Патент USA US2412695код для вставки
Dec. 17, 1.946. H. F. Ros-r 4El“ AVL 2,412,695 PROJECTILE Filed sept. >1e, .1942 23 H75 2 Het 3 Fev Hoxr Rpwì NEM Svenss on MTW . 2,412,695 Patented Dec. 17, 1946 UNITED ¿STA-rss orifice* 2,412,695* I PRÓJECTÍÍÍÀE ' Éélg'e Fabian Rost, Djursholni, Per Hairy Elia-s ' ‘C1aesson,Jakobsberg, and RiolfAl-bin Svensson, Angb'y, Sweden Application 'september 16, raiz, _serial No. “458,490 ‘In Sweden January 7, 1942' ' 1 'The 'present invention relates ‘generally to lpro jectiles and vparticularly vto devices for igniting lni‘rsti'ngV charges Vof projectiles, for example riñe grenades, ’grenades >for ltrench mortars and guns, , - 42 a projectile according toene embodiment ci! the invention. Fig. 12 îis a `ïhorizcnta1 view »of a section of» the fuse showing an embodiment ofthe invention aerial bombs to Ybe dropped from airplanes and l Gi comprising safety devices and devices ’for release the‘like. " ¿object of the invention is to cause the >bursting ci 'the projectile, grenade or bomb im; oi'fa»«precursor-ejectable from -the ifuse. ‘ ‘ _ íFig. Bïi‘s la vertical section at about '90° -to‘ 'th section> di the ¿fuse-'shown in Fig'. l.' i Fig. 4'v vis a vertical section or another«ernbodi'rn'edi'ately'above or close to the target, before the projectile has had time to penetrate into the soil 10 ‘nient o'f the lower part >ofthe1;ir»ecursor or tube shown' `in ÍFig.> l' with Vmodified means of release or below the surface of the earth. ' V'A'projectile according to the present invention 'is of the :kind having no retarding means, but be ing 'provided lwith steering ñns for guiding the A 'projectile according tothe invention com prises in combination a 'casing having straight external steering hns ior guiding the projectile inits trajectory, a bursting charge with its deto nat‘or; fuse and »fuse cap within said casing, a striker ¿head with fir-ing pin -at an operable dis of the precursor. I Fig. `>5 Vis a horizontal section 'of the device lshown in’Fig. ’4.~ - _ Fig. >6V Vrepresents a view èpartly in section of a grenade or aerial bomb according to the in'v'en .tion and‘provided 'with casing, steering Auns and bursting' charge. . In Figs. 1--`3 showing alfuse fora grenade .for a trench mortar, the» pin I serves as safety device during-transportation, by means of which .pin the tance -froinsa'id Yfuse cap, a stiff precursor of de sired'length and ejeetable from the casing, means to Yeject the said precursor, said precursor being adapted upon ejection to be so rigidly coupled ,piston `2 is Ykept in -locked position.. The .piston 2 tothe said strikerfhead so that the striker head Due to l_the >jerkat >the .moment of firing .the _safetyspring 3 is knocked out of vshapeallowing. is kept in normal position by the safety springt which .serves Vas safety device at the Vloading‘op eration. _ and Vits iñríng «pin are operated upon impact of the piston-2 to be thrown backwards so that the the-front par-t of said precursor against the tar get; »and means wholly within thev projectile to 30 rotor-4 with its fuse’cap 5 and >fuse I5I arefreed. The rotor :can be `turned by means -of the spiral spring -1 attached iat one fend to the central tube Sand-at theother end being fastened to a pin 8 cause delayed release of >the said ejecting means vfor the ejection of said precursor at a chosen time vafter the projectile has departed from its _starting îplace and after the projectile has "been stabilized with its striker head .forward in its attached to the rotor. When said pin 8 'upon yrota-tion -oi the -rotor meets .the ñringpin `9, vthe predetermined trajectory. upper -fuse cap '5 and yfuse I:5I will be located exactly -underf'the'ñring ‘.pin and also exactly over When the ejected front .part of the precursor a‘fuse »II located'in the fuse body I0. The cenn strikes the earth or the target, the striker head tral tube -lì is attached to ‘the’ »fuse ’body I0 .by with 4ñring pin or the firing device is caused to detonate the charge. 