posite the change produced by the. potential on
condenser 36. Similarly the voltage of the gen
erator it‘! is utilized through. discharge devices 82
and 83 'to modulate the screen grid potentials
38. When it is received from a source. whose di
rection is above the axis of rotation in the verti
of devices 63 and 4t.
‘
a
cal plane then no voltage appears upon condenser 70
Each of the screen grids of discharge'devic'es
33 but a voltage does appear upon condenser 34
50 and Si, 53 and 44 have potentials supplied
as represented by the dotted line 13 in Fig. 6(0),
thereto from thepositive terminal --70 of the
this voltage being of opposite polarity from that
source through respective resistances 3t, 85, 85
indicated in Fig. 4(c) by the line 68 when the
and 81'. The voltage on resistance 86 is con
wave is received from a source whose direction is 75 trolled by the current ?owing between the anode‘
2,412,812
and cathodev of a discharge device 8I, the anode
Capacity Can of condenser 98 maybe
of this device being connected to the screen
grid 68 of the device 59 and the cathode thereofv
being connected through a resistance .89 to the
negative terminal ‘II of the source of supply, In
- ‘Capacity C» or condenser/99 maybe
the same way the screen grid potential on the
C inn/mi
screen grid 99 of device 5| is controlled by the
current flowing in the anode circuit of. the dis
where R is the resistance of resistor 99' in ohms.
charge device 89. The control grid 92 01 the de
L is the inductance of coil I9I in henries, and
vice 8I may be considered to be grounded by the 10
C98 and C99 are expressed in microi'arads, and
moving contact 93 of a. switch having four arma
‘f(b) is expressed in cycles per second. The
tures 93, 94, 95 and 96 and which are normally
value L of inductance. I9I may be arbitrarily
in the right-hand'position of the two positions
chosen and the resistance oi.’ resistor I99 may
shown on the drawings. The voltage generated
best be determined empirically after the values
by the generator 54 is supplied across apotenti
L, Cos and C99 have been determined. The re
ometer 91 a portion of which is- supplied between
sistance of resistor 99' should be as high as pos
the control grids of the devices 89 and 8|, that
sible.
'
is, between ground and the control grid I92 of
the device 89. This circuit comprises the cou
It may be desired manually to control the
pling condensers 98 and 99 and the armature 94 20 orientation of the antenna system I. For this
' oi the switch in its right-hand position. The
purpose armatures 94 and 95 of the switch 93,
94, 95 and 96 are provided with alternate posi
condensers 98 and 99 are series condensers of an
tions in which the circuits of the respective dis
anti-hunt ?lter having a shunt branch com
prising a resistance I 99 and an inductance I9I.
charge devices 89 and 82 are disconnected from
The purpose of this ?lter will later be generally 25 the anti-hunt circuit and connected to a bridge
arrangement I95 from which voltage may be
indicated but it is more particularly described
and claimed in my copending application Serial
supplied to control manually the orientation of
the system. This manual control device I95 com
No. 445,949 ?led June 5, 1942, entitled Follow
up control system, and which is assigned to the
prises a potentiometer I96, which may be con
- same assignee as my present application.
Discharge devices 82 and 83 are associated with
the voltage generator 41 and the discharge de
30 nected across a source of unidirectional potential.
'lhe grounded terminal of this potentiometer is
connected to a variable contact. I91 on a circular
vices 43 and 44 in the same way that has been ' bridge resistance comprising segments II9, III,
I I2, and the variable contact I98 of potentiometer
, described in connection with the discharge ,de
vices 89 and 8!.
35 I96 is connected to a second variable contact I99
For a more detailed description of the opera
on the circular bridge resistance II9, III, H2.
The latter'two contacts I91 and I99 are arranged
tion of these devices, let us assume the poten
for rotation in unison about the circular po
tial on condenser 94 is such that control grid
tentiometer comprising the three equal resistors
at of device 5! is positive with respect to control
grid 98 of device 59 and that the voltage of the 40 II9, III and H2. These contacts I91 and I99
generator 54 is of such polarity that the grid I92
are positioned diametrically opposite each other
of discharge device 89 is positive with respect
on the circular resistances II9, III and H2 so
to ground. Current increases in this device 89,
that equal currents ?ow between these contacts
this current ?owing through resistances 85 and
through opposite portions of this circular re
99. ‘The increase in current in resistance 85 re 45 sistance.
