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Патент USA US2412631

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Dee 17, 1946.
2,412,631
Q w_ R|¢E
HIGH‘ FREQUENCY APPARATUS
Filed April 9, 1936
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Inventor":
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Chester-W Ric,
His ttor'neg.
Dec. 17, 1946.
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2,412,631
HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS
Filed April 9, 1936
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‘Inventor-z
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Chester- W. Rice,
Attorneg.
Dec. 17, 1946.
2,412,631
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HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS
Filed April 9, 1956
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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2,412,631
Patented Dec. 17,
PATENT orriea
I UNITED s'r
2,412,631
'
HIGH-FREQUENCY APPARATUS
Chester W. Rice, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to
General Electric Com pany', a corporation of
New York
Application April 9, 1936, Serial No. 13,511
as Claims.
i
.
(01. 250-1)
'
2
face upon which the wave impinges which are
large relative to the wave length employed, the
apparatus and one of its objects is to provide an
resulting wave travels in directions dependent
improved method and means for obtaining in
upon the orientation of the irregularities.
formation as to the position and motion of an
Waves of very short wave length, such as I
object with respect to a .single observation point.
contemplate to employ, when impinging upon a
It is a further object of my invention to pro
distant irregular surface are known to scatter
vide an improved method and means for locat
in all directions about the point of impingement
ing an object by determining its bearing and range
in accordance with a cosine law. Accordingly,
from a single observation point.
It is a further object of my'invention to pro 10 a substantial portion of the scattered energy re
turns in the direction from which it came. These
‘vide an improved method and means for deter
waves further maybe short relative to any irregu
mining the line of sight velocity and direction of
larities which exist in objects of the kind to be
motion along the line of sight of an object from
located or observed thereby increasing the energy
a single observation point.
It is a further object of my invention to pro [15 likely to return toward the observer. The scat
tering of high frequency energy after impinge-'
vide a novel method for obtaining an echo from
ment upon a distant surface increases rapidly
a distant surface.
with frequency. Accordingly it is important that
In accordance with my invention a high fre
extremely short wave lengths be employed. I
quency radio wave is employed in ascertaining
desired information with reference to the posi 20 have obtained extremely satisfactory results with
waves having a length of 4.8 centimeters.
tion, motion, etc. of a distant object, the high fre
These wavelengths are advantageous in the
quency wave being transmitted toward the distant
location, and observation of the movement of dis- ,
object and its echo being received and utilized
tant objects, such as moving craft, for example,
to produce the desired indication. One of the
objects of my invention is to effect certain im 25 since such craft possess surfaces small relative
to a wavelength, which are disposed at diverse
provements in equipment employed for such pur
angles with respect to the direction of propaga
poses whereby positive indication of the position
tion of such waves, and which, therefore, effec
of an object, its motion, velocity, etc. may be
tively scatter such radiation. Such surfaces may
obtained notwithstanding that the object is of
relatively small dimensions and is located at a 30 comprise the rails, lattice work or mesh about the
decks of a vessel, pipes, or chairs upon the decks,
great distance from the observation point.
or portions of the propellers, wheels, chassis,
In accordance with my invention radio waves
struts, etc. of aircraft. At the same time such
of extremely short wave lengths are employed.
craft also possess numerous plane, or nearly plane,
Important advantages may be secured by the use
of such waves,v ?rst because they may conven 35 or curve surfaces of large radius of curvature,
having dimensions large relative to a wavelength.
iently be directed against the desired object, and
My invention relates to high frequency radio
effectively received after impingement thereon,
and secondly, because their behavior after im
pingement upon the desired object lends itself
advantageously to securing a resultant echo in
the direction from which the waves arrive at the
,
Any such surface disposed at right angles to the
direction of propagation of waves impinging on
it reradiates said waves with a directivity pat
tern which is bisected by the direction of prop
agation of the impinging waves. This reradia
tion is highly directive if the surface has effec
tive lateral dimensions of from ?ve to ten times
the wavelength in the direction from which the
surface. That is, for example, in accordance with
the laws of re?ection the angle of incidence equals
the angle of re?ection. Accordingly, "if it be
assumed that the wave employed follows the laws 45 waves are received and thus is very effective in
the production of echoes. Of course, this direc
of re?ection and the transmitted wave impinges
tivity is reduced if the surface be of smaller di
upon a plane surface oblique to the direction of
mensions, the small surfaces tending as above, to
propagation of the wave little or no energy returns
scatter the radiation.
in the direction from which it came, but instead
While I have mentioned wavelengths of 4.8
practically all of the impinging energy travels in 50
centimeters, it will be understood that I am not
a direction determined by the angles of incidence
to be limited thereto'since these effects may be
and .re?ection. Accordingly, no satisfactory in
produced by waves of diiferent length in this
dication may be obtained at the transmitting
order. The 'wave length preferably, however,
point.
,
,
Of course, if there be irregularities in the sur 55 should not be less than two centimeters since for
9,412,081
.
3
.
shorter waves appreciable undesired scattering
may be produced by the surfaces of raindrops
that direction after being scattered by adis
tant object.
Transmitter l and receiver 2 are
or hailstones. At the same time I prefer to use
waves of not more than eight centimeters in
length since with such waves surfaces, on mov
supported upon a shaft 4 which is arranged for
. motion longitudinally of itself through a bearing
ing craft, for example, having dimensions suf?
ciently large relative to a wavelength to produce
sharply directive reradiation of energy impinging
lated in the direction in which waves are propa
member [whereby the equipment may be oscil
gated and received, for a purpose which will
presently be described.
‘
'
-
thereon, are more numerous, and hence are more
A vertical shaft 8, upon which is mounted the
likely to improve the echoes received. Such sur 10 bearing member 5, is rotatably mounted on base
faces may be highly important especially in the
3 through a ball thrust and guide bearing ‘I at
detection or observation of aircraft.
the top and by a guide bearing 8 at the bottom.
When employing waves of such wave length, ap
Ball thrust and guide bearing 1 comprises a bear
paratus may be employed which is small in dimen
ing plate 9 which forms the top of base 3, a shoul
sions and which at the same time is capable of 15 der III which constitutes the under surface of
efficiently directing the wave toward the desired
bearing block 5 and a plurality of ball bearings ll
object, and of receiving such waves only from a
placed therebetween.
particular direction as from the desired object.
Some suitable means for obtaining rotary mo?
Such apparatus may be mounted, for example, on
tion of the radio apparatus about the base is pro
moving craft without objectionable encumber~ 20 vided such as an electric motor l2 mounted on
ment and at the same time be capable of directing
the inner wall of base 3. As illustrated, the drive
a sharp beam of short radio waves over relatively
mechanism therefor comprises a small pinion gear
great distances. and obtain a satisfactory indi
l3 mounted on drive shaft l2’ of motor l2 which
cation therefrom.
It is to be understood that the term “radio echo” 25 meshes with a gear l4 mounted on shaft 6. The
electric supply and control circuit of motor I2 is
as used herein refers not only to a true echo as
omitted from the ‘drawing for the purpose of sim
may be obtained by propagating a high frequency
plicity but it will be understood that shaft 6 may
impulse and causing a portion of the impulse to
be continuously rotated or it may be moved from
be reflected to the transmitting point but also to
one angular position to another at the will of the
any continuous wave whether modulated or not
operator.
.
'
that may be propagated, scattered by an object
Oscillatory motion of the radio echo apparatus
and a portion returned to the transmitting point.
in the direction of propagation of waves on which
Similarly, the term “scattered radiation," when
it operates is provided by mounting a motor IS
employed herein with reference to the wave which
on top of bearing member 5. Motor i5 drives a
returns from a distant object to the receiver of
crank gear "3 which oscillates shaft 4 by means
my equipment, applies to all of the energy return
of connecting rod H. For purposes of simplicity
ing to the receiver irrespective of the cause of its
the electric supply and control circuit of motor
return, or whether it be due to scattering from
i5 is not illustrated but it will be understood that
the surface of the distant object, re?ection, or
otherwise.
