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G.' Mus-'FLY msTURB. _ÍNGÀIHFLUEncE bETEcTme :i sued Nov. 13, 1944 2,432,242 ' 2 Sheets-Sheet' 1 œt. 17, G, MUFFLY .2,412,742 DISTURBING INFLUENCE DETECTINGELEMENT ~Filed Nov. 13, i944 ’ 2 Slieets?heet 2 3mm GARY ,MUFFLY Patented i?, 1946 - ' - airain ' 2,412,742 nrsr'onenvo nmLUaNoa ns'rncrmo ELEMENT Gary Mumy, Penn Township, nAllegheny County, i Pa., assignor to~ Gulf Research & Development Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of' ' Delaware Application Noyelober ‘13,4 1944, serial No.. 553,251 7_Claims. (Qi. 177-3542) This invention pertains toda device for indicat ing a disturbance in the normal conditions sur rounding the mechanism and in particular one which indicates when the disturbance has reached its maximum value. The disturbance may be magnetic, electric, acoustic~ or any condition gets, then very large ones may actuate the mine from such a largel distance that no damage will be' ~ done to the target. Very large or very4 strongly magnetic vessels maythen4 actuateV the mine so'` it~ fires as much as several hundred feet before _ which may be converted into‘an electric indì-. cation. A 2 tive enough to indicate or trip on very small tar the ship gets to the mine. Thus a further object of this inventionïis to provide means for indicat ing `the closest approach of a target regardless of its physical size or the magnitude of the dis-' turbance producedvby it. f In the operation of detecting mechanismsifor _ lcontrol operations it is often of insuñicient value to make the detector respond merely at a cer tain held value. It is quite‘often essential .that the device indicate the peak <`of a disturbance which iii-st increases and then recedes. This in vention has for one of its principalwobjects the provision ci a device for indicating the time of Inñuence‘mines usually operate to ?lre when the influence attains anarbitrarily chosen value, -or aftery the lapse of an arbitrarily chosen time from initial detection. The present invention is designed to give a’ñring signal, or alternatively maximum value oi' a disturbance, that is. it gives to actually do the- firing, when the iniiuence an indication just as the disturbing iníluence‘be- ' reaches its greatest or peak value. ‘By picking gins rto recede. . l . the peak response regardless of its magnitude, the >Another object of the-invention4 is to produce 20. target is'A sure to be caught/at about its nearest , a device which indicates lthe moment of maxi--v DOínt of approach.` mum disturbance electrically, regardless of the - / . ‘ The means forobtaining' the response, that is, nature of the disturbing inñuence Aitself,'in order - the detecting element itself may be entirely elec that a remote indicatormay be used. trical or partly mechanical. Various types of in One manifestation of the maximum of 4a dis-y vPil fluences may be’used, but magnetic or -acoustic turbance is that or closest approach of a'passing \ effects are most common and will be described, vehicle, vessel, or other disturbing inñuence. As herein, but this invention is not meant to be lim a disturbing influence approaches a point, its ef- ‘ ited‘ to the above. 4 a ` ' fect iirst increases, then reaches a maximum and -It is furthermore evidenty that the invention then decreases. This is still true if the disturb 30 may be'used to indicate the instant at which an Yance passes somedistance from the point. It is iniluence reaches its minimum as well as maxi generally true whether the~ disturbance be mag netic, electric, electromagnetic, optical, acoustic, mum. ' ' ’ c In the accompanying drawings I’have shown ` `by vay' of _example two of the many 'possible l thermal or any other. In order to carry outthis invention it _is only .necessary> that the influence 35 embodiments of my invention, in which ` be convertible into an'4 electrical indication, that Fig. ‘l is a diagram'of a magneto-mechanical . is, by means of a magnetic detector, tuned'elec detecting system which may be used. tric circuit, photocell, sound detectozg'pyrometer, and other such known' devices. One example of the application ‘of thedevice 40 is in submarine Warfare. In detecting devices ' Fig. 2 illustrates an improved form of the invention using electronic' circuits instead of a mechanical system. » ' ' ' Referring more particularly to the drawings: for use with mines it `isla problem to obtain .an ~ , '-Fig. 1 shows a simplified -magnetic'detecting indication of the correct vtime for ñring sothat ' systemwhich may be usedparticularly as a low the mine will be set oiî at the opportune moment to inflict the greatest damage. It must gol oiî» near the vessel or vehicle in' order to -cause ap or medium `sensitivity mine. It does mechani callywhat may also be done electrically as will vbe pointed out in lateriparts of this disclosure preciable damage. This> invention concerns a ' ' device for ñring an influence mine at- the opti mum instant in :order to inflict maximum de-` struction to a passing vessel.