40 means of kthe fastening bolt l2. The ‘ñring‘pin .9 ‘is attached to the >strikerhead I3 kept inits -The release `of the precursor can take place normal position by the spring >Ill which serves ¿as infseveral Ways of which only a few will be here safetydevice in .the trajectory of the grenade. described. The invention is, however, not lim The ‘safety-spring I4 is securely held between ited lto `-the embodiments here shown, >but refers generally to all grenades, projectiles and bombs 45 :the upper iixed ~partoftheîceni-,raltubelì andthe striker» head. that shall be caused to explode immediately be' Thevcentralrtube ‘Bis at. its'upper part provided fore Vthe :projectile proper strikes the target. with ytwo kslits for vguiding the striker <head by _ -Bymeans of the invention a substantially ini -means of >thefsinall pistons .I1 `whichxlcy means of creased -action on living targets, vehiclesi ar= vmoured cars,- tanks and the like can be obtained 50 spiral‘springs I8 are pressing against the mov able precursor ïIii. By means -of the vsmall pis as -well -as on'buildings and the like that shall tons -I-'l `the .striker headiis prevented from turn be wrecked or be made unsuitableior-further use. ing with ïrespect tothe central tube 6, whichsis V _ Thevprinciple' of the invention will be further .provided With-'a swelling '20 :resting on the‘fuse understood-from the attached drawing of which _ -ïFig.~1»is_ a vertical Vsection of .a service _fuse of >body lßfto prevent .the centraltube from' moving 3 4 . axially due to acceleration at the ejection of the projectile from the mortar barrel. On the upper part of this swelling 20 there is a washer I5 which by means of a lip protruding into one of the slits I6 is prevented from turning with respect to the central tube. On the washer upper stud 28 the protruding part of which nor mally rests in an upper notch of the opening 30. Upon firing the precursor is thrown backwards on account of the acceleration of the projectile and due to the inertia of the precursor. The pre cursor is thereby forced to turn, because the low I5 is fastened, the pin- 2| about which the lever Ver stud 29 engages the inclined wall 3l of the 22 is turnable. Th'e‘other end offlever 22 is precursor so’that the precursor is freed from normally resting against stop pin 8 on the rotor engagement with the upper stud. 4. The lever is provided with a conical tip 23 10v When the acceleration and the air resistance entering into a corresponding hole of the pre-v are sufficiently lessened, the spring 24 can eject cursor I9 by means of which said precursor is the precursor, as above described with reference locked in its normal position shownin the draw-` i to Figs. 1-3, and the projectile will be fully armed ing. Within the precursor I9 there is located a >before hitting the target. nspiral spring 24 whichrhas a tendency of eject „ The embodiments shown Vin Figures 1-.-5 refer ing the precursor, but is prevented from said to projectiles for trench mortars, whereby the ejecting action by the stud or tip 23 of the lever projectile is provided with ñns so arranged that 22. The lower part of the precursor I9 is pro the projectile follows the trajectory without ro vided with a swelling 25 partly to steer the pre-` tating. It is, however, understood that the in cursor and partly to serve as a stop against' the 20 vention can also be used on projectiles provided upper part of the striker head, when the pre cursor is ejected. . ' -with fins> and fired from guns with smooth bores. -It Vcan also beused in aerial drop bombs without ¿The vdevice shown in Figs. 1-3r operates in the rotation. The action of release of the precursor following way. The safety pin I is >pulled out must in each case be determined under consid before introducing the projectile in the barrel of 25 eration `of the initial acceleration, length of tra the mortar. >By means of the pin I the safety jectory. retardation, etc., of the projectile,fsaid piston 3 and the precursor I9 are normally locked. release to take place only after the projectile At the ñring the _safety spring 3 is knocked out has been stabilized with its striker head forward _ofshape allowing the piston 2 to be thrown back in its deiinite trajectory; pyrotechnical devices wards. Hereby the rotor 4 becomes free, but 30 can be used both for delaying the ejection of the safety against operation of the rotor within the precursor and for its ejection. ` barrel is obtained thereby that during the greater In Fig. 6 element 6I is the casing of a grenade part -of the passing of the projectile through the or aerial bomb. Elements (i2> are steering