40 motor l5 may run at the will of the operator.
A counterweight I8 is secured to one end of
The novel features which I believe to be char
shaft 4 to counterbalance the weight of transmit~
acterized of my invention are set forth with par
ter l and receiver 2 across the bearing 5.
ticuiarity in the appended claims. My invention
‘ itself, however, both as to its arrangement and
method of operation together with further ob
Jects and advantages thereof may best be under
stood by reference to the following description
taken in connection with the accompanying draw
ings in which Fig. 1 illustrates apparatus embody
ing my invention. Figs. 2 and 3 show diagram
matically electrical circuits which may be em
ployed with the apparatus of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 shows
diagrammatically the apparatus mounted on a
ship for the purpose of determining the bearing of
objects in the vicinity and Fig. 5 shows the bear
ing indicator screen. Figs. 6. 7, 8 and 9 are dia
grams illustrating the operating characteristics
Transmitter l and receiver 2 are mounted in a
frame 19 which is pivotally supported in a yoke
20 carried by shaft 4. Clamp 2i maintains the
apparatus at the desired angle with respect to the
vertical. By loosening clamp 2| and rotating
frame!!! about its axis the direction in which
radio waves are transmitted and received may be
varied in a vertical plane.
Transmitter I may be of any suitable design
which is capable of propagating a highly direc
tional high frequency beam of radio waves and
55 preferably a beam of radio waves having a wave
length of only a few centimeters. One form of
transmitting apparatus which has been found
‘
to give highly satisfactory results is described in
my copending application, Serial No. 61,377, ?led
mounted on two vessels and arranged so that each 60 January 29, 1936, and assigned to the same as
‘signee as the present application. For purposes
apparatus may distinguish between direct and
of simplicity the detailed construction of the
scattered radiation.
transmitting apparatus is not illustrated but it
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, I have
will be understood that the high frequency gen
shown therein a radio echo apparatus which com
erating apparatus is housed in compartment 22
prises a high frequency transmitter I of the type
which is supported on frame l9 below the radio
.which is adapted to transmit a beam of extremely
beacon 23. Radio beacon 23 comprises a para
short radio waves in the direction indicated by
bolic metal reflector 24 and a cylindrical metal
the arrow, and a receiver 2 which is adapted to
sleeve 25. The radiating member of transmit
receive such waves after they have been scattered
of the timing apparatus illustrated in Fig. 1.
Fig. 10 diagrammatically illustrates apparatus
or re?ected from a distant object. The trans 70 ter I (not shown in Fig. 1) is located at the
mitter and receiver are mounted upon a base 3
focus of parabolic reflector 24 to give the ap
and arranged for rotation around this base. In
paratus the desired directive properties.
.A small monitor receiver 26, whose function
short wave impulses may be transmitted in any
will hereinafter be described, is mounted in front
direction from the equipment and received from 75 of beacon 23. The control apparatus for moni
consequence thereof, a beam of short waves or
2,419,681
tor receiver 26 is housed in compartment 21 lo
cated at the rear of beacon 23.
’
2 ‘may be e?ected by any suitable system ca
pable of transmitting angular movements such
ceiving a high frequency radio wave from a sin- .
as by a transmitting device 58 and a reproduc
ing device 59 which are similar in construc
tion and are each provided with a polycircuit
gle direction. One form of receiver which has
been found to give highly satisfactory results is
armature winding and a single circuit ?eld wind
ing. When the polycircuit armature winding of
Receiver 2 of the radio echo apparatus may be
of any suitable design which is capable of re
each device is physically similar to a three-phase
Y or A connected armature winding, transmitting
the same assignee as the present application. 10 device 58 and reproducing‘ device\5ii, are con
nected together by three conductors 60, 6| and .
For purposes of simplicity the structural details
62 to like points on ‘their respective ‘armature
of receiver 2 are not illustrated but it will be
_ windings.
The ?eld windings are connected to
understood that the required high frequency ap
a suitable source of alternating current supply.
paratus is located within radio beacon 28. Beacon
28 comprises a parabolic metal re?ector 29 and 15 The field windings induce alternating electro
motive forces in their respective armature wind
a cylindrical metal sleeve 30. ' The antenna mem
ings the relative value of these electromotive
ber of the receiving apparatus (not shown in
- described in my copending application, Serial No.
61,378, ?led January 29, 1936, and assigned to
Fig. 1) is located at the focus of parabolic re?ec- ‘
forces depending upon the angular relation be- ‘
tween the ?eld and armature windings. When
tor 29 in order to give the apparatus the de
sired directive properties. The control appara 20 the rotors of the transmitting device and the re
producing device are in angular agreement, the
tus of receiver 2 is housed within compartment
electrotive forces induced in the two armature
3| located at the rear of beacon 28.
windings are nearly opposite and hence no cur
A pair of small metal re?ectors 32 and 33 are
mounted in front of transmitter I and receiver
2 on an adjustable rod 34. Re?ectors 32 and 33
are disposed at a 45° angle with respect to the
rent is produced in the armature circuit. How
ever, when the transmitting device is turned and
direction of propagation and reception whereby
longer exists so that currents are caused to ?ow
in the armature circuit and a torque is thereby
a small portion of the propagated wave is di
rectly passed to receiver 2 from transmitter I.
The phase, of course, of this transferred portion 30
of the propagated wave depends upon the length
of path traveled. Hence, the phase of this por
tion may be regulated by adjusting rod 36. In"
order that intensity may also be controlled some
suitable intensity control means, such as a metal\\
iris diaphragm 35 is disposed in the path of the ‘
directly re?ected wave between re?ector 32 and _
re?ector 33.
Since the radio echo apparatus is designed to
held in a new position, this voltage balance no
exerted upon the rotor of the reproducing device,
which torque turns it to a position in which the
voltages are again balanced when the rotors are
again in angular agreement.
Defiecting coils 56 and 51 are mounted upon a
yoke 63 which is disposed about cathode ray
tube 54 and is carried by the rotor of reproduc
ing device 59.
Coils 56 and 5? are electrically connected to
the apparatus associated with receiver 2 which is
housed in compartment 3i" through cable 66, slip
be rotated about the vertical axis of shaft 6, 40 rings 36 and 31, conductors 65 and 66, switch 61,
and slip rings 68 and 69. As will presently be
the various power supply circuits for transmit
explained, the apparatus in compartment 3!
ter 1 and receiver .‘ and the output circuits of
ampli?es the detected radio wave a sumcient
receiver 2 and monitor receiver 26 are brought
amount to cause coils 56 and 51 to affect the de
out through a plurality‘of slip rings 36, 3?, 38,
sired change in the electron path in cathode ray
39, 40, 4|, 62,143, 66 and 45.
tube 5%.
