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D“. 17,1946-
J. D. MORGAN ET AL
2,412,740
, RATE OF RISE-DIVE INDICATOR
Filed April 14, 1945
IRAT NDCATOR
v/ OF'
DIVE/
myz
RISE
2 Sheets-Sheet l
sFPEcoRNTD/
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a INVENTOR.
J74” B {Yo/19¢”
Patented Dec. 17,1946
2,412,740
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,740
_
‘ RATE OF RISE-DIVE iNDIcA'i‘oR
John D. Morgan, South orange, and Percy B,
Levitt, Millburn, N. J ., ‘assign‘ors to Cities
Service Oil Company, New York, N. Y., a cor
poration of Pennsylvania
>
Application April 14, 1945, Serial No. 588,376
'
.
10 Claims.
(01. 73=179)
1
2
This invention relates to navigational instru
ments for submarine vessels and the like, and
is more particularly concerned with a device for
indicating quickly and precisely the rate at which
,
I oifset the change.
In‘ this connection it will be
appreciated that over-control of a submarine may
be just as disastrous in its results as under-con
trol; and that the middle course can be judged
such a vessel is diving towards the bottom of the 5 properly only upon the basis of accurate knowl
edge.
sea or is rising to its surface.
It is essential to the safe navigation of un
‘The principal object of the invention is to‘ pro
derseas craft that the extent of submergence
vidé a navigational instrument for indicating
shall be known at all times, and suitable instru
the rate at which the submarine‘ is rising to the
ments are provided for that purpose. These 10 surface or is diving toward the bottom in such
depth gages, which read in terms of feet of sub
precise terms as fractions of feet per second, and
mergenoe, give no indication of an equally im
equally one which is adapted to give an indication
portant navigational factor involving the element
or a change of elevation Within a fraction of a
of time, that is to say, the rate at which the
second after the inceptionof that change'and
submarine is diving from the surface or is ris
before the vessel has risen or dived more than a
ing towards it. It is quite evident, for example,
few‘ inches from the level at which its commander
that the safety of a submarine which is cruising
has“ chosen to cruise.
‘ '
‘
below the surface while ‘observing a prospective
vft is‘ a further object of the invention to pro
target through its periscope will depend largely
upon the ability of the crew to maintain the
craft on an even keel at a depth of from say 30
to 40 feet. Under these circumstances the vessel
still retains some degree of buoyancy so that it
has a constant tendency to rise, which must be
offset by the reaction of its control planes driving
through the sea.‘ Accordingly when it is noted
that the vessel has started to rise prompt action
must be taken to adjust the ‘control planes, in
order that the vessel may not break surface and
become an easy victim for its intended prey, or,
conversely, submerge to the point where it loses
sight of its target.
.
Need for prompt action in offsetting a rise of
the vessel is made particularly vital by reason.
of the slowness with which these heavy vessels
respond to elevational control. More need- hard
ly be said concerning the importance of this mat
ter to the crew of a vessel which is cruising near
the surface. It will be recognized, however, that
prompt action may be equally vital in‘ a vessel
which is operating at fairly great depths,’ There
vide an instrument‘of this kind which is not de
20 pendent for‘ its proper functioning upon the total
head of water acting upon its pressure-sensitive
members‘, and which therefore responds just as
rapidly and gives an equally accurate indica-i
tio'ii of the rate of dive or rise near the surface
‘ of theses‘, as it does when the submarine is oper-‘
atihg well below the surface. and at levels ape
preaching maximum safe depths.
,
Another object of the invention is to providev
a rate of dive-rise indicator having a safety valve
which serves ‘to shut off communication with the
open sea when the pressure upon its sensitive,
members approaches What may be considered a
maximum safe value, and which accordingly
serves to‘ protect the instrument from damage
'3 when the vessel is forced to operate at extreme
Theforeg‘oing and other objects of the‘ inven
tion as well as its various features will be more
fully developed in the following descriptionand
one embodiment is illustrated in the accompany
ing‘ drawings, in which '
‘Fig; 1 is a plan’ View of a rate of rise-dive in
have been cases, for example, in which the crew
of a‘ submarine cruising far below surface has
failed to‘ note the beginning of a rise at even a
very slight rate, with the result that enough mo
mentum was built up in the vessel to cause it to
scale;
break surface against the application of the full
est degree of corrective action.
