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Патент USA US2412720

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Patented Dec. 17, ‘1946
2,412,720
UNITED STATES PATENT’ orator.
2,412,720
_
SPRAY COMPOSITIONS“ V
Clarence
D. Dolman, Wenatchee, Wash, assignor
to Hercules Glue Company, Ltd., a corpora‘tion of California
\
No Drawing. Application April 11, 1944,
Serial No. 530,552
1
8 Claims.
This is a continuation in part of my applica
tion Serial Number 338,371 filed June 1, 1940, and
my application Serial Number 399,229 filed June
21, 1941, now Patent Number 2,346,362 of April
11, 194%.
In my previous Patent 2,195,696 issued April
2, 1940, I disclose a successful spray composition
made up of water, free oil, a plant protectant and
certain fatty acid materials. The invention was
particularly disclosed as applied to ?nely divided
solid substantially water insoluble inorganic
metal salt insecticides. However, the statement
was made in that patent that the invention was
useful for application of ?nely divided substan
tially water insoluble solid organic plant pro
tectants. Some time after issuance of the pat
ent I found that this statement was in error, and‘
accordingly application was promptly made for
reissue thereof, this being effected with the issu
( Cl. 167—42)
' concentration
of the
’
organic protectant, the
metal salt and a small quantity of one or more
materials which for convenience I will term floc
_ identi?ed as a fatty acid, a‘ fatty acid ester, a
fatty acid soap, a partially esteri?ed fatty acid,
a partially saponi?ed fatty acid, an ester of a
petroleum sulfonic acid, a soap of ‘a petroleum
sulfonic acid, a partially esteri?ed petroleum sul
fonic acid, a partially saponi?ed petroleum sul
fonic acid, a naphthenicacid, an ester of a naph~
thenic acid, a soap of a naphthenic acid, a par
tially saponi?ed naphthenic acid, a partially
esteri?ed naphthenic acid, a rosin acid ester, a
. rosin acid soap,
‘a partially esteri?ed rosin acid
and a partially saponi?ed rosin acid.
The spray composition of the present invention
is made up by adding the several components to
the spray tank. Proceeding on the basis of ‘100
ance of Reissue Patent No. 22,340 on July 6, 20
1943.
gallons of water, a portion of this is usually ?rst
added to the tank, about 15 to 20 gallons, and
The present invention is concerned with appli
cation of ?nely divided solid substantially Water
insoluble organic plant protectants to plants and
fruits to protect them against plant pests. I
have found that to apply organic plant protec
tants successfully it is essential that the spray
composition include a small quantity of a water
soluble salt of a metal having a valence of at
least two. Examples of these salts are zinc sul
phate, alum, ferric sulphate and manganese sul
All of thesev have been employed with’
success, zinc sulphate being preferred. Alumi
num chloride, ferric chloride, zinc chloride and
aluminum sulphate can also be employed.
The compositions of my aforementioned pat
phate.
ents include oil as an essential component.
I
have found that with organic protectants of the
class dealt with herein, oil can be omitted and
the agitator is then rotated. This is desirable
because of the small concentrations employed.
To the spray tank is also added a small quantity
" of a water soluble salt of a metal having a va
lence of at least two, preferably zinc sulphate.
Usually between about‘ 4 grams‘ and 4 ounces of
this salt su?ices. The desired concentration of
the organic plant protectant is then added.- This
can be any of the ?nely divided solid, ‘substan
tially'water insoluble organic materials effective
as an insect'repellant, contact poison, a stomach
poison, a fungicide or ovicide, such as any one of
the ?nely divided ?sh poison materials including
derris, cube, and like materials, the various pro~
prietary nicotine-bentonite compositions, as well
as relatively pure organic compounds such as
Xanthone, phenothiazine, ‘or any one of the ma
terials disclosed in the Muller Patent No. Re.
is not an essential component of the spray com
40 22,700. The materials of the Muller patent are
position. In some cases it enables better sticking
known in the trade as “DDT” and they will be
to fruit to be secured, increasing ?occulation in
referred to hereinafter in this manner. The
the tank. Of course, with some organic pro
quantity of protectant can vary between about
tectants oil is not compatible and is therefore
one half pound to four pounds to each 100 gallons‘
omitted.
45 of water.
‘
It is in general the object of the invention to
One or more ?occulating materials are also
provide for spraying of organic protectants on
added. The quantity added should be such as to
fruit and vegetation to the end that a heavy,
give the desired degree of sticking on the fruit or
uniform, ?exible cover can be provided.
The invention has other objects and features 50 vegetation. "This quantity can vary; for exam
which will be apparent upon a consideration of
the following more detailed explanation of the
invention.