When water cooling is necessary for the high
After an object has been detected and its bear
frequency generating apparatus housed in com
ing determined by the radio echo apparatus, it is
partment 22, it may be supplied from a supply
often desirable to determine accurately its range.
pipe 46 to a channel ring Ill in the base of the
_ One method of determining the range of an ob
apparatus and thence through a passage 48 in
ject is to‘transmit a sharp high frequency radio
shaft 6 and ?nally through a ?exible conduit 69
to the high frequency generating apparatus. The
impulse and measure the time it takes the im
pulse to travel to the object and return.
cooling water is conveyed away from the generat
One form of timing circuit for effecting this
ing apparatus through a ?exible conduit 58, a
passage 5| in shaft 6, a collecting basin 52 in > measurement is indicated in the drawings and
base 3 and out through conduit 53.
comprises two electron discharge devices ‘i0 and
The bearing or angular position of any object
‘H. The anode of discharge device '10 is con- '
nected through a potentiometer ‘i2, and a cur
detected by the radio echo apparatus is obtained
by providing an instantaneous indication of the
rent indicating device ‘I3 to a suitable source of
direction of propagation and reception of the ap 60 positive potential. The anode of discharge device
paratus, whenever scattered radiation is detected
‘H is similarly connected through a resistor ‘I4
by receiver 2._ Any suitable indicating means
may be used, such for example, as a cathode
ray tube 54 of the type which normally provides
and a current indicating device 15 to the same '
source of positive potential. The cathodes of dis- .
charge devices 10 and ‘H are connected together
a continuous circular trace on its ?uorescent for 65 and to the negative side of the above potential
phosphorescent screen 55. A pair of coils 56 and
51 are mounted for rotation about the elongated
portion of cathode ray tube 54 and are adapted
to superimpose a magnetic de?ecting force upon
the stream of electrons as the electrons pass
through the length of the tube. Coils 56 and
57 are caused to rotate around cathode ray tube
54 synchronously with the rotational motion of
receiver 2 around base 3. The desired synchro
nization of motion of coils 56 and 51 with receiver 75
The grid of discharge device 10 is con
nected-through battery 16 to the plate of dis-.
charge device ‘H. The grid of discharge de
vice ‘H is connected to the plate of discharge
source.
device 10, through potentiometer ‘l2, movable
contact ‘H of potentiometer 1!, battery 18
and resistor 19. The grids and cathodes of dis-'
charge devices 10 and 1i are connected to the
apparatus associated with receiver 2 and trans
mitter I, respectively.
9,412,031
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7
i
It a negative impulse be impressed on the grid
charge device 82 comprising a long cylindrical
‘of discharge device ‘II each time a sharp high
metal anode 88 and a relatively short axial ?la
frequency impulse is propagated from transmitter
ment 84. Dischargedevice 82 is housed almost
I and if a negative impulse be impressed on the
entirely within axial apertures of two truncated
grid of discharge device 18 each time the re?ected 5 conical pole pieces 88 and 88 which are secured
impulse is detected by receiver 2, the average plate
to the ends of permanent magnet 8|, thereby
current flowing through either discharge device
causing an intense axial magnetic field to be pro
will be‘a function of the range of the object which
duced about the discharge device.
‘
causes scattering or re?ection of the transmitted
Filament 84 is maintained at the desired tem
impulse. The negative impulse derived from the 10 perature
for electron emission by a source of po
propagated high frequency wave is obtained from
tential 81 and a variable resistor 88.
a small monitor receiver 28 and its associated ap
Anode 88 is maintained at ground potential for
paratus housed in compartment 21 through cable
high frequency oscillations and is energized with
88, slip rings 88 and 88, conductors 8I and 82- and
positive operating potential through a switch 88
' switch 83 as will hereinafter be more fully de 15
from a suitable source I88. Filament 84 in con
; scribed in connection with Fig. 2. The negative
sequence thereof oscillates at an extremely high
impulse derived from the received re?ected im
frequency and the oscillations produced thereon
pulse is similarly obtained from the apparatus
housed in compartment 8i through cable 84, slip
are supplied to a suitable radiating member I8I.
rings 38 and 31, conductors 85 and 88, and switch 20 Means for modulating the high frequency oscil
lations is indicated conventionally by rectangle
88.
I82, and is adapted to be placed in operation by
In my copending ‘application, Serial No. 73,512,
connecting it in the high potential supply line
?led April 9, 1936, and assigned to the same as
by moving switch I88 to its lower position. For
signee as the present application, a method is de
scribed and claimed for determining the relative 25 reasons of simplicity the details of my oscilla
tion generator are not shown in the drawings.
velocities of two bodies. In that application a
When the oscillation generator is being used as
highly directional high frequency continuous
part of a radio echo apparatus for the accurate
radio wave is propagated from one body toward
determination of the range of a distant object,
the other and the difference in frequency between
theoscillation generator must be arranged to
the transmitted wave and received wave which 30
generate periodic high frequency impulses having
comes back to the ?rst body after being scattered
a duration preferably of the order of one micro,
by the second body is determined. The fact that
second. Any suitable means for obtaining im
there is a difference in frequency between the
pulses from the oscillation generator of Fig. 2
outgoing and returning wave is due to the relative
motion between the two bodies. According to 35 may be used.
By way of example, I have illustrated a relaxa
DOppler’s principle the difference in frequency be
tion oscillator, which periodically supplies a
tween the transmitted and received wave is a
sharp high potential impulse to anode 83 of the
function of the relative velocity of the two bodies.
oscillation generator. The oscillating-circuit in
The method of determining the difference in fre
quency between the transmitted and received 40 cludes an electron discharge device I84 of the
type which has an ionizable medium thereini.
wave as described in the above referred to co
The anode I85 of discharge device I84 is connect-v
pending application comprises beating the re
ed to the positive side of a suitable high potential
ceived wave with a portion of the transmitted
wave.
direct current source through a resistor I88 and
In Fig. 1 of the drawings I have indicated at 84
a beat frequency responsive device, mounted on
bearing member 5. This device is connected to
the receiver 2 through a switch 85,’ cable 86, and
cable 84.
A portion of the high frequency wave propa
gated from transmitter I and re?ected into re
ceiver 2 by re?ectors 32 and 33 is caused to beat
with the detected scattered radiation. It will be
understood that beat frequency responsive device
the primary winding I81 of the load transformer
I88. Cathode I89 of discharge device I84 is con
nected to the negative side of the potential source
through a variable charging resistor II8. A po
tentiometer III is connected across the potential
source and the movable contact III’ of poten
tiometer II I is connected to grid I I2 of discharge
device I84 through a resistor H8. The energy
storing condenser N4 of the impulse generator
is connected between the positive side of the po
tential source and cathode I88.
, 84 may be calibrated directly in miles per hour.
The upper side of secondary winding H5 is
Although the velocity of a moving object along
‘ the line of sight from the object to the receiving
connected to anode 83 of the oscillation generat
ing while the lower side of winding I I5 is ground
equipment may be determined from the beat fre- >
quency responsive device 84, it is impossible by
ed. A damping resistor I I6 is connected in shunt
this method alone to determine whether the ob 60 across secondary winding H5. The inductance
value of winding H5 is so chosen that the inher
ject is moving away from the observer or coming
towards him. By providing a pointer 81 on the
ent capacity of the magnetron (as indicated by
.\portion of the apparatus which is adapted to be
» the dotted lines) together with winding II5 have
oscillated by motor I5 and by securing a scale
a period substantially the same as the period of
88 on bearing member 5, a means for determining
the primary circuit.
the direction of motion along the line of sight is
Since the value of the average plate current
provided.
which ?ows in thedirect current back-coupled
In Fig. 2 of the drawings, I have illustrated dia
circuit shown in Fig‘. 1 varies inversely as the time
grammatically the electrical circuits associated
between impulses, it is desirable to have the pe
with transmitter I. The oscillation generator
riod of the relaxation oscillator (i. e., the time be
shown therein is described in detailv and claimed
tween impulses) as low as possible. This period,
in my copending application, Serial No. 61,377,
of course, varies as a function of the value of re
?ied January 29, 1936, and assigned to the same
sistance in resistor H8 and the capacitance of
assignee as the present application and includes
condenser II4. The lower limit is governed.
a permanent magnet 8I and an electron dis 75 largely by- the deionization time of electron dis
9,419,681
. one no is given a negative bias with respect to
charge. device I06. The time between impulses
cathode I68 through battery I12 and resistor I13.
is generally 4 or 5 times this deionization time.