- The instant of ' closest approach is the ideal' firing time and it_ is accordingly an object achieved by my inven tion to provide a device for automatically accom plishing this aim. If a detector element in a mine is made sensi „and will make the understanding‘of the more complicated device easier. InFig. 1 a magne tized compass needle i is> suspended on `>slender wire filaments 2 and 3. The' wire should be so fine that it will `have little eíîect ,on the sen sitivity of the needle. The needlewìll line up ‘approximately with'the earth’s ñeld if the re storing force of wires 2 and 3 is small. How 55 ever, if a vehicle approaches, the direction of the neldwill be slightly disturbed and the needle will,` ` >vi?iuldlbe 'coupled -through la l»large changeëposition.` If the needle moves clockwise, ' toïgrid-24;ofïan“ampliñer`tube 2 ' ‘,¿willgcontact' rods Il at each end of the needle', ` and'grid Vleak"2iî‘si'1ould‘be lar hu` >>dszi'rwill `be contacted if-it moves countei'- -` 1 kwis `Since thecontact ro'ds 4_and._5 mustarbef . v _ " en., il ' `theslowest'tluctu ’ f n ` to’lthevtips çof the magnetic need1eï'foi‘~" high sensitivity, `and 'the position of vthe `'needle „ cannot-be >predicted accurately, it is necessary . ' » ' us 4ïsp'ceial‘fíneans to keep the needle noz?rna‘llyl` a - ’n ed ybetween the contacts independentlyfof :1'0 _tion of the needle. This is accomplished " nee ulìátes-thegcontact eery andñei'ziblespring `to the strip?, rods.6i which Rods dattaches spaces “also serve andi'n»` to the stof» ' 'upport'strip 'I‘from a damping ring '8'wh'ichgis1|> pr erably?'lñoating in a viscous fluid 9.i The- fluid « " d pingïring- should be Vdesigned so thatîthe , elat ely=~strong~magnetic for'ces’will movethe \ ’ Íin ` dily when the needle is deñectedfagain'st Ü. 31 and `38 "on `th une., pairîtpf contact rods,` but it ‘should provide f ` ` manner.l "“Latche‘s " y_'damping 'of ther‘ring alone when the needlev 1 closedftempo’rar‘ tweeriltherods and only `_the'weak spring acting to-mov'erth'e ring. closedfwithi'nfa If these ,conditìons~„ n " a4 sfled,r both sets of contacts will heïmade- ‘ ` passage offa .target even `'though ¿the ` f magnetic field is unidirectionalfi .When :c icm-’occurs as the target comes y1.1y .fthe4 » _ 1_1 strike one pair ot contacts >antidrugÁ " p ping freingalong. with-it; When th " ' “ y. ached, howeventhe damping: ` ' ` ` emainat ‘the maximum deñection " j -s damping, while the needle will drop ï - , very -shortly strike the other pairï'of»A On _grapprcacri _of a target theinmal `dciie‘c-V f 1o »mayI occur inïeither direction, and V„it may’ cur at toc great a distance. Therefore the two `« y_çnita‘ctf’'closures are used to actuate *separateüß h`ir uits,-e'vvlll both ñre. `of which In themustbe device of afctuatedjbefore Fig. 1,'lock-in' ‘5 , ojco ßfa'nd `Ii are tripped Separately ,by‘l the . Y act closures, and the'iheavier contacts l2 ' losedihythe‘relaysare connected in series‘w'ith ‘,‘detonatorf‘lä andhattery i4 .to set oñ the mine faft'elrfbothfrelays have tripped; Latches I 5 hold*` ¿the Arelays in so that the .first one actuated `'will ' -» A ainiclosed while thermagnet swingsoverfto \ Vond'set ofcontacts.V . ' '- ' e \ e electrical circuit to the needle is through Contacts 5 are- connected together and 50 _ ug fspring B to wire 3, which is insulated ' m‘th‘e magnetic' needle. Contacts 4 connect conductive surface on ring 8 whichjwill A j e nsmitzthe‘ >-current through the liquid to `a. `äsub ergedelectrodc I6; »Obviously liquid 9 must 55 , .reasonably‘good electrical conductor. 'The A A[tivi .cY insulating made ofv anbushings insulatingfor material the leadv or‘a wires. metal '.,Conacts (fand 5 may- be _spaced 'by‘means >of ‘insulating beads 'I_v’l' of glass or the like; " 60 Fig Zwillustrates an improved electronic` cir»v y n 4 oviding‘the desired firing actioniwith-f he use‘of delicate contacts. Here the de»4 :i ' vice 2lïfmay'bea t magnetic .detector di lo's'ed lfor ’example in Vacquier'‘mi’-` eri phone l‘No. «or 403,455, otherIor`influence-rec‘e‘liiyer it >may-'ne ensuit-J ~ ' l ‘n A, _ `leiisefto >whichthe mine is putlf‘iliçs,> associate „equipment 22z~includes virhatever` Y r] other deviceslar'e necessaryltoigiveï output ,whichiiîluctuatcsiin"response`> j ' "r..example»,with amicropho ‘ uallir` be f used-here,1 ' ì this. ~ i, " C.. .Output mvrfàpetticni@ a - ; g received. They iluctuations i.' ` » v l ' ' ` ` " " " aeia'rea the rise of voltage is large, condenser 23 can charge up rapidly through diode 48, since it is no longer subject only to the slight charging mines of the type we have developed. This par~ current that can pass through leak'25. steady voltage roughly proportional to the steady has another advantage when used with magnetic ticular mine uses a detector thatv generates a How