Brie?y and concisely the spray composition of
pie with a‘ half pound of a protectant one can
use an equal weight and even more of the ?occu
lating material. However, one can decrease this
quantity to as little as 1.5 ounces but 3 ounces
the present invention includes water, an effective 55 is usually preferred. This last quantity will suf
?ce for evenfour pounds of protectant. As lit
2,412,720
‘
3
solvent and thus lique?ed and employed provid
tle as about 5% of the flocculating material on
the weight of the protectant can be added, partic
ularly when the latter is present in a fairly siz
able concentration. The quantity of ?occulat
ing material is determined by the degree of floc
culation desired. and su?icient should be added to
ensure attainment of this‘ end.
'
ing the solvent is compatible with the other con
stituents. The quantity of oil required is usually
quite small, between 1/2 pint to a gallon per 100
gallons of water. To ensure the bene?ts of oil,
it is essential that the oil be available in a free
form so that" it can oil Wet the ‘organic plant pro
'
tectant. If one adds an oil emulsion of the type
When the spray tank agitator is operated, it
disclosed in the Knight Patent 2,190,173, the
will be found that the organic protectant is in a
Lindstaedt Patent 2,210,420, or the Volck Patents
10
flocculated condition in the water. The balance
1,922,607 and 2,056,238, it is necessary ?rst to
of the water is then added to complete the com
destroy the oil emulsion to release the emulsi?ed
position. The composition should have a pH'b’e
on so that it is in free form and to destroy the
tween 5 and 9. and preferably between 6 and 8.
emulsifying agent if this interferes with ?occu
The presence of the water soluble salt""of a
latin'g’"the protectant.
metal having a valence of at least two is essential 15
I1. claim:
A‘spray composition consisting essentially
to practice of the present invention, for unless
this material be supplied, flocculation 'of‘the or;
ganic protectant will not be sufficient and the
material will not be properly flocculated'dn the
and proportionately of about 100 gallons of wa
ter; an effective concentration of a ?nely divided
substantially water insoluble solid organic plant
spray composition. Such a small quantity of the 20 protectant suspended in the water, a small quan
water soluble salt is required that its effect is al->
tity of a water soluble salt of a metal'having a
most catalytic. However, the effect is immedi
valence of at least two, and sufficient of a mate
ately noticeable for when the metal salt isv pres
rial selected from the group consisting of a fatty
ent and when the composition is sprayed, a heavy
acid, a fatty acid ester, a fatty acid soap, a par‘
cumulative deposit is secured on the vegetation at tially esteri?ed fatty acid, a partially saponi?ed
and fruit.
‘
fatty acid, a petroleum sulfonic acid, an ester of
The following compositions are illustrative of
a petroleum sulfonic acid, a soap of a‘ petroleum
a practice of the present invention and are set
sulfonic acid, a partially esteri?eol petroleum sul
forth by way of example, not by Way of limita
fon'ic acid, a partially saponi?ed petroleum sul
30
tion:
fonic acid, a naphthenicv acid, an ester of‘ a naph
thenic acid, a soap of a naphthenic acid, a par
Water ________________________ “gallons” 100
Xanthone _____________ __ounces__ From 8 to 64
tially saponi?ed naphthenic acid, a partially es
Substantially neutral soap ______ __ounces__ 7 “8_
teri?ed naphthenic acid, a rosin acid ester, a
rosin acid soap, a partially esteri?ed rosin acid
Zinc sulphate ____________________ __do_l;_
ii
Kerosene ____ __'___; ___________ “pints; 1/2 to 2
The foregoing mixture was agitated in a spray
tank. It was sprayed on apple trees and provid
ed a smooth, continuous cover on the fruit. In
clusion of the kerosene is not essential and the
protectant can be applied successfully without
and a partially saponi?edrosin acid to flocculate
the protectant in said composition in the pres
ence of said salt, the composition having a pH
between 5 and 9.
2. A spray composition consisting essentially
and proportionately of about 100 gallons of water,
from about one half to about four pounds of a ‘
the oil.
Another composition was made up as follows
?nely divided substantially water insoluble solid
and, when sprayed, gave good control over red
between about four grams and about four ounces
of a water soluble salt of a metal having a
valence of at least two, a material selected from
the group consisting of a fatty acid, a fatty acid
ester, a fatty acid soap, a partially esteri?ed
spider on apples.
'
Water ________________________ __gallons__ 100
Dinitro-ortho'cyclohexolphenol __'__ounce_s'__ " 12
A water soluble petroleum sulfonic salt prep
aration made up after the disclosure of
Patent 1,922,607 ______________ __ounces__
1
Substantially neutral soap ________ __do____
2
Zinc sulfate _____________________ __do____ 1/2
A pint of kerosene can be included in the above
composition if desired.