Anode "I is connected to a suitable source of
Since it is also desirable to render the impulse .
potential through resistor I16. The output of
ble (preferably of the order of 1 micro second), 5‘ amplifier I66 is taken from across resistor I14
propagated from transmitter I as short as possi
through blocking condensers I15 and I16. The
number of stages of ampli?cation is chosen such
that a negative impulse derived in the output cir
cuit of the amplifier for the timing circuit of the
the discharge of condenser II6 should have a
steep wave front and be highly damped. 7 With-"
this type of discharge only the ?rst wave is of suf
?cient intensity to raiseanode 83 of the mag
netron to its operating potential.
-
10 range indicator.
‘
Serial No. 61,378, ?led January 29, 1936, and as- '
The lower portion of Fig. 3 shows the timing
circuit for the range indicator, the de?ecting
coils 58 and 51 of the bearing indicator, and the
beat frequency responsive device 84 of the velocity
indicator. This portion of the circuit of Fig. 3
has already been described in connection with
signed to the same assignee as the present appli
Fig. 1.
In Fig. 3 of the drawings. I have illustrated dia
grammatically the electrical circuits associated
with receiver 2 and monitor receiver 26. The re
ceivers illustrated therein are of the type de
scribed and claimed in my cope'nding application;
/
The e?ect of the above described apparatus
cation. Receiver 2 as shown comprises an elec
when being used as a means for determining
tron discharge device I2I having a U-shaped ?l
ament I22. a linear grid electrode I23 and a plate
electrode I25. Along side tube I25 with a getter
bulb 926 at the bottom is provided to take care
of the occluded gases of the device in the conven
tional manner. The ?lament, grid, and plate
leads I21, I28, and I29 are each provided with
the bearing of an object with respect to an obser
vation point is emphasized in Figs. 4 and 5 of the
drawings. Fig. 4 illustrates a ship I8I upon which
the apparatus has been mounted. Two objects
I82 and I86 are shown as being within the horizon
and hence cause scattered radiation when the
radio beam from transmitter I impinges on them.
Object I82 is illustrated as another ship while
object I83 is illustrated as an island.
Fig. 5 is a plan view of the screen 55 of cathode
ray tube 56. The circle I84 normally traced on
screen 55 by the electron beam within the tube is
an electrical tuning means such as metal disks
I30, I3I and I32, respectively. Grid electrode
I23 is given a positive bias with respect to ?la
ment I22 by 1a suitable source of potential I83
through potentiometer I36 and resistor~l35. A
second source of potential I36 supplies the ?la
bent in at I85 due to the presenceof ship I82.
The bearing of ship I82 indicated by the angle x
is clearly indicated On screen 55 by the depression
I85. The normal circle I86 is also bent in at
ment current necessary to heat ?lament I22 to its
desired electron emission point through variable
resistor I31. Plate electrode I26 may either be
' maintained at ?lament potential or given a nega
tive bias by battery I38 through potentiometer
I86 as a result of the scattered radiation caused
I39.
.'
Receiver 26 is similar to receiver 2 and in
by island I88 and its bearing is indicated by angle
B. Since the structure of ship I8I to the rear of
its own radio echo apparatus also causes scat
cludes an electron discharge device I66 whose
?lament, grid, and plate leads IAI, I82, and I63 40 tered radiation, circle I86 is bent at a bearing
corresponding‘ to the ‘position of the structure as
and are provided with suitable electrical tuning
at I 81. It should be noted that the farther away
means use, I55, and I66 respectively. Suitable
objects of a given size are from the observation
potential sources M1, I68, and I69 are provided
point, the narrower will be the marking trace
for the ?lament grid and plate electrodes (not
shown) of discharge device I40, A variable re
on screen 55.
-
The operation of my echo apparatus when used
for the purpose of obtaining useful information
as to the position and motion of an object from
a single observation point will now be described.
sistor 150 connected in the ?lament supply cir
cuit controls the ?ow of ?lament current while
potentiometers I5I and I52 regulate the poten
tial bias on the grid and plate electrodes. respec
tively. A resistor I53 is also connected in the 50 Let us assume that the apparatus is mounted on
board ship I8I. Switch 98 (Fig. 2) is thrown
grid circuit.
.
'
Receiver 2 is resistance coupled by resistor I85 ' to its upper position thusv connecting the high
voltage source I08 to anode 93 of electron dis
‘and capacitor I56 to an ampli?er I55 which in
charge device 92 and switch I08 is closed in its
cludes one or more stages. For purposes of sim
plicity, only one stage of ampli?cation is illus
55
lower position, thereby connecting'modulating
trated and it includes an electron'discharge de
means I02 to the high voltage supply source I00.
vice I56 having a cathode I51, a grid I58, and
an anode I59. Grid I58 is given a negative bias
with respect to cathode I51 through battery I68
As a result, a high frequency modulated radio
beam is propagated from transmitter I. Cathode
ray tube 55 and its associated apparatus is con
and resistor I6I. Anode I59 is connected to a 60 nected to receiver 2 upon closure of switch 61
(Fig. 3). Motor I2 is energized and as a result
suitable source of high potential through a re-_
transmitter I and receiver 2 are rotated in a
sistor I62. The output of'the ampli?er I55 is
horizontal plane, thereby causing the echo appa
taken from across resistor I62 through blocking
ratus to scan the horizon for the presence of
condensers I63 and I66. Since the polarity of the
.
output depends upon whether there is an odd 65 objects.
If, for example, a ship I82 and an island I83
or even number of stages of ampli?cation, the
I be within the operating range of the echo ap
proper number is selected to obtain a negative
paratus, scattered radiation occurs each time the
impulse when receiver 2 is connected to the tim
high frequency radio beam impinges on the ship
ing circuit of the range indicator.
Receiver 26 is similarly coupled to an ampli?er 70 and on the island. A portion of the scattered
radiation is detected by receiver 2 and the de
I66 by resistor I53 and capacitor I61. Ampli?er
I56 may contain any number of stages ‘for pur
poses of simplicity, only one stage is shown which
includes an electron discharge device I68 hav
modulated wave, ampli?ed by amplifier I55, ener
gizes de?ecting coils 56' and 51, thereby causing
depressions I85 and I86 in the normally circular
ing a cathode I69, a grid I10 and an anode HI. 75 trace made on screen 55 of cathode ray tube 54.
2,412,681
'
11
It will of course be understood that if there is no
detector action in the last stage of ampli?er I55,
the deflections will extend in both directions from
the normal trace (as is indicated by the dotted
lines in Fig. 5) since the polarity of coils 56 and
51 would then be reversing at modulating fre
quency. Since de?ecting coils 56 and 51 follow
the angular motion of transmitter I and receiver
2 due to the‘angle transmitting devices 58 and
-
12
cathode I09 is more positive than anode I05 (i.
e., the anode is negative with respect to the cath
ode). Since current cannot pass from the cath
ode to the anode of the discharge device due to
its rectifying property, this condition exists until
' the condenser H4 ‘is recharged in its original di
rection through resistance I I0.
It should be noted that in this type of impulse
generator which uses a potentiometer across the
59, the bearing of ship I02 and the bearing of 10 high potential source in order to supply the de
island I03 are given by the angularposition at
sired grid bias that ?uctuations of the potential
which the de?ections I85 and I86 respectively
source cause very little error in the impulsing
occur on screen 55. Since the intensity of scat
time of the generator.
