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Патент USA US2412695

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Dec. 17, 1.946.
H. F. Ros-r 4El“ AVL
2,412,695
PROJECTILE
Filed sept. >1e, .1942
23
H75 2
Het 3
Fev Hoxr
Rpwì NEM Svenss on
MTW .
2,412,695
Patented Dec. 17, 1946
UNITED ¿STA-rss
orifice*
2,412,695*
I
PRÓJECTÍÍÍÀE
' Éélg'e Fabian Rost, Djursholni, Per Hairy Elia-s
' ‘C1aesson,Jakobsberg, and RiolfAl-bin Svensson,
Angb'y, Sweden
Application 'september 16, raiz, _serial No. “458,490
‘In Sweden January 7, 1942'
'
1
'The 'present invention relates ‘generally to lpro
jectiles and vparticularly vto devices for igniting
lni‘rsti'ngV charges Vof projectiles, for example riñe
grenades, ’grenades >for ltrench mortars and guns,
,
-
42
a projectile according toene embodiment ci! the
invention.
Fig. 12 îis a `ïhorizcnta1 view »of a section of» the
fuse showing an embodiment ofthe invention
aerial bombs to Ybe dropped from airplanes and l Gi comprising safety devices and devices ’for release
the‘like.
"
¿object of the invention is to cause the
>bursting ci 'the projectile, grenade or bomb im;
oi'fa»«precursor-ejectable from -the ifuse. ‘
‘
_
íFig. Bïi‘s la vertical section at about '90° -to‘ 'th
section> di the ¿fuse-'shown in Fig'. l.'
i
Fig. 4'v vis a vertical section or another«ernbodi'rn'edi'ately'above or close to the target, before the
projectile has had time to penetrate into the soil 10 ‘nient o'f the lower part >ofthe1;ir»ecursor or tube
shown' `in ÍFig.> l' with Vmodified means of release
or below the surface of the earth.
' V'A'projectile according to the present invention
'is of the :kind having no retarding means, but be
ing 'provided lwith steering ñns for guiding the
A 'projectile according tothe invention com
prises in combination a 'casing having straight
external steering hns ior guiding the projectile
inits trajectory, a bursting charge with its deto
nat‘or; fuse and »fuse cap within said casing, a
striker ¿head with fir-ing pin -at an operable dis
of the precursor.
I
Fig. `>5 Vis a horizontal section 'of the device
lshown in’Fig. ’4.~
-
_
Fig. >6V Vrepresents a view èpartly in section of a
grenade or aerial bomb according to the in'v'en
.tion and‘provided 'with casing, steering Auns and
bursting' charge.
.
In Figs. 1--`3 showing alfuse fora grenade .for a
trench mortar, the» pin I serves as safety device
during-transportation, by means of which .pin the
tance -froinsa'id Yfuse cap, a stiff precursor of de
sired'length and ejeetable from the casing, means
to Yeject the said precursor, said precursor being
adapted upon ejection to be so rigidly coupled
,piston `2 is Ykept in -locked position.. The .piston 2
tothe said strikerfhead so that the striker head
Due to l_the >jerkat >the .moment of firing .the
_safetyspring 3 is knocked out of vshapeallowing.
is kept in normal position by the safety springt
which .serves Vas safety device at the Vloading‘op
eration.
_
and Vits iñríng «pin are operated upon impact of
the piston-2 to be thrown backwards so that the
the-front par-t of said precursor against the tar
get; »and means wholly within thev projectile to 30 rotor-4 with its fuse’cap 5 and >fuse I5I arefreed.
The rotor :can be `turned by means -of the spiral
spring -1 attached iat one fend to the central tube
Sand-at theother end being fastened to a pin 8
cause delayed release of >the said ejecting means
vfor the ejection of said precursor at a chosen
time vafter the projectile has departed from its
_starting îplace and after the projectile has "been
stabilized with its striker head .forward in its
attached to the rotor. When said pin 8 'upon
yrota-tion -oi the -rotor meets .the ñringpin `9, vthe
predetermined trajectory.
upper -fuse cap '5 and yfuse I:5I will be located
exactly -underf'the'ñring ‘.pin and also exactly over
When the ejected front .part of the precursor
a‘fuse »II located'in the fuse body I0. The cenn
strikes the earth or the target, the striker head
tral tube -lì is attached to ‘the’ »fuse ’body I0 .by
with 4ñring pin or the firing device is caused to
detonate the charge.
