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Патент USA US2412742

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G.' Mus-'FLY
sued Nov. 13, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet' 1
œt. 17,
~Filed Nov. 13, i944
2 Slieets?heet 2
i?, 1946 - '
- airain '
nrsr'onenvo nmLUaNoa
Gary Mumy, Penn Township, nAllegheny County, i
Pa., assignor to~ Gulf Research & Development
Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of'
Application Noyelober ‘13,4 1944, serial No.. 553,251
7_Claims. (Qi. 177-3542)
This invention pertains toda device for indicat
ing a disturbance in the normal conditions sur
rounding the mechanism and in particular one
which indicates when the disturbance has reached
its maximum value. The disturbance may be
magnetic, electric, acoustic~ or any condition
gets, then very large ones may actuate the mine
from such a largel distance that no damage will be' ~
done to the target. Very large or very4 strongly
magnetic vessels maythen4 actuateV the mine so'`
it~ fires as much as several hundred feet before _
which may be converted into‘an electric indì-.
tive enough to indicate or trip on very small tar
the ship gets to the mine. Thus a further object
of this inventionïis to provide means for indicat
ing `the closest approach of a target regardless
of its physical size or the magnitude of the dis-'
turbance producedvby it.
In the operation of detecting mechanismsifor
_ lcontrol operations it is often of insuñicient value
to make the detector respond merely at a cer
tain held value. It is quite‘often essential .that
the device indicate the peak <`of a disturbance
which iii-st increases and then recedes. This in
vention has for one of its principalwobjects the
provision ci a device for indicating the time of
Inñuence‘mines usually operate to ?lre when
the influence attains anarbitrarily chosen value,
-or aftery the lapse of an arbitrarily chosen time
from initial detection. The present invention is
designed to give a’ñring signal, or alternatively
maximum value oi' a disturbance, that is. it gives
to actually do the- firing, when the iniiuence
an indication just as the disturbing iníluence‘be- '
reaches its greatest or peak value. ‘By picking
gins rto recede.
the peak response regardless of its magnitude, the
>Another object of the-invention4 is to produce 20. target is'A sure to be caught/at about its nearest ,
a device which indicates lthe moment of maxi--v
DOínt of approach.`
mum disturbance electrically, regardless of the
- /
‘ The means forobtaining' the response, that is,
nature of the disturbing inñuence Aitself,'in order
- the detecting element itself may be entirely elec
that a remote indicatormay be used.
trical or partly mechanical. Various types of in
One manifestation of the maximum of 4a dis-y vPil fluences may be’used, but magnetic or -acoustic
turbance is that or closest approach of a'passing \ effects are most common and will be described,
vehicle, vessel, or other disturbing inñuence. As
herein, but this invention is not meant to be lim
a disturbing influence approaches a point, its ef- ‘
ited‘ to the above.
fect iirst increases, then reaches a maximum and
-It is furthermore evidenty that the invention
then decreases. This is still true if the disturb 30 may be'used to indicate the instant at which an
Yance passes somedistance from the point. It is
iniluence reaches its minimum as well as maxi
generally true whether the~ disturbance be mag
netic, electric, electromagnetic, optical, acoustic,
c In the accompanying drawings I’have shown `
`by vay' of _example two of the many 'possible
l thermal or any other. In order to carry outthis
invention it _is only .necessary> that the influence 35 embodiments of my invention, in which
be convertible into an'4 electrical indication, that
Fig. ‘l is a diagram'of a magneto-mechanical
. is, by means of a magnetic detector, tuned'elec
detecting system which may be used.
tric circuit, photocell, sound detectozg'pyrometer,
and other such known' devices.
One example of the application ‘of thedevice 40
is in submarine Warfare. In detecting devices
Fig. 2 illustrates an improved form of the
invention using electronic' circuits instead of a
mechanical system.
Referring more particularly to the drawings:
for use with mines it `isla problem to obtain .an ~
, '-Fig. 1 shows a simplified -magnetic'detecting
indication of the correct vtime for ñring sothat '
systemwhich may be usedparticularly as a low
the mine will be set oiî at the opportune moment
to inflict the greatest damage. It must gol oiî»
near the vessel or vehicle in' order to -cause ap
or medium `sensitivity mine. It does mechani
callywhat may also be done electrically as will
vbe pointed out in lateriparts of this disclosure
preciable damage.
This> invention concerns
a ' '
device for ñring an influence mine at- the opti
mum instant in :order to inflict maximum de-`
struction to a passing vessel.- The instant of
' closest approach is the ideal' firing time and it_
is accordingly an object achieved by my inven
tion to provide a device for automatically accom
plishing this aim.