fins. barrel the rotor is so heavily pressed against the Element "63 is a bursting charge-in the center of >fuse body that the spring 1 cannot move the which a fixed pipe 6 is located, and inside which pipe theprecursor I9 is arranged to be projected rotorff' - f ' When the acceleration of ~the projectile after by means of a spring 24 as shown in Fig. 1. ' , leaving the gun barrel is sufûciently lessened and .Instead of using spring pressure to eject the retardation on account 0f the air resistance takes precursor, anyl other force can be used either place, the rotor begins to turn until the fuse cap 40 combined with the acceleration at the firing or 5 vis located in front of the firing pin 9. When without same. K The rear end of the precursor I9 -the rotor starts to turn, the pin 8 leaves its nor can thus be'shaped as a piston within the cen malposition, and the lever 22 becomesv free to tral tube Yfi, and a small powder charge can be turn about its pin 2 I. . f placed at the bottom of tube 6. The stud or tip 23 on the lever 22 has been given such a conical angle that when the acceler ation and the air resistance on the front part of the precursor have been sufficiently lessened the force of the spring 24 isv sufficient to push the lever 2| and its conical stud 23 to the side, where after' the precursor is ejected until its lower swelled part is stopped by the inner upper wall of the striking head and locked due to the coni cal shape of the upper part of the lower swelled part of the precursor. Hereby the lower part of the precursor has passed the small pistons I'I which now protrude behind the bottom of the precursor and lock it in its forward operating position to the striker head. ' ' ` ' According to another embodiment, the device can be provided with a time fuse adapted to start operating at the firing of the projectile.> The time fuse is previously adjusted to operate a pyrotechnical device which ñres, for example, a powder charge, after the projectile has passed the greater part of thetrajectory, for example', 50`to v100 meters from the target, whereby the rear part of the precursor in the shape of a pis ton is pressed outwards, until the small pistons I1 lock the precursor in its operating position be fore striking the target. ' ` The central tube 6 and the precursor I9 can eventually pass through the- whole body of the ÀWhen the projectile is arriving at the target, itis the front part of the precursor that hits the projectile and be combined with a time fuse, for example, in the form of a light~tracer charge, thev sizev of which is so calculated that after a earth`or the target. certainy number of seconds the ñre cap and a As the precursor now is locked to the striker head, said head together small powder charge is fired, whereby the piston with the- firingpin'v is pushed towards the fuse pushes the precursor'toits operating position. ' cap’5 and fuse I5I, which fires the fuse II. The 65 v‘In order to obtain the'explosion at a suitable latter ñres the detonator 26, which is screwed distance before or above the target, the precursor into the top nut 2l and vcarries the detonation can be` made considerably longer than shown on further to the bursting charge inside the casing. the drawing by making them composed of several ' In Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 another embodiment of the parts in telescopic form, which parts upon de locking device of the precursor is shown. Instead 70 layed'ñring of a powder charge or corresponding of the lever 22 and the stud 23 shown in Fig. 2, means will be pushed out and interlocked to form two studs 2B and 29 are fastened to the central a single long- precursor. ` _ _ tube "6. The precursor is .at its rear end provided ` ’- Inß order notV to impair the stability ofthe ordi with'an opening 39 of suitable form. 'vThe pre ynarytrajectory'of the projectile, the front part cursori is >prevented.from" being ejected by the 75 of the precursor can be filled with a heavy weight. 