ever, condenser 23 can never charge to a voltage greater than the maximum voltage swing of de_ vice 22». For example, if the output of detector 22 reaches a peak swing of 30> volts, these 30 volts, at the moment the peak lis reached, may be dì ‘ ñeld value applied to it. If this mine is disturbed , by enemy action, it may be suddenly subjected to a new value of field and consequently a new de tector voltage. Consequently grid 24 will be thrown far from its normal value of voltage if the vided as 29.5 voltsof change across the condenser 10 diodes are omitted. Condenser 23 still provides 23 and 0.5 volt of change across the diode 48 and for return of the grid voltage to normal but its grid 24. If this peak signal should be held arti time constant with leak 26 is long enough so that iicially, the condenser 23 would. ultimately be , charged to the full increment of 30 volts, and several minutes may elapse before recovery is satisfactory for operation of the mine. If, how the 0.5 volt increment would disappear from the 15 ever, the diodes are in the circuit, grid 24 will not grid 24 and the diodes. However, if resistor 26 and condenser 23 have large values as speciñed, this might take Äa matter of several minutes. Ordinarily, the peak signals are followed rapidly change voltage as much in the ñrst place and will also come back rapidly- into the operating range. Only the last part of therecovery will occur with the normal long time constant. The total recov by decreases so that this tendency to drift back 20 ery time is cut to a mere fraction by this circuit. t0 equilibrium may be~ignored. When the crest Incase the bias of tube 25 is of a suitable value, of the voltage rise is just passed, the signal volt diode 48 may be omitted because grid 24 will then age begins to drop. The voltage on grid 24 be `draw current and take over its function. Often, gins to ’dropimmediately Condenser 23 keeps however, more bias -is desired on grid 24 than is its charge now because the voltage on the diodes suitable for the diode> action or its biasl is not » again falls within the zoneof negligible current. subject to as close control as is desired, and a For> example, when the signal voltage drops backv separate diode is justified. Y from I7the 30-volt peak in the illustration above to The stops or contacts 4 and 5 of Fig. '1 and the 29.5 volts, the charge of 29.5 volts on condenser 23 diodes of Fig. 2 may be considered to‘ be limit is exactly neutralized by this momentary signal 30 ing devices. The contacts limit the motion of value, and the grid and diode signal voltage `the magnetic needle with respectI to strip 'l of Fig. is momentarily zero. Soon grid 24 drops below 1 and the diodes limit the magnitude of the volt its normal value even though the signal is still -age swing on grid 24 in Fig. 2.- The trip points near its maximum, as, for example, to minus 0.2 of either device are moved along with the indica volt >when the signal voltage drops from the 29.5 35 tion. When either limit is reached and the in volts mentioned above to 29.3 volts. At some dication persists and gets stronger after the de; such point of slightly negative signal on grid 24, . vice trips in one direction, the second trip point relay 30 trips in the reverse direction, complet is dragged along with theindication, so to speak. -ing the ñring cycle. If the safety switch 52 in This shifting of the tripping points with respect the detonator circuit is open so that the mine does 40 to the initial indication of the influence device is not blow up at this point, the receding signal necessary to get the desired trip action. will drive the voltage at grid 24 downward until The terms “trip” or "tripping” as used in this a, substantial current ñows through diode 49 and specification may be deñned for purposes of this discharges condenser 23 so that it returns approx invention as meaning to actuate something so imately to its initial state. To continue our that it stays actuated either irreversibly, or re example, if the signal drops to zero, the grid and versibly- upon deliberate action. In most cases `diode voltage may be driven to about minus 0.5 one would want reversibility upon deliberate ac~ volt, while condenser 23 discharges rapidly tion so that the device may be reset. Such a through diode 49. The remainingsignal voltage function may be performed by a latch, but for of 29.3 volts across the condenser will drop rap-` 50 purposes of this invention a"‘1atch” or “latchable idly to 0.5,volt or so, depending on the cutoff means” as claimed may comprise any equivalent point of the diode, and thereafter drift. more and means for carrying out the function of a, latch, more gradually to equilibrium'. _ , , i. e., actuating so that it stays actuated except An upward swing of signal voltage tends, upon for deliberate resetting. Such devices for pur its removal, to leave the grid 24 with a residual poses of this