duces the potential applied between the screen
Three points H3, H4 and H5 between the
grid and cathode of the device 5| thereby reduc
equal segments II9, III, II2, of this circular po
ing the current ?owing in the anode of that de
tentiometer, are connected to respective points
vice. The potential on the resistance 89 tends
on a chain of resistances comprising resistors I I6,
to reduce the anode current in the device 8i 50 H1, H8, II9, I29 and I2I all connected in series
which in turn increases the potential on the
in that order. The resistances H6 and I2I may
screen grid 88 of the device 59. These two ef
be equal, resistances Ill and I29 may be equal,
:fects thus both tend to restore the normal zero
and H8 and [I9 may be equal. The discharge
voltage of generator 54. Had the voltage of gen
devices 82 and 83 which control the operation of
erator 54 been of the opposite polarity the oppo 55 the antenna in the vertical plane have their con
site change of voltage would have occurred on
trol grids connected for direct current respective
the resistances 84 and 85, the change in voltage
ly between the top and bottom points, that is,
on resistances 84 and 85 always being in the‘
points H3 and I29 of the manual control device.
proper direction to tend" to reduce the voltage of
The discharge devices 89 and 8| which control the
the generator 54 and thus to reduce the tendency 6 operation of the system in the horizontal plane
have their grids connected between points I22
to hunt.
and W3 symmetrically disposed with respect to
The anti-hunt circuit comprising the elements
these two points H3 and I24.
98, 99, M9 and I9! is designed to operate as a ,
high pass ?lter, having output as low as possible
Let us suppose that movable contacts I91 and
below a frequency ,f (a) which is the highest fre-' 65 E99 are positioned vertically in the device. Then
quency of any component of motion of the re
a potential exists between points II3 and I24,
?ecting surface from which impulses are received,
and the motion of which the orientation of the
antenna system is to follow, and having maxi
which potential is of polarity such that when
supplied between the control grids of discharge
devices 82 and 83 to control the potential of the
mum output in proper phase‘ to produce maxi '30 ‘screen grids of devices 43 and 44 it causes the
mum anti-hunting eiiect in the vicinity of, or
generator 41 to supply voltage to~drive the an
at a frequency higher than, the frequency f(b)
tenna system in a certain direction in the ver
the frequency at which hunting tends to occur;
tical plane._ The speed at which it is driven is
The elements of the ?lter may have the follow
controlled by variation of the position of contact
ing values:
75 I98 on the resistance I96. - At this time no volt
aeiaeia
age exists between points I22 and 928 and ac
cordingly no voltage exists between the grids 92
and. I02 of discharge devices 80 and 8| and the
horizontal motor I6 is therefore not energized. '
Now let ussuppose that the contacts I01 and
I09 are both rotated in a clockwise direction
through a quarter of its rotation; then no voltage
exists between points I24 and H3 and the ver
to
I05, so long as this steady voltage, the value of
which may be represented 'at M on Fig. 8, is less
than the maximum value of the voltage of the
generator produced in response to the received
signal, 1. e, so long as the value M is less than the
- peak value of the curve V. The only di?erence is
that equilibrium of the system occurs at the point
P on curve V rather than at the zero point of the
tical driving motor II is deenergized. Voltage
horizontal axis, the point P being the point where
does exist between points I22 and I23‘ and hence 10 the value of voltage of curve V is equal and op-i
between the control grids of devices 80 and 8|,
posite to the value M. Since point P is displaced
which in turn operate through discharge devices
along the horizontal axis from the zero point, an
50 and 5I to cause the horizontal motor I0 to
error is present in the orientation of the system
drive the antenna in the horizontal plane.
when equilibrium occurs. This error,- however, is
If contacts I01 and I09 be positioned at any 15 small
and disappears when the operator throws.
other angle then both motors II and I0 are en
his switch 93, 94, 95, 96 to the right-hand position. .
ergized and operate to drive the antenna system
That is, the operator uses the device I05 to scan
at an angle both to the horizontal and the ver
remote. space until a remote source of received
tical. The speed at which the antenna system
waves is found. The system then automatically
is driven is, of course, always controlled by the 20 orientates itself upon that source notwithstanding
position of contact I08 on variable resistance I06. . any manipulation of device I05. The operator
It will be observed that voltage supplied from _
then throws his switch 93 to 96 to the right for ac
the manual control device I05 between the grids
curate orientation on that source.