2,412,695 5 for example lead, which will act as stabilizing agent on both the precursor and on the projec tile as a whole after the precursor has been eject ed. The heavy front part of the precursor will also lessen its tendency to vibrate due to side wind pressures. According to the present invention the con struction of a fuse according t0 Figs. 1-3 with a 6 .part of said precursor against the target, and means wholly within the projectile to delay the operation of said projecting means for a prede termined length of time after the projectile has departed from its starting place so as to permit stabilization of the projectile with its striker head directed forwardly in its predetermined trajec tory. 2. A projectile as claimed in claim 1, in which precursor I9 can be used in combination with aerial drop bombs with the following modifica 10 the said projecting means consists of a spring, and said projection delaying means includes a tion. As no acceleration step for releasing of the spring-driven rotor adapted to start rotation rotor d takes place when a bomb is released from after departure of the projectile from its starting a bombing machine, the piston 2 and safety place, and a safety device which normally pre spring 3 are suppressed. Instead of spring 'I for turning the rotor 4, the rotor can be provided 15 vents the precursor from being projected, said safety device being controlled by said rotor to with a cogwheel ñxed to the outer side of the permit projection of the precursor only after the rotor. A shaft with a small cogwheel to engage the larger cogwheel on the rotor is attached to initial rotor movement. 3. A projectile as claimed in claim 1, in which a washer` fixed to the central tube 6. The shaft of the small cogwheel is coupled to a spiral spring 20 the said projection delaying means includes a spring-driven rotor adapted to start rotation 0r clockwork, which has a tendency to drive the after departure of the projectile from its start cogwheels andthe rotor. The safety pin I holds ing place, and a safety device which normally the precursor I9 and the rotor 4 in normal posi prevents the precursor from being projected, said tion during transports and handling. The device operates in the following way. Upon 25 safety device being controlled by said rotor to permit projection of the precursor only after the release of the bomb from the bombing machine rotor has rotated through an angle correspond the pin I is automatically pulled out, thereby ing to the desired time interval between the start leaving the precursor and the rotor free to move. of the rotor and the projection of the precursor, The clockwork acting on the rotor through the cogwheels begins to move the rotor until the fuse 30 said rotor being concentrically arranged around the said precursor. cap 5 is in front of the ñre pin 9. Simultane 4. A projectile as claimed in claim 1, in which ously the precursor I9 has been released and the said projection delaying means includes a ejected and coupled to the striker head I3 as pre viously described. By choosing the proper size spring-driven rotor adapted to start rotation after of the cogwheels a suitable time can be obtained 35 departure of the projectile from its starting place, and a safety device which normally prevents the before the fuse is fully armed after the bomb has fallen a suñ'icient safe distance from the bombing machine and has been stabilized in its trajectory. precursor from being projected, said safety de vice being eontrolled by said rotor to permit pro jection of the precursor only after the rotor has What we claim is: 1. A projectile comprising in combination, a 40 rotated through an angle corresponding to the casing having straight external steering ñns for desired time interval between the start of the guiding the projectile in its trajectory, a burst rotor and the projection of the precursor, said ing charge, a detonator for said charge, a fuse rotor carrying the said fuse cap and fuse in a predetermined eccentric position whereby said and a fuse cap al1 within said casing, a striker head including a ñring pin at an operable dis 45 fuse cap is brought into alignment with said ñr ing pin after the rotor has turned through a cer tance from said fuse cap, a stiff precursor of de sired length and projectable from the casing. tain angle from its initial position. means to project the said precursor, means t0 couple said precursor, upon its projection, so rig idly to said striker head that the latter and its 50 ñring pin are operated upon impact of the front HELGE FABIAN ROST. PER. HARRY ELIAS CLAESSON. ROLF ALBIN SVENSSON.