'
tered radiation as detected by receiver 2 is rough
The sharp impulses generated by the relaxa
ly proportional to the distance at which the ob 15 tion oscillator are supplied through secondary
ject is from the observation point, the approxi
winding I I5 of the load transformer I08 to anode
mate range of ship I02 and island I83 may be
03 of the oscillation generator of transmitter I.
vobtained by noting the amplitude of the respec
In consequence thereof, a series of high frequency
tive de?ections on screen 55.
sharp impulses are propagated from transmit
If the distant object is in motion, the bearing 20 ter I.
indicator may also be operated by placing switch
At the instant when a high frequency impulse
I03 in its upper position so that an unmodulated
is sent out from transmitter I electron discharge
continuous wave is transmitted from transmitter
device ‘II is biased substantially to cut-oil’ and
I and by adjusting diaphragm 35 (Fig. 1) so that
a portion of the transmitted wave beats with the
received wave.
The resulting beat frequency is
then used in the same manner as the demodu
lated wave previously described to energize the
de?ecting coils 56 and 57.
Let us now assume that it is desired to deter
mine accurately the range of ship I02. Motor I2
is deenergized and the echo apparatus is directed
toward ship I 82. Switch 67 is opened and switch
83 is closed, thereby connecting the timing cir
electron discharge device ‘I0 is biased to pass its
maximum value of plate vcurrent. During the
time the impulseis traveling to the object and
returning, discharge devices ‘I0 and "II remain in
this condition. The instant scattered radiation
is detected by receiver 2, the bias on discharge
device ‘I0 is changed due to the negative im
pulse impressed on the grid of that device from
receiver 2. As a result, the current ?ow in the
plate circuit of discharge device ‘I0 drops sub
’ stantially to zero.
same instant the bias
cuit to receiver 2 and monitor receiver 26. Switch 35 on discharge deviceAtIIthe
is changed through its '
99 is thrown to its lower position thereby con
necting the-relaxation oscillator to anode 93 of
electron discharge device 92.
grid coupling circuit due to the fact that there
' is no longer a potential drop across resistor ‘I2.
Hence, the maximum current now ?ows in the
The operation of the relaxation oscillator or
plate circuit of this device.
impulse generator will be described ?rst. Let us 40
The operation of the timing circuit will be
assume that the oscillator has Just been con
more readily understood by referring to Figs. 6,
nected to its source of potential. The cathode
7, and 8 of the drawings. Curve a of the ?gure
I09 of discharge device I04 is practically at the
indicates the flow of plate current in discharge
potential of anode I05 since the charge of con
device ‘II and curve b the plate current in dis
denser I I4 is zero and grid I I2 is negative by the 45 charge device ‘I0 when no echo is being picked
amount of drop between the positive side of po
up by the apparatus. The dots d1, dz, d3 indi
tentiometer III and movable contact III’.
cate' a succession of impulses sent out from trans‘
Therefore, discharge device I04 remains non~con
mitter
I at intervals determined by the constants
ducting while condenser II 4 charges up through
. of the relaxation oscillator circuit.
resistance I_I0 until the cathode potential of the 50
Let us now assume that an object intercepts
discharge device has fallen to such a value that
the high frequency impulses being propagated
the grid to cathode potential is equal to the
from transmitter I at a distance which causes
critical grid voltage of the discharge device. At
the returning scattered radiation to reach re
this moment, the gas within the discharge device
ceiver 2 at a time t after each impulse is sent
becomes ionized and the condenser discharges
out. Such a condition is shown in .Fig. 7 of the
through primary winding I01, resistor I06 and
drawings. t ‘seconds after impulse d1 is sent
discharge device I04. The discharge current
out,
the returning detected wave triggers the two
which passes through discharge device I04 does
discharge devices, causing device 1| to draw its
not cease at the instant when the'condenser II4
maximum current and causing device ‘I0 to draw
becomes discharged due to the inductance of pri 60 its minimum current. This is shown by curves
mary winding I01 which causes the condenser to
a and b respectively in Fig. 7.
’
'
be charged with the opposite polarity. A cer
Discharge device ‘II continues to pass current
tain amount of energy is stored up in winding
until a succeeding high frequency impulse is sent
I01 and as the current diminishes the collapsing
out from transmitter I. As the succeeding im
?ux induces an electromotive force which causes 65 pulse is transmitted, monitor receiver 26 detects
the current to charge the lower plate of con
a portion of the outgoing wave and impresses a
denser II4 to a potential greater than that of
negative impulse on the grid of discharge device
the line. In other words the polarity of the con
‘II. The negative impulse thus impressed on the
denser is reversed from its original state. If
grid
of discharge device ‘II changes the bias to
there were no damping in the circuit, the poten 70 cut-o? and current ceases to ?ow in the plate
tial on the lower plate of the condenser would ap
circuit thereof. As discharge device ‘II stops con
proach twice the line voltage minus the drop
ducting the grid of discharge device ‘I0 is again
across the discharge device when the current
given a su?iciently positive bias to cause current'
?nally falls to zero. In consequence thereof, at
to ?ow again in the plate circuit of this device.
the moment when the current ceases to flow, 75 This condition is clearly illustrated by the curves
9,412,681»
i3
-
14
in Fig. '7. As previously explained, the average
motion of ship I82 along the line of sight is de
plate current ?owing through either discharge -
termined.
device ‘II and discharge device ‘I0 may be used to
determine the elapsed time of the impulse and
hence the distance of the object. Assuming that
indicating device ‘I5 has been calibrated to read
directly in units of distance the range of ship I82
will be indicated thereon.
'
It will be understood that once the line of sight
velocity, the direction of motion along the line
of sight, and the range has been determined, it
is a simple matter to determine the actual ve
locity and true direction of motion by comput
ing the component of motion perpendicular to the
line of sight from the angular speed of the ap
If it should happen that two echoes are sent»
back from a single outgoing impulse, an inspec 10 paratus which is needed to maintain an echo.
Knowing the line of sight velocity of the object
tion of Fig. 8 will show that only the arrival of
and the velocity normal to the line of sight, it
the ?rst echo, if su?icie'ntly intense to carry the
is a simple matter to compute the true velocity
grid of discharge device 18 negativais effective.
and direction of the distant object. If the ob-‘
The arrival of the second negative impulse from
the more distant echo merely impresses a second 15 servation point is also in motion it is necessary
to take into account the velocity and direction of
negative impulse on the grid of discharge device
18 which is already negative.
Since discharge
motion of the observation point.
7
When high frequency echo apparatus is mount
device ‘II is already drawing maximum plate cur
ed on a number of vessels navigating in the same
rent and since discharge device ‘III is already draw
ing minimum plate current, the arrival of the 20 vicinity and are operating on the same wave '
.length, it is desirable that apparatus mounted
“second echo has no effect on the timing circuit.
Fig. 9 is a chart which illustrates the relation
on one vessel be able to distinguish between scat- .
tered radiation resulting from its own propagated
of average plate current in discharge device ‘II
wave and the direct radiation coming from ap
with respect to the distance of the object.
The range and bearing of ship I82 having been 25 paratus mounted on another vessel but pointed
toward the first. It has been found that such a
determined, the relative velocity of the ship along
result may be obtained if each apparatus propa
the line of sight may next be determined. By
gates a wave po1arized\ at some predetermined
opening switch 83 and closing switch 85 in the
angle from the vertical. -The nearer this angle
receiver circuit and by moving switch 99 to its
upper position and moving switch I03 to its up 30 is to 45° the greater will be the discriminating
properties of the apparatus, as will presently be
' per position in the transmitter circuit, a high
explained.