40 means of kthe fastening bolt l2. The ‘ñring‘pin
.9 ‘is attached to the >strikerhead I3 kept inits
-The release `of the precursor can take place
normal position by the spring >Ill which serves ¿as
infseveral Ways of which only a few will be here
safetydevice in .the trajectory of the grenade.
described. The invention is, however, not lim
The ‘safety-spring I4 is securely held between
ited lto `-the embodiments here shown, >but refers
generally to all grenades, projectiles and bombs 45 :the upper iixed ~partoftheîceni-,raltubelì andthe
striker» head.
that shall be caused to explode immediately be'
Thevcentralrtube ‘Bis at. its'upper part provided
fore Vthe :projectile proper strikes the target.
with ytwo kslits for vguiding the striker <head by
_ -Bymeans of the invention a substantially ini
-means of >thefsinall pistons .I1 `whichxlcy means of
creased -action on living targets, vehiclesi ar=
vmoured cars,- tanks and the like can be obtained 50 spiral‘springs I8 are pressing against the mov
able precursor ïIii. By means -of the vsmall pis
as -well -as on'buildings and the like that shall
tons -I-'l `the .striker headiis prevented from turn
be wrecked or be made unsuitableior-further use.
ing with ïrespect tothe central tube 6, whichsis
V _ Thevprinciple' of the invention will be further
.provided With-'a swelling '20 :resting on the‘fuse
understood-from the attached drawing of which
_ -ïFig.~1»is_ a vertical Vsection of .a service _fuse of
>body lßfto prevent .the centraltube from' moving
3
4 .
axially due to acceleration at the ejection of the
projectile from the mortar barrel.
On the upper part of this swelling 20 there is
a washer I5 which by means of a lip protruding
into one of the slits I6 is prevented from turning
with respect to the central tube. On the washer
upper stud 28 the protruding part of which nor
mally rests in an upper notch of the opening 30.
Upon firing the precursor is thrown backwards
on account of the acceleration of the projectile
and due to the inertia of the precursor. The pre
cursor is thereby forced to turn, because the low
I5 is fastened, the pin- 2| about which the lever
Ver stud 29 engages the inclined wall 3l of the
22 is turnable. Th'e‘other end offlever 22 is
precursor so’that the precursor is freed from
normally resting against stop pin 8 on the rotor
engagement with the upper stud.
4. The lever is provided with a conical tip 23 10v
When the acceleration and the air resistance
entering into a corresponding hole of the pre-v
are sufficiently lessened, the spring 24 can eject
cursor I9 by means of which said precursor is
the precursor, as above described with reference
locked in its normal position shownin the draw-` i to Figs. 1-3, and the projectile will be fully armed
ing. Within the precursor I9 there is located a
>before hitting the target.
nspiral spring 24 whichrhas a tendency of eject
„ The embodiments shown Vin Figures 1-.-5 refer
ing the precursor, but is prevented from said
to projectiles for trench mortars, whereby the
ejecting action by the stud or tip 23 of the lever
projectile is provided with ñns so arranged that
22. The lower part of the precursor I9 is pro
the projectile follows the trajectory without ro
vided with a swelling 25 partly to steer the pre-`
tating. It is, however, understood that the in
cursor and partly to serve as a stop against' the 20 vention can also be used on projectiles provided
upper part of the striker head, when the pre
cursor is ejected.
. '
-with fins> and fired from guns with smooth bores.