?Ffig‘. 3 ‘is a sectional view taken on the line 3-3
of _F_*ig. 2; and
It will be evident from the foregoing that the
problem is not only one of knowing that a change
of elevation is occurring, and of knowing that
promptly, but involves equally a determination of
the rate at which the submarine‘ is rising or div
ing as a basis for the“ applicatidn- of- just that
degree of plane de?ection» which is needed t6.
strument showing its indicating pointer and
.
Fig‘. 215 asectional. view taken on the line 2-2
of Fig. __1;
r
.
t
,
.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view of a fragment of the
' instrument, the section’ being taken on the line
4+4 of Fig. 2.
,
a
In the drawings, and referring to Figs. 1 and 2,
numeral 9 indicates an instrument body‘ having a
dial?iii‘v mounted in'v its front‘ end, which dial is
marked 61f’
tenths of feet per second of rise
2,412,740
3
on one side of the zero point, and of dive on the
other side; a pointer || mounted to rotate on a
centrally located shaft | 2 so that its tip may
30 in sump 20, through a vent which is shown at
39, spring 2| in this case being fully distended,
and applying no force to plate |‘|. As soon as a
dive is started, however, the forces acting upon
ready reading of the rate of change; and a pro m the bellows will be unbalanced, and the building
up of pressure in chamber I8, corresponding to
tecting glass l3 lying between gaskets l4 and held
the'hydrostatic head of sea water acting upon the
in place by a bezel I5. The operating mechanism
sweep over the index marks on the dial to give a
of the instrument, as may best be seen in Fig, 2,
includes a metal bellows I6 which with a plate I‘!
secured to its rear end forms a movable wall be
tween chamber |8 that is normally open to the
sea through conduit IS, on the one side, and a
liquid ?lled system which is open to atmospheric
pressure in sump 20, on the other side, together
vessel, causes a displacement of the bellows to the
left as viewed in Fig. 2, against the reaction of
spring 2!, as well as against the resistance to
, ?ow or“ liquid through ori?ce 3|. The pressure in
the liquid ?lled system accordingly rises to what
ever valve isjrequired to overcome the resistance
of the ori?ce, and is of course re?ected by an
with a heavy spring 2|, which supports the bel- _ . expansion of tube. 35, and a consequent move
ment of pointer || across the face of dial l0.
lows and is so calibrated as to permit limited
. It will be evident to those familiar with the
movement thereof in direct proportion to the
_ art that the ‘pressure which is attained in the
hydrostatic pressure acting upon plate H.
liquid'?lled system bears a direct relationship to
The sea water chamber referred to above is
formed in the illustrated instrument by a housing 20 the force which is causing the liquid flow, and
22, and a cover 23 to which the forward end of
represents a measure of the rate at which the
cludes a conduit 28 leading from the bellows and
terminating in sump 20 below the normal level
across the face of the dial to indicate that the
dive is approaching a maximum of two feet per
vessel is diving. If the dive is a rapid one, for
bellows I6 is secured, both of these parts being
example, pressure in chamber |B continues to
?rmly fastened to a_ ?ange 24 formed on the rear
build up and continues to displace the bellows to
end of body 9 by suitable stud bolts 25. The vent
23 allows for the escape of air during the ?lling 25 the left at a maximum rate, against the reaction
of spring 2| and the resistance to ?owof liquid
of chamber I8 with sea water, and is normally
from the bellows through ori?ce 3|. The pres:
closed by plug 21. Various other. constructional
sure needed to maintain flow through conduit 28
details of the sea water chamber will be consid
will be correspondingly high, and the indicating
ered at a later point.