'
frequency continuous wave is propagated from
In Fig. 10, I have illustrated diagrammatically
transmitter I and a_ portion of the scattered ra
two radio echo equipments I and II, which are
diation caused by the impingement of the high
frequency wave on ship I82 will be detected by 35 mounted, for example, on two ships facing each
other and have indicated by suitable vectors their
receiver 2. A small portion of the propagated
respective planes of polarization. For reasons
wave is passed directly‘from transmitter I to re
of simplicity, only the transmitter and receiver
ceiver 2 by re?ectors 32 and 33. Iris diaphragm
of each equipment together with an auxiliary re
35 is opened a sufficient amount to pass a wave
ceiver whose function will presently be explained,
of the desired intensity. This portion of the
transmitted wave is caused to beat with the re
ceived detected scattered radiation in discharge
are shown in this ?gure. Transmitters T1 and T11
are each adapted topropagate a high frequency
radio beam whose 'plane of polarization is at 45°
device I2I. The resulting beat oscillation is am
to the right of the vertical in the direction of
pli?ed by ampli?er I55 and is then passed to
frequency responsive device 84.v The difference 45 propagation. This may be. done, for example, by
arranging the radiating member of the transmit
in frequency between the outgoing and the re
ter so that it lies in the plane of the desired
ceived Wave depends upon the relative velocity
polarization. The plane of polarization of trans
of ship I82 along the line of sight and hence the
mitter Tr (i. e., the electric field of the radiated
velocity may be read directly by properly cali
brating beat frequency responsive device 85. Of 50 _ wave) is indicated by vector I89 and that of TH
by vector I90. Receiver R1 of apparatus I is‘
course, if the object be standing still no beat fre;
polarized by suitably positioning the antenna
quency is detected.
The direction'of motion of ship I82 along the _
member or members in the same plane as its asso
ciated transmitter, as is indicated by vector I9I.
line of sight is next determined by energizing mo
tor I5. The oscillatory motion of transmitter 55 Receiver R11 is similarly polarized as is indicated
by vector I92. Let us now assume that a high
i and receiver 2 along the line of sight causes an
frequency radio beam is being propagated from
oscillation of the pointer on beat frequency re
each transmitter. The wave propagated from
sponsive device 84 due to the fact that the point
transmitter TI ‘is scattered by the vessel on which
with reference to which the velocity of the dis
tant object is to be determined is no longer sta 60 apparatus II is mounted and a portion of the scat
tered radiation will be detected by receiver R1.
tionary. If the object, whose direction of motion
Since very- short waves are used, the plane of
is to be determined, be moving away from the
polarization is not changed by the scattering and
apparatus a minimum of frequency occurs during
hence, the detected scattered radiation will have
the forward motion of the apparatus. If the ob
ject be moving toward the observer, 2. maximum 65 the‘ same plane of polarization as. that of the
of frequency occurs during the forward motion
transmitted Wave. Furthermore, since receiver
of the apparatus. If the object be standing still
R: is a polarized receiver it will not be able to
the frequency is the same during each direction
detect direct radiation from transmitter Tn since
of motion of the apparatus. The presence of the
this radiation is polarized at 90° from the plane
beat note, in any case, of course, indicates the 70 of polarization of=._receiver R1 due to the fact
presence of the object in the path of the radiated
that transmitter II and receiver I face each‘other.
waves. Thus, by watching pointer 81 which in
It will be observed that when transmitter T11 and
dicates the oscillatory motion of transmitter I and
receiver- R1 are both pointing in the same direc
receiver 2 and by watching the pointer on beat
tion their respective planes of polarization coin
frequency responsive device 84’ the direction of 75 cide. Similarly, receiver Rn will be able to detect
2,412,081
-
16
15
scatteredi radiation resulting from the impinge
ment of the wave propagated from transmitter
While I have shown a particular embodiment
of my invention, it will of course be understood
that I do not wish to be limited thereto since
Tu which is scattered from the vessel on which
apparatus I is mounted but it will not be able to
many modi?cations may be made both in the
detect direct radiation from transmitter Tr. If 5 circuit arrangement and in the instrumentalities
the planes of ‘polarization of the apparatus are
so chosen that they are, for example, at 30°vfrom
the vertical, direct radiation from one transmit
ter appears only 60" out of coincidence with the
plane of polarization‘ of the other receivers. It
is thus apparent that by simply polarizing the
apparatus on all vessels at some predetermined
angle from the vertical, (preferably 45° since this
angle is obviously the only angle which will give
complete discrimination), each apparatus will be
able to distinguish between scattered radiation
employed. and I therefore contemplate by the
appended claims to cover all such modi?cations
as fall within the true spirit and scope of my in
vention.
'
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent 01' the United States is:
1. In an apparatus for determining the direc
tion of an object from an observation point, the
combination comprising a radio echo scanning
apparatus, means to rotate said apparatus there
by to scan a distant object whereby an echo is
received in said apparatus when said apparatus
resulting from its own propogated wave and di
rect radiation resulting from the propagated wave
during said rotation is directed toward said dis
of a second apparatus which is facing the ?rst.
tant object, a cathode ray oscillograph of the
It, is sometimes desirable to provide an addi
type having a stream of electrons which nor
tional receiver with each apparatus which is
mally traces a predetermined path on the oscil
polarized at the angle with respect to the ver
lograph screen, and means operable synchro
tical equal and opposite to the angle of the asso
nously with the movement of said scanning ap
ciated echo apparatus in order that direct radia
paratus for de?ecting said stream of electrons
tion from a second apparatus which is facing the 25 from its normal path at a point thereon corre
?rst may be detected with maximum ei?cienec'y.
sponding to the direction in which said scanning
I have indicated such a receiver with apparatus
apparatus is directed when said echo is received.
I as Pr and such a receiver with apparatus II as
2. The combination in a radio echo scanning
Prr. Their planes of polarization are indicated
apparatus, of means to rotate said apparatus
by vectors I93 and I94 respectively.
30 thereby to scan a distant surface by a beam of
While I have described a preferred embodiment
waves rotated about a predetermined position
of my invention many modifications will, of
from which said beam is projected and to receive
course. suggest themselves to those skilled in the
said waves when re?ected from said distant sur
art. For example, when the echo apparatus is
' face, an indicating device, means responsive to
being used to determine the presence of a distant
said re?ected waves received in said scanning
object, or the direction of motion of an object
apparatus to control said indicating device, and
along the line of sight, a re?ector (not shown)
means movable synchronously with the move
mounted at an angle in front of transmitter I
ment of said scanning apparatus to control said
and receiver 2 may be oscillated or vibrated in
last-named means in accordance with the direc
order to provide the desired rate of change of path 40 tion in which said scanning apparatus is directed
length of the high frequency wave rather than
when said re?ected waves are received.
oscillating transmitter l and receiver 2 them
3. The combination, in a radio echo apparatus,
selves.
I
'
of means to radiate periodic high frequency im
It will also occur to those skilled in the art that
pulses toward a distant surface and to receive
echo apparatus of the type described may be used 45 said impulses after impingement on said surface,
for harbor protection in the place of a beam of
means to measure the time interval between
light and a light responsive cell by simply mount
transmission and reception of the respective im
ing the apparatus on one shore and pointing it
pulses, said means comprising an electron dis
across the harbor. Whenever a vessel intercepts
charge device, means to change the current in
the beam of the echo apparatus, a depression of 50 said discharge device from one of two predeter
greater depth than that caused by the opposite
mined values to_ the other when any impulse is
shore appears on screen 55 of the cathode ray
transmitted and to return said current from
tube 54, or its presence and distance may be de
. said other predetermined value to said one pre
terminated by the range indicator.