invention may also be electrical or negative voltage. This condition isq’described as magnetic in character as well as mechanical, for blocking in the art, and would be serious for example, the latching relays shown may be re large swings except that the reversed limiter diode placed by a “thyratron” or gaseous discharge tube 49 limits the amount of this residual voltage to which when tripped stays tripped until reset as a very small value. Regardless of the direction 60 is well known, or the relay armature may press a or strength of signals, 4the residual voltage is held snap-over mechanism which would stay snapped, within close limits. The blocking or reversal or the device may drop weights, or a magnetic eiïect does not occur before the swing that causes relayfmay be used to hold the deflection by mag it begins to recede. l netic* attraction. lSuch expedients may be em „ One can see that the ñring point will not be ployed instead of a mechanical latch for purposes exactly at the signalpeak. The second relay of this invention as will be apparent to one skilled _closure tends to be delayed by the finite reces sion required to' eiiect the synthetic voltage re versal at grid 24. On the other hand, the resist ance-capacitance coupling circuits tend to distort the fluctuations and advance` the peaks. These two factors can be balanced against one another p to give optimum firing conditions on the average target. ` It should be noted that the diode arrangement 75 in the art. - ~ What I claim is: , . ' 1. A device for indicating the proximity of a moving object comprising a detector providing a unitary response to inñuence of the object, latch able means actuated by a small increment of the response, and latchable means actuated by a. small decrease in the same response. 2. A‘ device for signaling the proty ci a emana 7 tector, a latchable device for giving a warning one arm of a bridge circuit, and an indicator showing the direction of unbalance of said bridge ` indication _when a. predetermined amount of in circuit. passing conveyance comprising an inñuence >de iiuence is detected by said detector and a second latchable device for giving a final signal when the’ influence recedes a predetermined amount from a received maximum influence. 3. A device for indicating the instant of close est approach of a ydisturbing body comprising a.~ detector of the disturbance, said detector actu ating a latchable mechanism when excited in _ one direction, said detector also actuating a latch ~ 6. A device Afor indicating the maximum or minimum ofa disturbing inñucnce comprising means for converting the influence into an elec trical voltage and having connected thereto a capacity-resistance circuit whose time constant is long compared with the disturbance, the resist ance being shunted with diodes in opposite di `rections and biased beyond cutoff, an amplifier connected across the resistance, and means for able mechanism when excited in the opposite di indicating the direction of the ampliiied sig rection, and indicators responsive to the latch nal. ing of both mechanisms and of both in sequence. 4. A device for indicating the instant of closest approach of a disturbing body, comprising a. de tector of the disturbance having a wide range of ` 7.» A device for indicating the proximity of a , conveyance comprising a magnetic ñeld indica tor responsive to a wide range >of magnetic ñeld values, a -latchable -device set to operate when the iield indication `shifts a predetermined small response, a sensitive latchable indicator con nected thereto which has a much smaller lower 20 amount 'in one sense from the normal value, a threshold of response actuated by an effect in one direction of said detector, a similar sensitive latchable indicator actuated by an effect in the second latchable device set-to `operate when thel ñeld indication` shifts a like> predetermined l amount in the opposite sense from the normal A value, and limiting 'means to shift the latching other direction, and means for indicating the 25 points along with the indication, said limiting consecutive operation of said latching means; means acting only on shifts at least comparable 5. A device for indicatingv the proximity of a disturbance'producing moving object, compris in magnitude to the amount of shift required to actuate thev latching devices, whereby a strong ing means for electrically ldetecting the disturb ance, means for impressing the Voltage on a, unidirectional magnetic disturbance will operate series connected capacitor and resistor having a 30 one of the latchable devices upon its onset and long time constant, diodes biased beyond cutoiï will operate the other latchable device when the disturbance recedes from its maximum value. and shunting said resistor in opposite directions, amplifying means connected across said resis tor,v the last tube of the ampliñer constituting \ GARY MUFFLY.