The liquid ?lled system referred to above in 30, pointer of the instrument will therefore be swept
of liquid 30 therein, and an ori?ce 3| for limiting
the rate at which'liquid may be expelled from
the bellows into the sump. In the illustrated de
vice this ori?ce is formed by tube 28a, coupled
at 33 to the lower end of conduit 28 proper, and
having, a length such as to provide a desired
?xed resistance. The use of a tube for thispurs
pose means that the ori?ce may be large enough
in cross sectional area to permit viscous ?ow so
that the response of the instrument may be on a
linear scale. It has the further advantage of
making for manufacturing economy in that spe
second. In the course of a less rapid dive, how
ever, and a consequent less rapid building up of
. pressure in chamber IS, a lesser pressure will be I
required in the liquid ?lled system to maintain
liquid flow through ori?ce 3|, and the de?ection
of the indicating pointer will be correspondingly
smaller.
So much for the operation of the instrument
to indicate the rate at which the submarine is
diving. Assuming now that the vessel levels off
at some chosen depth, it will be apparent that
the pressure in chamber l8 quickly reaches a
static value. Under these circumstances, flow
of liquid from the bellows rapidly drops off until
such time as the pressure in chamber l8 acting
cial parts do not have to be formed and assem 45
bled. and of making for ease of calibration of the
?nished device in that the total resistance of the
upon plate I1, is exactly balanced by the force
ori?ce may be varied by adjustment of the length
of spring 2|. Concurrently, of course, the pres
of the tube employed. It will be readily apparent,
however. that where non-linear response in the 50 sure in the liquid ?lled system falls off, allow
ing the pointer II, to. swing back towards its
completed instrument is desired with expanded
zero point. At the point at whichequilibrium is
scale readings near the zero mark, a conventional
reached there will, of course, be no ?ow in the
ori?ce plate may be employed in place of tubev
liquid ?lled system, the pressure therein will be
28a to restrict the ?ow of liquid between the bel
lows and sump.
55 zero, and thetip of the pointer will stand oppo
site the ‘zero'mark on the dial to indicate that
The’liquid ?lled system also includes a pressure
there is no tendency on the part of the vessel
gage, generally identi?ed by the numeral 34,
either to rise or to dive.
,
' "
which has a pressure sensitive member connected
Further consideration of the operating prin-.
to conduit 23 at a point between bellows l6 and
?xed ori?ce 3|, so as to respond to changes in 60 ciples of the instrument will, be based upon an
assumption that the submarinestarts to rise from
the level at which it has been cruising and which
formed the basis of the foregoing discussion. Any
type‘ is .employed, having, its pressure sensitive
movement of the vessel in an upward direction
tube 35 connected mechanically through shaft 36,
a multiplyingsector 31 and pinion 38 to shaft l2 65 must necessarily be accompanied by a decrease
in the hydrostatic head of sea water acting upon
on which the indicating pointer is carried.
plate l‘! in chamber IS. The balanced condition
. It will. be assumed as a basis for a discussion
which was discussed above will therefore imme
of operating principles, that the instrument illus
diately be disturbed, with spring 2| in this case
trated in the drawings is mounted in a submarine
With?its chamber |8 completely ?lled with sea 70 displacing the bellows to the right as viewed in
water and open to the'sea through conduit l9.
Fig. 2. In the course of this displacement liquid
If the vessel is lying on the surface,v the pressure
33 will necessarily flow from sump 20 through
acting upon the outside of bellows IE will be-sub
‘conduit 28'into the bellows, and again that ?ow
pressure existing in the liquid ?lled system. In
the preferred instrument a gage of the Bourdon
stantially atmospheric pressure andwill be bal
anced by atmospheric pressure» acting upon liquid
will be resisted by ori?ce 3|.- The. pressure in
75 ccndu_it—_-2_8 ;will-_-accordingly drop'below' atmos
is
iaziraero
l'pheric pressure, ' resulting in- a collapsing of
lil . Itis equally important, ‘however, to maintain
Bourdon tube ‘35, and a ‘swinging of pointer H
a proper ratio between the change in volume of
in a counterclockwise direction.
element 35 required ‘for maximum pointerdeflec
‘tion‘, and the displacement of bellows [6‘ which is
needed to produce that maximum ‘pointer de?ec
tion. We have foundthat eminently satisfactory
In this case, as .
with the one previously discussed, the pressure
which is built up across ori?ce 3| will be in direct .
proportion to the rate at which the pressure ‘in
chamber i8 is changing, and will accordingly con
results :can be obtained by the use of a tube and.
stitute a measure of the rate at which the sub
bellows system in which this volumetric .dis
placementratio is about 1:10. In the illustrated
device, for example, tube ‘35 requires a change of
marine is rising. If upward movement of the
vessel is quite gradual, a correspondingly small
pressure will suf?ce to maintain flow into ‘the
volume of ‘about .00045 cubic inch to produce a
deflection of pointer ll from zero to the maxi
mum of two feet per second, in either direction.