I02 and 92 of ampli?ers 80 and 8| is supplied in
Fig. 9 represents a modi?cation of my invention
series with voltage from potentiometer 91 pro
which the mechanical recti?er comprising the ,
duced by generator 54. Similarly, voltage sup , in
slip rings and commutator‘ of Fig. 1 are replaced
plied between control grids of devices 82 and 83
by electron discharge devices I30, I3I, I32 and
‘from device I05 is supplied in series with voltage
I33 the anode circuits of which are supplied from
from potentiometer I03. The action of the sys
respective output windings of Scott connected
tem is to maintain the sum of these two voltages
transformers I34 and I35,- the primary windings
substantially zero, i. e. the voltage from device 30 of which are energized in quadrature phase rela
_ I05 and the, voltage from the respective po
tentiometer. The feed back from the generator
through the respective potentiometer to the input
of the discharge devices is desirable to minimize
any effect of residual magnetism in the respec
tive generator, or unbalance in the circuit.
If, during the time when the antenna system
is being oriented in ‘response to manual ‘adjust
tion from a three-phase generator I30 mounted
upon the shaft 3 of the radio system as in Fig. 1
and which has a frequency equal to the rate of
rotation of the antenna system. The detector 2|
and ampli?ers -26>and 28 operate exactly as has
been described in connection with Fig. 1 as do also
the discharge devices 50, 5|, 43, 00 and'80 to 83.
Each of the discharge devices I 30, I3I, I32 and
ment of contacts I01 and I09 of device I05, a 40 I33 comprises two triodes the grids of which are
signal is received, as by reason of re?ection from a
connected to opposite sides of the balanced out
remote surface such as an aircraft, the signal_
put circuit of the ampli?er 28. The cathodes of
immediately seizes control of the apparatus and
the discharge device I 30 are connected together
the orientation of the system follows the move
and through a resistance I42 to ground. The
ment of the craft notwithstanding any potentials
cathodes of device I 3| are connected together and
supplied from device I05. This is true if the
through a resistance I43 to ground. The cathodes
orientation of the system agrees, within a few
of device I32 are connected together and through
degrees, with the direction from which the re
a
resistance I36 to ground and the cathodes of
ceived signal arrives.
device I33 are connected ‘together and through a
The reason for this action of the device may 50 resistance I31 to ground. The anodes of the de
better be understood from a consideration of Fig.
vice I30 are connected to opposite sides of the sec- .
8. In Fig. 8 the curve V indicates the voltage of
ondary winding of the transformer I34 as are also
either of the generators 41 and 50 as the orienta
the anodes of devices I3I. Similarly the anodes
tion of the antenna system is varied through the
of device I32'are connected to the opposite sides
direction from which received waves arrived. 55 of the secondary windings with transformer I35 as
This curve is plotted with the magnitude of volt-.
are also the anodes of the device I 33. age as ordinates and angle between the direction
It will be seen that the anodes of the two triodes
of orientation of the system and the direction of
in each of discharge devices I 30 and I3 I are al
received waves as abscissa.
'
ternately conducting at the same frequency as
Let us assume that the system is oriented far to 60 the modulation supplied through ampli?er 26.
the left of the direction of the received signal.
Likewise the opposite triodes in the two devices
The voltage of the generator is then zero as in
I32 and I 33 are alternately conducting at the
dicated by the left end‘ of the curve. As this
same frequency but in a time phase relation dis
orientation approaches the direction of the arriv
placed by 90 degrees from the periods of conduc
ing signal the voltage ofv the generator ?rst rises 65 tivity of the devices I 30 and I3 I .
and then falls in accordance with the curve V
Thus, for example, let us suppose that a sine
until it becomes zero when the orientation of the
wave ofvoltage of the 20 cycle frequency appears
system agrees with the direction from which the
across the balanced output circuit of ampli?er 28
received signals arrive. Upon further movement
and that this voltage is in phase with anode volt
of the system the voltage again increases and de 70 age on the upper anodes of the discharge devices
creases until itnbecomes zero when the signal is
I30,‘ I3I. The potential on the grid I38 of am
no longer received.
pli?er I30 tends to cause the current in the anode
This same eifect occurs if a steady voltage be
circuit and in resistance I02 to increase. The
produced by the generator in response to a steady
voltage which is supplied from output circuit of
voltage supplied from the manual controldevice 75 ampli?er 28 to the grid I39 is of the opposite phase
9,412,612
11
.