If a detector element in a mine is made sensi
„and will make the understanding‘of the more
complicated device easier. InFig. 1 a magne
tized compass needle i is> suspended on `>slender
wire filaments 2 and 3. The' wire should be so
fine that it will `have little eíîect ,on the sen
sitivity of the needle. The needlewìll line up
‘approximately with'the earth’s ñeld if the re
storing force of wires 2 and 3 is small. How
55 ever, if a vehicle approaches, the direction of the
neldwill be slightly disturbed and the needle will,` ` >vi?iuldlbe 'coupled -through la l»large
changeëposition.` If the needle moves clockwise, '
toïgrid-24;ofïan“ampliñer`tube 2 '
‘,¿willgcontact' rods Il at each end of the needle', `
and'grid Vleak"2iî‘si'1ould‘be lar
hu` >>dszi'rwill `be contacted if-it moves countei'- -`
1 kwis
`Since thecontact ro'ds 4_and._5 mustarbef .
v _
' `theslowest'tluctu
to’lthevtips çof the magnetic need1eï'foi‘~"
high sensitivity, `and 'the position of vthe `'needle „
cannot-be >predicted accurately, it is necessary . ' »
us 4ïsp'ceial‘fíneans to keep the needle noz?rna‘llyl` a - ’n
ed ybetween the contacts independentlyfof :1'0
_tion of the needle. This is accomplished "
`to the strip?,
rods.6i which
Rods dattaches
“also serve
to the
stof» '
'upport'strip 'I‘from a damping ring '8'wh'ichgis1|>
pr erably?'lñoating in a viscous fluid 9.i The- fluid «
pingïring- should be Vdesigned so thatîthe ,
elat ely=~strong~magnetic for'ces’will movethe
\ ’
Íin `
dily when the needle is deñectedfagain'st
Ü. 31 and `38 "on `th
une., pairîtpf contact rods,` but it ‘should provide f ` ` manner.l "“Latche‘s
y_'damping 'of ther‘ring alone when the needlev 1
tweeriltherods and only `_the'weak spring
acting to-mov'erth'e ring.
If these ,conditìons~„
a4 sfled,r both sets of contacts will heïmade- ‘ `
passage offa .target even `'though ¿the
f magnetic field is unidirectionalfi .When :c
icm-’occurs as the target comes y1.1y .fthe4 » _
1_1 strike one pair ot contacts >antidrugÁ " p
ping freingalong. with-it; When th
ached, howeventhe damping:
emainat ‘the maximum deñection "
-s damping, while the needle will drop ï -
very -shortly strike the other pairï'of»A
_grapprcacri _of a target theinmal `dciie‘c-V f
1o »mayI occur inïeither direction, and V„it may’ cur at toc great a distance. Therefore the two `«
y_çnita‘ctf’'closures are used to actuate *separateüß
h`ir uits,-e'vvlll
both ñre.
`of which
In themustbe
device of
Fig. 1,'lock-in' ‘5
, ojco
ßfa'nd `Ii are tripped Separately ,by‘l the . Y
act closures, and the'iheavier contacts l2 '
losedihythe‘relaysare connected in series‘w'ith
‘,‘detonatorf‘lä andhattery i4 .to set oñ the mine
faft'elrfbothfrelays have tripped; Latches I 5 hold*`
¿the Arelays in so that the .first one actuated `'will '
-» A
ainiclosed while thermagnet swingsoverfto \
Vond'set ofcontacts.V
e electrical circuit to the needle is through
Contacts 5 are- connected together and 50
_ ug fspring B to wire 3, which is insulated
m‘th‘e magnetic' needle. Contacts 4 connect
conductive surface on ring 8 whichjwill A j
e nsmitzthe‘ >-current through the liquid to `a.
`äsub ergedelectrodc I6; »Obviously liquid 9 must 55
.reasonably‘good electrical conductor. 'The A
made ofv anbushings
the leadv
or‘a wires.