The displacement ‘of bellows It needed to build
bellows, and the negative pressure existing in
conduit 28 will be such as to produce a ‘corre
spondingly small movement ‘of pointer H. ICon
vers‘ely, a rapid rise ‘of the vessel, and a rapid
‘falling off of pressure in the chamber {8, will
‘result in the creation of a relatively large dif
ference ‘between atmospheric pressure acting on
‘liquid '30 and tending‘ to force ‘it from sump 20,
and ‘the pressureexisting in the ?uid ?lled system
at the ‘Bourdon tube. In this latter case there
‘fore, the pointer will showa high rate of rise,
‘approaching perhaps the maximum of two feet
per second which the instrument is designed ‘to
‘indicate.
The utility of an instrument of the foregoing
kind is largely dependent upon its sensitivity to
small changes in pressure affecting its collapsible
“bellows, and particularly to the speed with which
it responds to those changes. The illustrated
‘device meets both‘of these requirements with a
high degree of satisfaction. Thus it is adapted to
respond ‘to a change in pressure in chamber 18 of
from six to ‘nine inches of water, which is to say
that it responds to a similar change of position
of a ‘submarine, and of equal importance, it will
reflect ‘that change within about one-?fth of a
‘second after its inception.
This remarkable sensitivity and quickness of
vresponse is ' attributable to‘ several factors. First
‘it will be noted ‘that ,we ‘employ a liquid in the
collapsible bellows system rather than a gaseous
medium. Since the liquid'is itself substantially
‘incompressible, any displacement of the bellows
in either-‘direction is accompanied, to all intents
@and purposes instantaneously, by a?ow of liquid
through ori?ce 3 l, and ‘by ‘an equally quick build
ing up of a pressure‘difference vacross ‘the ‘ori?ce
to initiate a de?ection of the Bourdon tube. Sec
ondly, we ?nd that best results are obtained by
maintaining the liquid at a'substantially constant
viscosity so that its resistance to flow through
‘orifice 31 will also be constant. We prefer there
‘fore to employ ‘a liquidwhich has a minimum
"viscosity change over a wide range of tempera
ture fluctuation. In ‘this connection we have
'found 'that'a vsolution of ‘about 47.75 per cent by
vweight of tricresyl phosphate, about 42.0 per cent
up a pressure across the ori?ce corresponding ‘to
the two foot :mark ‘on the dial involves a displace
ment of about .0046 cubic inch of liquid. The
proportioning of theelements in this ratio of 1:10,
‘Min a greater ratio, means that only an insig
ni?cant ‘part of the ‘liquid in the system has to
‘be .forcedfinto tube 35 tocause its distention, and
that ithe major partof the ?uid is always availa
ble for flow through the ori?ce to buildup an
indicating pressure in the liquid ?lled system. It
accordingly means that there is substantially no
lag between the time at which an unbalanced
condition is created on opposite sides of the plate
1?, and the time at'whichthat unbalance is indi
cated by the movement of pointer vH.
‘
.
It will be apparent from the foregoing ‘that the
operation of the instrument is not dependent
upon the actual pressure existing in the chamber
it, but rather upon the rate at which that pres
sure changes.
It accordingly i follows that the
instrument responds equally as well to changes
which occur when a submarine is operating ‘near
the surface of the sea as it does when operation
‘is at great depths. This statement ‘must be
quali?ed, of course, to the extent that the pres
sure in chamber 58 must-not-be allowedto build
up to a valve such as to burst the bellows IE,
or to cause a permanent distortion of spring 2|.
The illustrated instrument was designed, for ex
ample,ifor operation at all depths up to’250 feet.