7
12
and tends to cause the current in the anode asso
ciated with grid I39 to reduce thereby reducing
the current in resistance “3. The opposite grids
the frequency of said cyclical variation to the
anodes of each pair in phase, the operating
I40 and Ill! have no effect since the anodes of.
these devices are negative with respect to the
cathode during this portion of the cycle. The re
sult is. that the cathode of device I30 becomes
a predetermined angle from that supplied to an
other pair, means including said pairs of dis
charge devices to supply current varying as said
cycle and is caused by an increase of current in
the reversal of current supplied to one energy
potential supplied to one pair being displaced by
cyclically varying response to each of said energy
storage devices and to reverse the polarity of cur=
positive with respect to the cathode of the device
rent supplied to each energy storage device at
ldl and this potential appears across condenser
33. This potential exists during the next half '10 twice the frequency of ‘said cyclical variation,
resistance M2 caused by a positive voltage on grid ,
idil and a decrease in current in resistance I43
caused by a negative voltage on grid Hi.
The anodes of devices i322 and N3, however,
are energized in 90 degree phase relation with
respect to the devices ltd and ?di with the result
that under the assumed conditions no voltage
exists between the cathodes or upon condenser
storage device being displaced by said predeter
mined angle from the reversals of the current
supplied to the other device, and means respon
sive to potential developed in ‘said storage devices
to control the orientation of said ?rst axis to
maintain said potentials nil.
'
2. In a directive radio system, means to rotate
the axis of directivity of said system about an
3%. It the time phase relation, however, of the 20 axis of rotation extending at an acute angle
voltage. supplied by ampli?er 28 shifts by so
-thereto, thereby to produce in said system
degrees, as would be the case if the direction of
cyclically varying response to waves received from
propagation of the received waves were rotated
through 90 degrees about the axis of orientation
of the antenna system, then the same situation
‘directions other than the direction of said axis ,
would exist in devices use and 033 as has been
described in connection with devices no and i351
and a voltage appears upon condenser
of rotation, said cyclically varying response hav»
ing a time phase relation dependent upon the
direction of propagation of the received waves,
‘electron discharge means responsive to said
cyclically varying response to produce a plurality
of unidirectional electromotive forces, each elec
The polarity of the voltage upon condensers 3t
and it depends upon the phase relation between 30 tromotive force corresponding to a plane through
said axis of rotation, and each having intensity
the voltage supplied from the balanced ampli?er
and polarity dependent upon the projection of
28 and the anode voltage of the respective dis
said direction of propagation upon a respective
charge devices and may be either positive or
plane extending through said axis oi rotation,
negative. Thus these devices operate as recti?ers
and means responsive to said electromotive forces
to produce the unidirectional voltages varying
to orient said axis of rotation in the direction of
exactly as has ‘been described in connection with
Fig. i.
.
said propagation.
3. In a directive radio system, means to rotate
The remaining portion of Fig. 9 is the same
the axis of directivity of, said system about an '
has been described in connection with Fig. 1 and
requires no further description. Either the 40 axis of rotation extending at an acute angle
thereto, thereby to produce in said system a
mechanical recti?er of Fig. 1 or the electron dis
cyclically varying response to waves received
charge recti?er of Fig. 9 has the advantage that
from directions other than the direction of said
the voltages produced on the condensers 33 and
axis of rotation, means responsive to said
34 are not affected by any even harmonics of the
cyclically .varying response to orient said axis of
* fundamental 20 cycle wave at the output of
rotation in a plurality of planes, said means com
ampli?er 28. This is desirable because the rota
prising a pair of electron discharge devices cor
tion of the antenna of the system I and the
responding to each plane, means to render said
cyclical variation of its plane of polarization at
devices periodically conducting synchronously
twice the rate of rotation of the system I' pro
with said cyclic variation, the devices in each
duces such even harmonics to some appreciable
extent. The recti?ers described, however, pre
vent their having any effect upon the operation
of the system.
While I have shown particular forms of my
invention, it will, of course, be understood that
I do not wish to be limited thereto since various
modi?cations both in the circuit arrangement
and in the instrumentalities employed may be
pair being conducting simultaneously and during
periods displaced in time phase relation with re
spect to the periods of conductivity of the de
vices of another pair, means to vary oppositely
the conductivity of the devices of each pair to
an extent dependent upon the intensity of said
cyclic variation while the respective devices are
I conducting, and means responsive to the dif
made, and I contemplate by the appended claims
ference in the conductivity of the devices in each
the true spirit and scope of my invention.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by;
rotation in the respective plane.