-It Vcan also beused in aerial drop bombs without
¿The vdevice shown in Figs. 1-3r operates in the
rotation. The action of release of the precursor
following way. The safety pin I is >pulled out
must in each case be determined under consid
before introducing the projectile in the barrel of 25 eration `of the initial acceleration, length of tra
the mortar. >By means of the pin I the safety
jectory. retardation, etc., of the projectile,fsaid
piston 3 and the precursor I9 are normally locked.
release to take place only after the projectile
At the ñring the _safety spring 3 is knocked out
has been stabilized with its striker head forward
_ofshape allowing the piston 2 to be thrown back
in its deiinite trajectory; pyrotechnical devices
wards. Hereby the rotor 4 becomes free, but 30 can be used both for delaying the ejection of the
safety against operation of the rotor within the
precursor and for its ejection.
`
barrel is obtained thereby that during the greater
In Fig. 6 element 6I is the casing of a grenade
part -of the passing of the projectile through the
or aerial bomb. Elements (i2> are steering fins.
barrel the rotor is so heavily pressed against the
Element "63 is a bursting charge-in the center of
>fuse body that the spring 1 cannot move the
which a fixed pipe 6 is located, and inside which
pipe theprecursor I9 is arranged to be projected
rotorff'
- f
' When the acceleration of ~the projectile after
by means of a spring 24 as shown in Fig. 1.
'
,
leaving the gun barrel is sufûciently lessened and
.Instead of using spring pressure to eject the
retardation on account 0f the air resistance takes
precursor, anyl other force can be used either
place, the rotor begins to turn until the fuse cap 40 combined with the acceleration at the firing or
5 vis located in front of the firing pin 9. When
without same. K The rear end of the precursor I9
-the rotor starts to turn, the pin 8 leaves its nor
can thus be'shaped as a piston within the cen
malposition, and the lever 22 becomesv free to
tral tube Yfi, and a small powder charge can be
turn about its pin 2 I.
.
f
placed at the bottom of tube 6.
The stud or tip 23 on the lever 22 has been
given such a conical angle that when the acceler
ation and the air resistance on the front part of
the precursor have been sufficiently lessened the
force of the spring 24 isv sufficient to push the
lever 2| and its conical stud 23 to the side, where
after' the precursor is ejected until its lower
swelled part is stopped by the inner upper wall
of the striking head and locked due to the coni
cal shape of the upper part of the lower swelled
part of the precursor. Hereby the lower part of
the precursor has passed the small pistons I'I
which now protrude behind the bottom of the
precursor and lock it in its forward operating
position to the striker head.
'
'
`
' According to another embodiment, the device
can be provided with a time fuse adapted to start
operating at the firing of the projectile.> The
time fuse is previously adjusted to operate a
pyrotechnical device which ñres, for example, a
powder charge, after the projectile has passed
the greater part of thetrajectory, for example',
50`to v100 meters from the target, whereby the
rear part of the precursor in the shape of a pis
ton is pressed outwards, until the small pistons
I1 lock the precursor in its operating position be
fore striking the target.
'
`
The central tube 6 and the precursor I9 can
eventually pass through the- whole body of the
ÀWhen the projectile is arriving at the target,
itis the front part of the precursor that hits the
projectile and be combined with a time fuse, for
example, in the form of a light~tracer charge,
thev sizev of which is so calculated that after a
earth`or the target.
certainy number of seconds the ñre cap and a
As the precursor now is
locked to the striker head, said head together
small powder charge is fired, whereby the piston
with the- firingpin'v is pushed towards the fuse
pushes the precursor'toits operating position. '
cap’5 and fuse I5I, which fires the fuse II. The 65 v‘In order to obtain the'explosion at a suitable
latter ñres the detonator 26, which is screwed
distance before or above the target, the precursor
into the top nut 2l and vcarries the detonation
can be` made considerably longer than shown on
further to the bursting charge inside the casing.
the drawing by making them composed of several
'
In Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 another embodiment of the
parts in telescopic form, which parts upon de
locking device of the precursor is shown. Instead 70 layed'ñring of a powder charge or corresponding
of the lever 22 and the stud 23 shown in Fig. 2,
means will be pushed out and interlocked to form
two studs 2B and 29 are fastened to the central
a single long- precursor.
`
_
_
tube "6. The precursor is .at its rear end provided
` ’- Inß order notV to impair the stability ofthe ordi
with'an opening 39 of suitable form. 'vThe pre
ynarytrajectory'of the projectile, the front part
cursori is >prevented.from" being ejected by the 75 of the precursor can be filled with a heavy weight.