'.,Conacts (fand 5 may- be _spaced 'by‘means >of
‘insulating beads 'I_v’l' of glass or the like;
Fig Zwillustrates an improved electronic` cir»v y n
oviding‘the desired firing actioniwith-f
he use‘of delicate contacts. Here the de»4 :i
vice 2lïfmay'bea t magnetic .detector
di lo's'ed lfor ’example in Vacquier'‘mi’-`
it >may-'ne ensuit-J ~ '
A, _
`leiisefto >whichthe mine is putlf‘iliçs,>
associate „equipment 22z~includes virhatever`
r] other deviceslar'e necessaryltoigiveï
output ,whichiiîluctuatcsiin"response`> j '
"r..example»,with amicropho
uallir` be f used-here,1
' ì
" C.. .Output mvrfàpetticni@ a - ;
g received. They iluctuations i.' ` »
' '
` ` " " "
the rise of voltage is large, condenser 23 can
charge up rapidly through diode 48, since it is
no longer subject only to the slight charging
mines of the type we have developed. This par~
current that can pass through leak'25.
steady voltage roughly proportional to the steady
has another advantage when used with magnetic
ticular mine uses a detector thatv generates a
ever, condenser 23 can never charge to a voltage
greater than the maximum voltage swing of de_
vice 22». For example, if the output of detector
22 reaches a peak swing of 30> volts, these 30 volts,
at the moment the peak lis reached, may be dì
‘ ñeld value applied to it. If this mine is disturbed
, by enemy action, it may be suddenly subjected to
a new value of field and consequently a new de
tector voltage.
Consequently grid 24 will be
thrown far from its normal value of voltage if the
vided as 29.5 voltsof change across the condenser 10 diodes are omitted. Condenser 23 still provides
23 and 0.5 volt of change across the diode 48 and
for return of the grid voltage to normal but its
grid 24. If this peak signal should be held arti
time constant with leak 26 is long enough so that
iicially, the condenser 23 would. ultimately be ,
charged to the full increment of 30 volts, and
several minutes may elapse before recovery is
satisfactory for operation of the mine. If, how
the 0.5 volt increment would disappear from the 15 ever, the diodes are in the circuit, grid 24 will not
grid 24 and the diodes. However, if resistor 26
and condenser 23 have large values as speciñed,
this might take Äa matter of several minutes.
Ordinarily, the peak signals are followed rapidly
change voltage as much in the ñrst place and will
also come back rapidly- into the operating range.
Only the last part of therecovery will occur with
the normal long time constant. The total recov
by decreases so that this tendency to drift back 20 ery time is cut to a mere fraction by this circuit.
t0 equilibrium may be~ignored. When the crest
Incase the bias of tube 25 is of a suitable value,
of the voltage rise is just passed, the signal volt
diode 48 may be omitted because grid 24 will then
age begins to drop. The voltage on grid 24 be
`draw current and take over its function. Often,
gins to ’dropimmediately Condenser 23 keeps
however, more bias -is desired on grid 24 than is
its charge now because the voltage on the diodes
suitable for the diode> action or its biasl is not
» again falls within the zoneof negligible current.
subject to as close control as is desired, and a
For> example, when the signal voltage drops backv
separate diode is justified. Y
from I7the 30-volt peak in the illustration above to
The stops or contacts 4 and 5 of Fig. '1 and the
29.5 volts, the charge of 29.5 volts on condenser 23
diodes of Fig. 2 may be considered to‘ be limit
is exactly neutralized by this momentary signal 30 ing devices. The contacts limit the motion of
value, and the grid and diode signal voltage
`the magnetic needle with respectI to strip 'l of Fig.
is momentarily zero. Soon grid 24 drops below
1 and the diodes limit the magnitude of the volt
its normal value even though the signal is still
-age swing on grid 24 in Fig. 2.- The trip points
near its maximum, as, for example, to minus 0.2
of either device are moved along with the indica
volt >when the signal voltage drops from the 29.5 35 tion. When either limit is reached and the in
volts mentioned above to 29.3 volts. At some
dication persists and gets stronger after the de;
such point of slightly negative signal on grid 24,
. vice trips in one direction, the second trip point
relay 30 trips in the reverse direction, complet
is dragged along with theindication, so to speak.
-ing the ñring cycle. If the safety switch 52 in
This shifting of the tripping points with respect
the detonator circuit is open so that the mine does 40 to the initial indication of the influence device is
not blow up at this point, the receding signal
necessary to get the desired trip action.
will drive the voltage at grid 24 downward until
The terms “trip” or "tripping” as used in this
a, substantial current ñows through diode 49 and
specification may be deñned for purposes of this
discharges condenser 23 so that it returns approx
invention as meaning to actuate something so
imately to its initial state. To continue our
that it stays actuated either irreversibly, or re
example, if the signal drops to zero, the grid and
versibly- upon deliberate action. In most cases
`diode voltage may be driven to about minus 0.5
one would want reversibility upon deliberate ac~
volt, while condenser 23 discharges rapidly
tion so that the device may be reset. Such a
through diode 49. The remainingsignal voltage
function may be performed by a latch, but for
of 29.3 volts across the condenser will drop rap-` 50 purposes of this invention a"‘1atch” or “latchable
idly to 0.5,volt or so, depending on the cutoff
means” as claimed may comprise any equivalent
point of the diode, and thereafter drift. more and
means for carrying out the function of a, latch,
more gradually to equilibrium'.