'
Although I have described as the preferred em- .
determined value when the respective impulse
is received, and means to measure the average
bodiment of my invention, the use of high fre
value of said current, whereby the average value
quency apparatus which includes not only a
of ‘said current is dependent upon the distance
highly directive transmitting unit but also a
to said object.
highly directive receiving unit, it will be under
4. In an apparatus for ‘determining the dis
stood that only one of the units need have highly 60 tance of an object, the combination, comprising
directive properties; If a highly directive trans
means for periodically propagating a. high fre
mitter is used in conjunction with a non-direc
quency radio impulse toward said object, means
tive receiver, the radiated waves impinge upon
for receiving scattered radiation resulting from
only a small area of the distant object and hence
the impingement of said impulse on said object,
scattering and re?ection occurs only from that 65 means for measuring the elapsed time between
small area, and the apparatus‘ as a whole main
transmission and reception of said impulse, said
tains its ‘requisite directional properties. If a
timing means including an electron discharge
highly directive receiver be used in conjunction
device normally biased substantially to cut-oil.
with a non-directional transmitter, scattering
a second electron ‘discharge device normally
and re?ection occurs over a large area of the ref 70 biased to pass current, means responsive to said
erence body but since the receiver is only respon
received scattered radiation for rendering said
sive to the scattering and re?ection which occurs
?rst discharge device substantially non-conduct
at a small spot on the surface of the reference
ing, means responsive to a transmitted impulse
body, the apparatus as a whole maintains its
for changing the bias on said discharge devices
requisite directional properties.
75 to their original state, and means for indicat
aerator
-
i?
ing the average current flowing through one of
said discharge devices.
i
die waves toward a distant moving surface, means
to receive said waves after re?ection thereof from
said surface, and means responsive to the fre
>
5. In apparatus for determining from an ob
servation point the direction of motionv of a mov
quency of the received wave to indicate the ac
ing object along the line of sight, the combina-.
tual velocity at a given. instant of the distant
tion of means for transmitting a high frequency
wave toward said object, means for receiving
said wave after impingement on said object,
means for increasing and decreasing the length
of path traveled by said wave, and means for 10
indicating whether the greatest difference in fre
quency between the transmitted and received
object.
13. In combination, means to project short ra
dio waves toward a distant moving surface, means
to receive said waves after re?ection thereof from
said surface, means to move at least one of said
?rst-named and last-named means along the line
of sight between the said one means and said sur
face, and means responsive to the frequency of
the wave received by said receiving means during
wave occurs on an increasing or decreasing path
length.
6. In'radio echo apparatus, the combination 35 motion of said one means, to indicate the ve
comprising means for obtaining a radio echo ‘ locity of the distant surface.
from a moving object, means for determining
14. In combination, a radio echo scanning ap
the actualpvelocity at a given instant of said
paratus, means to rotate said apparatus‘thereby
object along the line of sight between said ap
to scan a distant area for surfaces producing paratus and said object, and means utilizing said 20 echoes in said apparatus, an‘ indicating device,
last means for determining the direction of mo-,=
means responsive to an echo received in said
tion of said object along said line of sight.
scanning apparatus to control said indicating de
'7. In apparatus for ascertaining information
vice, and means operable synchronously with the
about an object, the combination comprising
movement of said scanning apparatus to control
means for obtaining a radio echo from said 25 said last means thereby to vary the indication
object, means responsive to said echo to indicate
produced by said indicating device in accordance
the direction of said object from said apparatus
with the direction in which said scanning device
and its actual velocity at a given instant in said
is directed when said echo is received.
I
direction.
15. In combination, a radio echo scanning ap
8. In'radio echo apparatus, the combination 30 paratus, means to rotate said apparatus thereby
of means for transmitting a high frequency wave
to scan a distant area for surfaces producing
to an object to be located, means for obtaining
echoes in said apparatus, a cathode ray 0scillo~
a radio echo of said wave from said object, means
graph, means responsive to an echo received in
responsive to said echo for determining the an
said scanning apparatus from'a distant surface
gular position of said object with respect to said 35 to in?uence the cathode ray of said oscillograph,
apparatus, and means responsive to a beat fre
and means operable synchronously with the move
quency of said'wave and said echo for deter
ments of said scanning apparatus to control said
mining the direction ‘of motion of said object
along the line between said apparatus and said
object.
_
'
last means thereby to control said oscillograph
40 in accordance with the direction in which said
scanning apparatus is directedwhen said echo
9. In radio echo apparatus, the combination
of means for obtaining a radio echo from a dis
tant object, means responsive to said echo for
is received.
to an observation point the direction and line of
indicating the angular position of said object,
means responsive to said echo for determining
sight velocity of a distant surface which in
the actual line of sight velocity at a given instant
of said object, and means=responsive to said echo
for determining the direction of motion of said
object along the line of sight.
10. The combination comprising radio echo ap 50
paratus mounted on one body, a second radio
,
16. The method of determining with reference
cludes scanning said surface with an electromag~ netic wave radiated from said point having di.
mensions such that component surfaces of said
surface normal to the direction of propaga
tion of said electromagnet waves reradiate said
wave with high directivity in the direction from
which they arrive at said surfaces and such that
echo apparatus mounted on a second body, said
apparatus being capable of orientation toward _» said waves are effectively scattered by other com- ->
ponents of said surface thereby producing ad
each other, said ?rst-named apparatus, being po
larized at a predetermined angle from the vertical 65 ditional reradiation in said direction, receiving a '
portion of said reradiation at said point, utilizing
and said second-named apparatus being polarized
at said point said portion to indicate directly said
at substantially an angle from the vertical equal
direction of said surface from said observation
and opposite to said predetermined angle when
point, and beating at said point said radiated
said two apparatus are oriented toward each other
whereby each of said apparatus receives radia 60 wave and said reradiation to indicate said line of
sight velocity of said surface.
'
tion resulting from its own propagated wave after
1'7. The method of determining with reference
impingement upon a distant surface and rejects
to an observation point the direction and line of
direct radiation coming from the other of said
sight velocity of a distant surface which includes
apparatus, and additional means positioned near
said ?rst apparatus for detecting only said direct 65 scanning said surface with electromagnetic waves
radiated from’ said point having dimensions such
radiation from the transmitter of said second ap
that component surfaces of said surface normal
to the direction of propagation of said electro
11. In combination, means to project short
magnetic waves have effective lateral dimensions
radio waves toward a‘ distant moving surface,
means to receive said waves after re?ection there 70 several times the wavelength of said waves and
paratus.
of from said surface, and local means respon
sive to a beat frequency of a portion of said pro
jected waves and said received waves to indicate
' hence reradiate said waves with high directivity
in the direction from which they arrive at said
surface, utilizing at said point a portion of said
,reradiated waves to indicate directly said direc
the direction of motion of the distant surface.
12. In combination, means to project short ra 75 tion, and heating at said point a portion‘ of said
2,412,631
19
20
'
indicate said line of sight velocity.
18. The method of determining with reference
waves to the receiver through a local path of
controllable length, combining waves received
through said local path with waves received from
" to an observation point the direction and line of
the distant surface, and varying the length of
sight velocity of a distant surface which includes
one of said paths.
25. In combination, a short wave directive
radiated waves and of said reradiated waves to
scanning said surface with electromagetic waves
radiated from said point having a wave length
transmitter, a short wave directive interceptor,
said transmitter and interceptor being positioned
su?iciently short that any component portion dis
posed at right angles to the direction of impinge
together, and oriented at a distant object so that
ment of said electromagnetic waves on said sur
waves radiated from the transmitter are inter
face reradiates said waves by reason of its large
dimensions with respect to said wavelength with
a sharply directive radiation pattern, said pat
tern being substantially bisected by said direc
tion, the sharpness of directivity of said pattern
being dependent upon the dimensions of said
component portion relative to said wavelength,
utilizing at said point a portion of said reradiated
waves to indicate directly said direction, and
beating at said point a portion of said radiated 20
cepted by said interceptor after re?ection from
the distant object, said transmitter and inter
ceptor being shielded from each other, re?ecting
waves and of said reradiated waves to indicate
means located in close proximity to said trans
mitter and interceptor and positioned to re?ect
energy radiated from the transmitter to the in
terceptor to combine therein with energy received
from the distant object.
26. In combination, a short wave directive
transmitter, a short wave directive interceptor,
said transmitter and interceptor being positioned ,
together and oriented at a distant object, so that
waves radiated from the transmitter are inter
said line of sight velocity.