2,412,695
5
for example lead, which will act as stabilizing
agent on both the precursor and on the projec
tile as a whole after the precursor has been eject
ed. The heavy front part of the precursor will
also lessen its tendency to vibrate due to side wind
pressures.
According to the present invention the con
struction of a fuse according t0 Figs. 1-3 with a
6
.part of said precursor against the target, and
means wholly within the projectile to delay the
operation of said projecting means for a prede
termined length of time after the projectile has
departed from its starting place so as to permit
stabilization of the projectile with its striker head
directed forwardly in its predetermined trajec
tory.
2. A projectile as claimed in claim 1, in which
precursor I9 can be used in combination with
aerial drop bombs with the following modifica 10 the said projecting means consists of a spring,
and said projection delaying means includes a
tion. As no acceleration step for releasing of the
spring-driven rotor adapted to start rotation
rotor d takes place when a bomb is released from
after departure of the projectile from its starting
a bombing machine, the piston 2 and safety
place, and a safety device which normally pre
spring 3 are suppressed. Instead of spring 'I for
turning the rotor 4, the rotor can be provided 15 vents the precursor from being projected, said
safety device being controlled by said rotor to
with a cogwheel ñxed to the outer side of the
permit projection of the precursor only after the
rotor. A shaft with a small cogwheel to engage
the larger cogwheel on the rotor is attached to
initial rotor movement.
3. A projectile as claimed in claim 1, in which
a washer` fixed to the central tube 6. The shaft
of the small cogwheel is coupled to a spiral spring 20 the said projection delaying means includes a
spring-driven rotor adapted to start rotation
0r clockwork, which has a tendency to drive the
after departure of the projectile from its start
cogwheels andthe rotor. The safety pin I holds
ing place, and a safety device which normally
the precursor I9 and the rotor 4 in normal posi
prevents the precursor from being projected, said
tion during transports and handling.
The device operates in the following way. Upon 25 safety device being controlled by said rotor to
permit projection of the precursor only after the
release of the bomb from the bombing machine
rotor has rotated through an angle correspond
the pin I is automatically pulled out, thereby
ing to the desired time interval between the start
leaving the precursor and the rotor free to move.
of the rotor and the projection of the precursor,
The clockwork acting on the rotor through the
cogwheels begins to move the rotor until the fuse 30 said rotor being concentrically arranged around
the said precursor.
cap 5 is in front of the ñre pin 9. Simultane
4. A projectile as claimed in claim 1, in which
ously the precursor I9 has been released and
the said projection delaying means includes a
ejected and coupled to the striker head I3 as pre
viously described.
By choosing the proper size
spring-driven rotor adapted to start rotation after
of the cogwheels a suitable time can be obtained 35 departure of the projectile from its starting place,
and a safety device which normally prevents the
before the fuse is fully armed after the bomb has
fallen a suñ'icient safe distance from the bombing
machine and has been stabilized in its trajectory.
precursor from being projected, said safety de
vice being eontrolled by said rotor to permit pro
jection of the precursor only after the rotor has
What we claim is:
1. A projectile comprising in combination, a 40 rotated through an angle corresponding to the
casing having straight external steering ñns for
desired time interval between the start of the
guiding the projectile in its trajectory, a burst
rotor and the projection of the precursor, said
ing charge, a detonator for said charge, a fuse
rotor carrying the said fuse cap and fuse in a
predetermined eccentric position whereby said
and a fuse cap al1 within said casing, a striker
head including a ñring pin at an operable dis 45 fuse cap is brought into alignment with said ñr
ing pin after the rotor has turned through a cer
tance from said fuse cap, a stiff precursor of de
sired length and projectable from the casing.
tain angle from its initial position.
means to project the said precursor, means t0
couple said precursor, upon its projection, so rig
idly to said striker head that the latter and its 50
ñring pin are operated upon impact of the front
HELGE FABIAN ROST.
PER. HARRY ELIAS CLAESSON.
ROLF ALBIN SVENSSON.
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