4. vIn combination, a directive radio system,
Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. In combination, a directive radio system,
means responsive to waves received in said system
to control the orientation thereof, said means
to cover any such modi?cations as fall within 60 pair to control the orientation of said axis of
means to rotate said system about an axis ex
comprising a ‘motor, means to supply voltage to
tending at an acute angle to the axis of directivity
of said system thereby to rotate said axis of
directivity about said ?rst axis, whereby waves
‘received from a direction other than the direction
of said ?rst axis produce cyclically varying re
sponse in said system, a plurality of energy
said motor, and electron discharge means to con
trol the polarity and intensity of said voltage,
said electron discharge means comprising a pair
storage devices, a plurality of pairs of discharge
devices, each storage device being connected be
of electron discharge devices, each of said devices
having an anode, a cathode, a control electrode,
and a second control electrode, means to vary
the voltage on said ?rst control electrodes dif
ferentially in response to the direction from which
tween the cathodes of one of said pairs, means
waves are received in said system, means to con
to supply alternating operating potential having
trol said voltage supplied to said motor in re
gamers
i3
‘iii
spouse to current in said anodes, and means re
sponsive to said voltage supplied to said motor
to vary the potential on said second control elec
trodes to counteract the effect produced by said
machine to produce a counteracting e?ect on said
I discharge devices.
voltage’ supplied to said ?rst control electrodes.
5. In combination, a directive radio system,
means responsive to waves received in said sys
mum sensitivity to waves received along a'direc
tive axis extending at a small angle to said axis
9. In combination, a directive receiving system
having an axis of orientation and having maxi- ,
of orientation, means to rotate said directive axis
about said axis of orientation whereby waves re
planes, said means comprising a plurality of
ceived from a direction at an angleto said axis
motors, means responsive to the direction of 10 of orientation are received with cyclically varying
propagation of received waves to supply voltage
intensity in said antenna, electron discharge
to said motors of such intensity and polarity as
means to separate said cyclical variation into two ,
to cause said motors to orient said system in said
components corresponding to respective planes
direction, and a single manual control member _ at right angles to each other, and means re
_ arranged for rotation, and means responsive to 15 sponsive to each of said components to operate
the position of said member in its rotation to vary
in’ accord with the direction from which said
the orientation of said system in any plane.
waves are received in the respective planes.
10. In combination, a directive receiving sys
6. In combination, means to be oriented in dif
ferent planes, a plurality of motors, each motor
tem having an axis of orientation and having
being arranged to orient said device in a corre 20 maximum sensitivity to waves received from a
sponding one of said planes, a control device for
directive axis at a small angle to said axis, of
said motors comprising a circular potentiometer
orientation, means to rotate said directive axis
having oppositely disposed contacts movable in
about said axis of orientation whereby waves
unison about said circular potentiometer, a source
received from a direction at an angle to said axis
of orientation are received with cyclically varying
of electromotive force connected between said
. tem'to control the orientation thereof in di?erent
contacts, an impedance loop having symmetrical1y spaced points connected to corresponding
points spaced about said circular potentiometer,
intensity in said antenna, said cyclical variations
oppositely spaced points about said impedance
loop, said points of one pair being displaced
tional electromotive force having polarity and
intensitycorresponding to the projection of said
in intensity having a time phase relation corre
sponding to the direction from which said- waves
and means to control each of said motors in re
are received relative to said axis of orientation,
sponse to voltage between a respective pair of 30 electron discharge means to produce a unidirec
direction on a. desired plane parallel to said axis
of orientation, and means controlled by said uni
I means responsive to waves received in said sys-. 35 directional electromotive force to produce an
effect when said electromotive force has one polar
tem to control the orientation thereof, said means
comprising a motor, means to supply voltage to
ity and an opposite e?ect when said electromo
tive force has the opposite polarity, said e?ects
said motor, and electron discharge means to
control the polarity and intensity of said voltage,
varying with the magnitude of said unidirec
around the loop from the points of another pair. '
7. In combination, a directive radio system,
said electron discharge means comprising an 40 tional electromotive force. .
electron discharge device having an anode, a
11. In combination, a directive receiving system having an axis of orientation and having
, cathode, and a pair of control electrodes, means
to vary the voltage on one of said control elec
maximum sensitivity to waves received from a
trodes in response to the direction from which
directive axis at a small angle to said axis of
waves are received in said system, means to con
orientation, means to rotate said directive axis
trol the voltage supplied to said motor in response
about said axis‘ of orientation whereby waves
to current in said discharge device, and means
received from a direction at an angle to said
responsive to said voltage supplied to saidmotor
axis of orientation are received with cyclically
to vary the potential on a second of said pair of
varying intensity in said antenna, said cyclical
variations in intensity having a time phase rela
control electrodes to counteract the effect pro
duced by said voltage supplied to said ?rst of said _
tion corresponding to the direction from which
said waves are received relative to said axis of
pair of control electrodes.