In order to protect it against permanent damage
in the event that it‘is carried to'greater-depths,
we preferably‘provide a valve head 40, carried “by
bellows l 6,,wh-ich is ‘adapted to be forced against
a seat ill when the pressure in chamber IBreaches
a value corresponding to about 250 feet of water.
The closing of that valve ‘accordingly cuts off
communication between pressure chamber ‘ l8 and
the sea whenever the instrument is being sub
Jected to what might be ‘termed the maximum
safe .value for its operation. ‘Once the valve
closes, of course, the instrument becomes inopera
tive, and stays so until the vessel rises above the
ciated, however, that other liquids may be found
‘which will serve equally well, or that controlled
250 foot level. In thisconnection it shoul'd'be
noted that valve head 40 is but very little larger
‘than the valve opening in the rear wall of hous
ing 22 which seat 4| surrounds, and accordingly
that the vessel-need rise only a very little bit
above the ‘250 foot level before that valve opens
to reestablish communication with the sea, and
to place the instrument again in operating con
heating may be employed as a means of main
' dition.
by weight of ethylene glycol monobenzyl ether,
about 10.0 per cent by weight of triethylene glycol
di-Z-ethylbutyrate, and about .25 per cent by
weight of rust inhibitor, is particularly well suited
for use in the foregoing device. .It will be appre
taining the viscosity of whatever liquid is em
‘The exact arrangement and location of the
ployed, at a substantially constant value.
safety valve is not a matter of primary impor
The third factor which affects the sensitivity of
tance to the invention. In the illustrated instru
the instrument, and a major one, has to do with v7.0 ment the valve head 48 is located in an extension
the volumetric capacity of the pressure sensitive
‘12 of housing 22 and is connected to the bellows
‘member 35. In this'connection we prefer to em
system by having its stem 43 threaded into a
ploy aBourdon type of gage because the tube of
central opening in plate I]. With this arrange
such~a devicerequires'ia minimum change of vol
ment, ‘the collapsing of the bellows‘l? responsive
um‘e‘to" produce‘wmaximum de?ection of pointer 4 15 Ito‘in‘creasirrg- pressure'rln vchamber "t8 forcesthe
2,412,740
‘restricting ori?ce in said system between said
head'against seat 4| surrounding opening 44. in
bellows and said sump; and a gauge for indicat
the rear wall of housing 22. It may also be noted
that the valve is made accessible by the provision
of a cap 45 which is threaded to the rear 'end of
extension '42, and which, carries a threaded con
ing pressure changes in said. system resulting
from the displacement of said bellows, said gauge
and bellows having a volumetric displacement
nection for communicating line H]. Any other
ratio of the order of 1:10.
7
5. A rate of dive-rise indicator for submarine
vessels comprising a pressure chamber; a col
function may also be adopted in, building instru
lapsible bellows constituting one wall of said
Vments in accordance with our invention.
. In the foregoing discussion reference was made 10 chamber; means for admitting sea water to said
chamber to apply pressure to the outside of said
to the fact that the illustrated instrument has
bellows equal to hydrostatic sea pressure; a spring
been designed for operation at a maximum depth
for supporting said bellows, said spring being
of about 259 feet. .It will be appreciated, how
calibrated to permit limited displacement of said
ever, that the invention is not so ‘limited in its
utility and that instruments which are capable of 15 bellows in proportion to the hydrostatic pressure
applied thereto; a sump which is open to atmos
withstanding much greater heads may readily be
pheric pressure; a passageway connecting the
built in accordance with the principles herein
inside'of said bellows with said sump at a point
before outlined. In such cases, of course, the
suitable valve arrangement which serves a similar
below the normal liquid level therein; said bel
valve 4| maybe dispensed with if suitably strong
springs and bellows are employed, or may be ad 20 lows, passageway, and a portion of said sump
being ?lled With liquid; a tube of restricted cross
justed to shutoff communication of the sea at
section for resisting liquid ?ow in said passage
a pressure corresponding to the safe maximum
way between said bellows and said sump on a
pressures to which these instruments may be
subjected.
linear scale; and a pressure gauge connected to
Having described our invention, what we claim 25 said passageway between said bellows and said
ori?ce for indicating the rate of dive and rise
is:
'
of a submarine.