i. e., actuating so that it stays actuated except
An upward swing of signal voltage tends, upon
for deliberate resetting. Such devices for pur
its removal, to leave the grid 24 with a residual
poses of this invention may also be electrical or
negative voltage. This condition isq’described as
magnetic in character as well as mechanical, for
blocking in the art, and would be serious for
example, the latching relays shown may be re
large swings except that the reversed limiter diode
placed by a “thyratron” or gaseous discharge tube
49 limits the amount of this residual voltage to
which when tripped stays tripped until reset as
a very small value. Regardless of the direction 60 is well known, or the relay armature may press a
or strength of signals, 4the residual voltage is held
snap-over mechanism which would stay snapped,
within close limits. The blocking or reversal
or the device may drop weights, or a magnetic
eiïect does not occur before the swing that causes
be used to hold the deflection by mag
it begins to recede.
netic* attraction. lSuch expedients may be em
„ One can see that the ñring point will not be
ployed instead of a mechanical latch for purposes
exactly at the signalpeak. The second relay
of this invention as will be apparent to one skilled
_closure tends to be delayed by the finite reces
sion required to' eiiect the synthetic voltage re
versal at grid 24. On the other hand, the resist
ance-capacitance coupling circuits tend to distort
the fluctuations and advance` the peaks. These
two factors can be balanced against one another p
to give optimum firing conditions on the average
It should be noted that the diode arrangement 75
in the art. -
What I claim is:
1. A device for indicating the proximity of a
moving object comprising a detector providing a
unitary response to inñuence of the object, latch
able means actuated by a small increment of
the response, and latchable means actuated by
a. small decrease in the same response.
2. A‘ device for signaling the proty ci a
tector, a latchable device for giving a warning
one arm of a bridge circuit, and an indicator
showing the direction of unbalance of said bridge `
indication _when a. predetermined amount of in
passing conveyance comprising an inñuence >de
iiuence is detected by said detector and a second
latchable device for giving a final signal when
the’ influence recedes a predetermined amount
from a received maximum influence.
3. A device for indicating the instant of close
est approach of a ydisturbing body comprising a.~
detector of the disturbance, said detector actu
ating a latchable mechanism when excited in
_ one direction, said detector also actuating a latch
6. A device Afor indicating the maximum or
minimum ofa disturbing inñucnce comprising
means for converting the influence into an elec
trical voltage and having connected thereto a
capacity-resistance circuit whose time constant
is long compared with the disturbance, the resist
ance being shunted with diodes in opposite di
`rections and biased beyond cutoff, an amplifier
connected across the resistance, and means for
able mechanism when excited in the opposite di
indicating the direction of the ampliiied sig
rection, and indicators responsive to the latch
ing of both mechanisms and of both in sequence.
4. A device for indicating the instant of closest
approach of a disturbing body, comprising a. de
tector of the disturbance having a wide range of
7.» A device for indicating the proximity of a
, conveyance comprising a magnetic ñeld indica
tor responsive to a wide range >of magnetic ñeld
values, a -latchable -device set to operate when
the iield indication `shifts a predetermined small
response, a sensitive latchable indicator con
nected thereto which has a much smaller lower 20 amount 'in one sense from the normal value, a
threshold of response actuated by an effect in
one direction of said detector, a similar sensitive
latchable indicator actuated by an effect in the
second latchable device set-to `operate when thel
ñeld indication` shifts a like> predetermined
l amount in the opposite sense from the normal A
value, and limiting 'means to shift the latching
other direction, and means for indicating the
25 points along with the indication, said limiting
consecutive operation of said latching means;
means acting only on shifts at least comparable
5. A device for indicatingv the proximity of a
disturbance'producing moving object, compris
in magnitude to the amount of shift required
to actuate thev latching devices, whereby a strong
ing means for electrically ldetecting the disturb
ance, means for impressing the Voltage on a,
unidirectional magnetic disturbance will operate
series connected capacitor and resistor having a 30 one of the latchable devices upon its onset and
long time constant, diodes biased beyond cutoiï
will operate the other latchable device when the
disturbance recedes from its maximum value.
and shunting said resistor in opposite directions,
amplifying means connected across said resis
tor,v the last tube of the ampliñer constituting
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