19. The method of determining with reference
cepted by said interceptor after re?ection from
to an observation point the direction and line of
sight velocity of a distant surface which includes 25 the distant object, said transmitter and inter
ceptor being shielded from each other, re?ecting
scanning said surface with a radio wave having
means located in close proximity to said, trans
a wavelength of the order of ?ve centimeters, re
mitter and interceptor and positioned to re?ect
ceiving at said point a portion of said wave re
energy radiated from the transmitter into the
?ected from said surface, utilizing at said point a
portion of said re?ected wave to indicate directly 30 interceptor to combine therein with energy re
ceived from the distant object, and a shield var
said direction, and beating at said point a por
iably positioned in the path of waves received on
tion of said radiated wave and of said re?ected
said interceptor through re?ection from said re
- wave to indicate said line of sight velocity.
20. The method of determining with reference
?ector to vary the amount of said waves so re
to an observation point the direction and line
ceived from said transmitter.
27. The method of reception of waves radiated
of sight velocity of a distant surface. which in
by a transmitter and received by a receiver after
cludes scanning said surface with a radio wave
having a wavelength not greater than eight cen
traversing a path to a distant re?ecting surface,
which comprises transmitting a part of the ra
timeters nor less than two centimeters, receiving
at said point a portion of said wave re?ected from 40 diated waves to the receiver through a local path
of controllable length, combining waves received
said surface, utilizing at said point a portion of
through said local path with waves received from
said re?ected wave to indicate directly said di
rection, and beating at said point a portion of said
the distant surface, and producing a beat note
radiated wave and of said re?ected wave to indi
in said receiver between the waves received over
cate said line of sight velocity.
‘
said two paths by variation of the length of one
21. The method of reception of waves radiated
of said paths.
28. The method of determining the relative
by a transmitter and received by a receiver after
velocity of two bodies which includes radiating
re?ection from a distant surface, which com
high frequency electromagnetic waves from one
prises producing a beat note between the radi
ated and received waves by- locally re?ecting a
body toward the other, receiving said waves on
said one body after re?ection from said other
part of the radiated waves into the receiver and
35
varying the length of the path traveled by said
body, and determining said relative velocity from
, locally re?ected Waves to vary the frequency of
the frequency of the received waves.
29. The method of determining the relative ve
locity of two bodies which includes radiating
such wavesas received in the receiver.
22. In combination, a transmitter, a receiver,
said receiver being arranged to receive waves from
the transmitter after re?ection from a distant
high frequency electromagnetic waves of substan
tially constant frequency from one body toward
the other, receiving said waves on said one body
surface, a re?ector mounted locally with respect
after re?ection from said other body, causing
to said transmitter and receiver to re?ect waves
from the transmitter to the receiver, and means 60 said received waves to beat with the radiated
waves to produce a beat note having a frequency
to move the re?ector to vary the frequency of the
dependent upon said relative velocity, and deter
re?ected waves as received in the receiver.
mining said relative velocity from the frequency
23. In combination, a short wave radiator, a
short wave interceptor, shielding means to pre
of the beat note.
30. Apparatus for determining the relative
vent waves radiated by said radiator from being 65
intercepted by said interceptor except when prop
velocity of two bodies including means mounted
agated over a predetermined path disposed wholly
on one of said bodies for propagating an elec
tromagnetic high frequency radio wave of sub
in proximity to said radiator and interceptor, and
means to vary the length of said path thereby
stantially constant frequency toward the other
to vary the phase with which energy propagated 70 of said bodies, and means on said ?rst body re
thereover arrives at said interceptor.
sponsive to the frequency or the scattered radia
24. The method of reception of waves radiated
tion resulting from the impingement of said wave
on said second body for indicating the relative
by a transmitter and received by a receiver after
velocity of said bodies.
traversing a path to a distant re?ecting surface
which comprises re?ecting a part of the radiated 75
31. Apparatus for determining the relative
I 2,412,681
21
22
velocity of two bodies comprising means mounted
on one of said bodies for propagating a wave
means to supply said received echo from said
scanning apparatus to said cathode ray oscillo
of substantially constant radio frequency toward
the other of said bodies, means responsive to
scattered radiation resulting from the impinge
graph to cause a de?ection of the electron beam
thereof, and means to control said cathode ray
oscillograph in accordance with the movement of
ment of said wave on 'said second body, and means
said scanning apparatus to cause. said de?ection '
for determining the difference in frequency. be
to correspond with the direction from which said
tween said transmitted wave and said received
echo is received.
wave thereby to determine the relative velocity
36. In an apparatus for determining the direc
of said bodies.
10 tion of an object from an observation point, the
32. The method of determining the relative
combination of a radio echo scanning apparatus,
velocity of two bodies which includes radiating
means to rotate said apparatus thereby to scan
a high frequency electromagnetic wave from one
a distant object whereby an echo is received in
of said bodies toward the other, receiving on one -
said apparatus when said apparatus during its
of said bodies that portion of said wave which 15 rotation is directed toward said distant object,
is re?ected from substantially a single point on
a cathode ray oscillograph, means to produce
said other body and determining said relative
an indication on said oscillograph of the direc
velocity from the frequency of the received wave.
tion from which said echo is received, said last
33. The combination in a system for deter
means including means to control said oscillo
mining the relative velocity of two bodies, of 20 graph in accordance with the movement of said
scanning apparatus, and means to control said
means for radiating electromagnetic oscillations
of substantially constant frequency from one of
said bodies toward the other and for receiving
oscillograph by the echo received in‘ said scan
ning apparatus.
37. In combination, a radio echo scanning ap
tion from the other body, said means having 25 paratus, means to rotate said‘apparatus thereby
._ said oscillations on said one body after re?ec
such directive properties that only waves re
to scan a distant area for surfaces producing
?ected from substantially a single point on ‘said
echoes in said apparatus, an indicating device,
other body are received on said one body, and
means responsive to the frequency of said re
means responsive to an echo received in said
relative velocity.
the movement of said scanning apparatus to
scanning apparatus to control said indicatingv
ceivedwaves to operate in accordance with said 80 device, and means operable synchronously with
-
s 34. Radio apparatus comprising in combina
tion, a pair of focussed beam antennae, means
for continuously varying the orientation of the
‘directional axes of said antennae while main 85
taining substantial parallelism between said
axes, means for emitting ultra short wave energy
vary the indication produced by said indicating
device in accordance with the direction in which
said scanning device is directed when said echo
is received.
-
.
38. The combination, in a radio echo scanning
apparatus, of means to rotate said apparatus
thereby to scan a distant area by a beam of
from one of said antennae, a receiver connected
waves rotated about a predetermined position
to the other of said antennae and responsive to
such of said energy as may be re?ected by a dis 40 from which said beam is projected and to receive
tant object, means connected to said receiver
said waves when re?ected from surfaces in said
for producing a graphic indication of its re
area, a cathode ray device having a viewing
sponse to the re?ected energy, and means for
screen, a rotatable de?ection coil‘ structure about
correlating said graphic indication with an in
said cathode ray device, means to rotate said
48 rotatable de?ection coil structure synchronously
dicated axis of reference.
35. In an apparatus for determining the di
with said scanning apparatus thereby to rotate
rection of an object from an observation point,
the ray of said device over said screen, and means
responsive to waves received from distant sur
the combination of a radio echo scanning ap
faces to control said ray to produce an indi
paratus, means to rotate said apparatus there
by to scan a distant object whereby an'echo 50 cation on said viewing screen at a position cor
is received in said apparatus when said ap- . responding to the direction from which said
paratus during its rotation is directed toward
said distant object, a cathode ray‘ oscillograph,
waves are received.
»
CHESTER W. RICE.
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