‘
‘
‘
'
‘Another composition was made up as follows:
Water ________________________ __gallons__ 10o '
Dichlorodiphenyl - triohloroethane_'pounds_;
2
Oleic acid-soap _____ __'._____‘_____ounces__
3
Zinc sulfate ___'_____‘ __________ __'___do___.‘ 1/2
This ?occulated and sprayed effectively.
It is an advantage and a feature of this inven
organic plant protectant suspended in the water,
fatty acid, a partially saponi?ed fatty acid, a
petroleum sulfonic acid, an ester of a petroleum
sulfonic acid, a soap of a petroleum sulfonic acid,
a partially esteri?ed petroleum sulfonic acid,
a partially saponi?ed petroleum sulfonic acid, a
naphthenic acid, an ester of a naphthenic acid,
a soap of a naphthenic acid, a partially saponi?ed
naphthenic acid, a partially esteri?edinaph
theynic acid, a rosin acid ester, a rosin acid soap,
a partially esteri?ed rosin acid and a partially
saponi?ed rosin acid, the material being present
in an amount from about the weight of the pro
tectant to about 5% of the weight of the pro- -
tectant and being sufficient to flocculate the pro~
tectant, the composition having a pH between
tion that oil need not be present for successful
5 and 9.
application of the protectants. However, as an 65
3. A composition as in claim 1 wherein the
oil,‘one can employ any suitable animal, vege
metal salt is zinc sulphate.
table or mineral'oil, usually one having a‘ ‘viscos
ity of about that of kerosene to about 120 seconds
4. A composition as in claim {wherein the
metal salt is zinc sulphate.
Saybolt. Such oils are‘ provided 'by kerosene,
'5. A composition as in claim 1 wherein the
China-wood, soya bean, olive, linseed, co'ttone 70 metal salt is aluminum sulphate.
seed and ‘like oilsfor a'?sh oil, preferably a non
'6.' A' composition as in claim 2 wherein the
drying‘ ‘one‘f'o‘r ‘the various‘ petroleum fractions
out to“ provide ‘a suitable to; The oil employed‘i's
preferably a liquidjif it is a solid at’or'dinary
metal salt is aluminum sulphate.
7.‘ A’ spray composition consistingv essentially
and proportionately of about 100‘gallons of ‘water,
temperatures,‘ it "can be * dissblvéd‘in“ 'a "suitable 75
5
2,412,720
an effective concentration of a ?nely divided
substantially water insoluble solid organic plant
protectant, said organic plant protectant being
substantially uniformly dispersed on a ?nely
divided water insoluble solid carrier therefore,
?nely divided substantially water insoluble solid
organic plant protectant, said organic plant pro
tectant being substantially uniformly dispersed
on a ?nely divided water insoluble solid carrier
therefore, between about four grams and about
a small quantity of a water soluble salt of a metal
four ounces of a water soluble salt of a metal hav
having a valence of at least two, and sufficient
ing a valence of at least two, a material selected
of a material selected from the group consisting
from the group consisting of a fatty acid, a fatty
of a fatty acid, a fatty acid ester, a fatty acid
soap, a partially esteri?ed fatty acid, a partially 10 acid ester, 2. fatty acid soap, a partially esteri?ed
fatty acid, a partially saponi?ed fatty acid, a
saponi?ed fatty acid, a petroleum sulfonic acid,
petroleum sulfonic acid, an ester of a petroleum
an ester of a petroleum sulfonic acid, a soap
sulfonic acid, a soap of a petroleum ‘ sulfonic
of a petroleum sulfonic acid, a partially esteri?ed
acid, a partially esteri?ed petroleum sulfonic
petroleum sulfonic acid, a partially saponi?ed
acid, a partially saponi?ed petroleum sulfonic
petroleum sulfonic acid, a naphthenic acid, an
acid, a naphthenic acid, an ester of a naphthenic
ester of a naphthenic acid, a soap of a naphthenic
acid, a soap of a naphthenic acid, a partially
acid, a partially saponi?ed naphtheniclacid, a
saponi?ed naphthenic acid, a partially esteri?ed
partially esteri?ed naphthenic acid, a rosin acid
naphthenic acid, a rosin acid ester, a resin acid
ester, a rosin acid soap, a partially esteri?ed
soap, a partially esteri?ed rosin acid and a par
rosin acid and a partially saponi?ed rosin acid
tially saponi?ed rosin acid, the material being
to ?occulate the protectant in said composition
present in an amount from about the weight
in the presence of said salt, the composition hav
of the protectant to about 5% of the weight of the
ing a pH between 5 and 9.
protectant and being sufficient to ?occulate the
8. A spray composition consisting essentially
protectant, the composition having a pH between
and proportionately of about 100 gallons of water,
5 and 9.
from about one half to about four pounds of a
CLARENCE D. DOLMAN.
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