8. In combination, a radio system having maxi
orientation, means to detect said received waves
' to produce alternating electromotive force having
mum effect with respect to a particular direc
tion, and having an axis of orientation extending
irequency and phase corresponding to said cy
at a small angle to said direction means to pro
clical variations,_ means to produce from said
alternating electromotive force a plurality of
duce from waves received in said system an elec
tromotive force varying in intensity and polarity ' _ voltages each having variations corresponding
to the projection of said direction on a corre-'
with variations of said axis from the direction
of propagation of said received waves, means re 60 sponding plane radiating from said axis of orien
sponsive to said voltage to maintain said axis
tation, and means controlled jointly by said volt
parallelwith said direction of propagation in
ages to produce an e?ect varying in accord with
a particular plane, said means including a dy
the direction of said projections on said planes.
namo electric machine having a pair of windings,
12. In combination, a radio antenna having an
a pair of electron discharge devices, eachhaving 65 axis of orientation and having maximum sensi
an anode circuit including a corresponding one
tivity to waves received from a direction at an
of said windings, means to supply said electro
motive force to said pair of discharge devices to
angle to said axis, means to rotate said direction
produce oppositely varying effects in said anode
ceived in said antenna, whereby alternating elec
circuits, and means responsive to the e?ect pro
about said axis, means to detect the waves re
70 tromotive force is produced having time phase
relation dependent upon the direction from which
duced by said last means on said dynamo elec- .
tric machine to' vary said axis of orientation
toward the direction from which said received
waves arrive, and additional means responsive
said waves are received, a commutator having a
commutator segment and slip ring and having
oppositely disposed brushes alternately engaged
to said e?ect produced on saiddynamo-electric 75 by said segment, means to rotate said commutator
2,418,612
segment and slip ring ‘synchronously with rota-'
tion of said direction of maximum effect, a ca
pacitance connected between said brushes, and
means to supply voltage varying in accord with
said alternating electromotive force through said
commutator to said capacitance, whereby a volt
age is developed on said capacitance of magni
tude and polarity corresponding to the projection
of the direction from which said waves are re
ceived on a plane corresponding to the plane of
said brushes.
13. In combination, an antenna having maxi“
mum sensitivity to waves received from a par~=
16
maximum sensitivity to waves received from a
directive axis at a small angle to said axis of
orientation, means to rotate said directive axis
about said axis of orientation whereby waves
received from a direction at an angle to said axis
of orientation are received with cyclically vary
ing intensity in said antenna, said cyclical varia
tions in intensity having a time phase relation
corresponding to the direction from which said
waves are received relative to said axis of orienta
tion, two pairs of electron discharge devices,
each having an anode, a cathode, and a control
electrode, a resistance connected between the
cathodes of one pair and the cathodes of the
ticular direction, means to rotate said direction
about the surface of a cone, means to detect the 15 other pair, means to supply alternating operating
received waves, whereby electrornotive force is
potential having the frequency of said cyclical
produced varying cyclically in response to waves
variations between an intermediate point on said
received from directions at an angle to the axis
resistance and said anodes, said voltage being
of said cone, a commutator having oppositely
supplied in opposite phase to‘the anodes of each
disposed brushes, a capacitance, means to supply 20 pair, means to supply voltage having said cyclical
said electromotive force through said commuta=
variations between the control electrodes of each
tor and brushes to said capacitance, means to
pair, said last voltage being supplied between the
rotate said commutator synchronously with said
control electrodes of one pair in opposite phase
direction, whereby said capacitance assumes a
to that supplied between the control electrodes
charge having polarity dependent upon the direc 25 of the opposite pair, and means controlled by the
tion from which waves are received in a pre=
voltage across said resistance to produce different
determined plane corresponding to the plane of
e?ects in accord with the polarity of said last
voltage.
'
said brushes.
id. In combination, a directive receiving s37?»
tern having an axis of orientation and having _
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