’ _1-. A rate of dive-rise indicator for submarine
vessels comprising a diaphragm, means for ap
6. A rate of dive-rise indicator for submarine
vessels comprising a pressure chamber; a col
which is directly proportional to the hydrostatic 30 lapsible bellows constituting one wall of said
chamber; means for admitting sea water to said
pressure of the sea at varying depths; a spring
chamber to apply pressure to the outside of said
for supporting said diaphragm, said spring being
plying pressure to one side of said diaphragm
lbellows equal to hydrostatic sea pressure; a spring
so calibrated as to permit displacement of said
for supporting said bellows, said spring being
diaphragm in direct proportion to the pressure
applied thereto; a liquid ?lled system including 35 calibrated to permit displacement of said bellows
proportional to the pressure applied thereto; a
the other side of said diaphragm as a wall there—
of and a sump which is ,open to atmospheric
sump which is open to atmospheric pressure; a
pressure; a flow restricting ori?ce in said system
passageway connecting the inside of said bellows
with said sump, said passage including a tube of
for indicating pressure changes in said system 40 restricted cross section which ‘terminates in said
between said bellows and said sump; and a gauge
sump at a point below the normal liquid level‘
resulting from displacement of said diaphragm,
said gauge and said diaphragm having a dis
- therein, and which serves as a viscous flow re
stricting ori?ce; and a Bourdon gage connected
to said passageway between said bellows and said
vessels comprising a collapsible bellows; means 45 tube for indicating the'rate of dive and rise of
Va s-ulbmarine vessel, the Bourdon tube of such
for applying pressure to one side of said bellows
gage‘and said bellows having a volumetric dis
which is directly proportional to the hydrostatic
placement ratio of not substantially less
pressure of the sea at varying depths; _a spring
than 1:10.
for supporting said bellows, said spring being so
7. A rate of dive-rise indicator for submarine
calibrated as to permit displacement of said bel
vessels according to claim-6 in which the liquid
lows in proportion’ to the pressure applied'there
in said system has a substantially uniform vis
to; a liquid ?lled system including the other side
cosity over a wide range of temperature change.
of said bellows as a wall thereof, and a sump
8. A rate of dive-rise indicator for submarine
which is open to atmospheric pressure; a flow
restricting ‘ori?ce in’ said system between said 55 vessels‘according to claim 6 in which the liquid
in said system comprises a solution of about
bellowsand said sump; and a gauge for indicat
47.75% of tri cresyl phosphate, about 42% of
ing pressure'changes in said system, resulting
ethylene glycol mono benzyl ether, about 10% of
fromcthe displacement of said bellows.
_
triethylene glycol di-Z-ethyl 'butyrate, and about
3. A rate of dive-rise indicator according to
claim 9 characterized by a shut-01f valve for 60 0.25% of a rust inhibitor, said percentages being
by weight.
limiting the application of pressure to the ?rst
9. A rate of dive-rise indicator for submarine '
mentioned side of said bellows, and means for
vessels according to claim 6 characterized by a
actuating said shut-off valve responsive to the
shut off valve for said means for admitting sea
displacement of said'bellows. '
' '
, '4. A rate of dive-rise indicator for submarine 65 water, and means operative responsive to the
building up of pressure in said chamber for clos
vessels comprising a collapsible bellows; means
placement ratioof the order of 1:10;
- '2‘. A rate of dive-rise indicator for submarine
a
for applying a pressure to one side of said bellows
ing said ,valve.
,
.
v.
which isldirectly proportional to the hydrostatic
10. A rate of dive-rise indicator for submarine
vessels .accordingto claim 6 characterized by a
pressure of the sea at'varying depths; a spring
,for supporting said bellows, said spring being so 70 shut-off valve for said means for admitting sea
calibrated as to permit limited displacement of
water, and means connecting said valve and said
said bellows Vin-proportion to the pressure applied
thereto; alliquid?lled system including the other
bellows whereby collapsing of- the latter causes a
fclosing of the valve.
side of said bellows as a wallthereof, and asump
which ‘is openltoiatmosphericpressure; a, ?owv
.
Ca
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.JOHN D. MORGAN.
-
PERCY
B.-_LEVITT.
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