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Патент USA US2412763

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Dec. 17, 1946.
2,412,763
D. S. BAKER‘
METHOD AND APPARATUS OFITREATING'MATERIALS
- Filéd June 12, 1945 ‘
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Dec. 17, 1946.
D. s. BAKER
, 2,412,763
METHOD‘ AND APPARATUS OF TREATING MATERIALS
Filed June 12, 1943
a
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
263
60
.
INV‘ENTYOR
4 04/00 .5 _ 644/54’.
BY
Dec. 17, 1946.
D; s, BAKER
‘2,412,763’
METHOD 4ND APPARATUS OF TREATING MATERIALS
'Filed June 12, 1945
4 Sheets-Sheet s
W
INVEN TOR.
0A 100 5 . 5/11/6519.
BY
ATTORNEY
Dec. 17, 1946.
‘
2,412,763
D. s. BAKER
METHOD AND'APPARATUS OF TREATING MATERIALS
Filed June 12, 1945 ‘
4 Sheets-sheaf 4
INVENTOR
0,4;00 J’. 544/52
BY
,
@74- l‘.
ATTORNEY
Patented Dec. 17, 1946
2,412,763
UNITED STATES PATENT‘OFFICE
2,412,763
METHOD AND APPARATUS OF TREATING
MATERIALS
David S. Baker, New York, NY.
Application June 12, 1943, Serial No. 490,571
32 Claims. (01. 34-11)
2
This invention relates to method and appara
pointed out in the‘ following description, and the
tus for drying, humidifying, dewatering or other
scope of the application of which will be indicated
Wise attempering a large variety of materials.
in the following claims.
It is directed to a method and apparatus of the
In the drawings,
general type disclosed in my Patent No. 2,102,607,
Figure 1 is a side elevation, partly in vertical
granted on December 21, 1937.
section, of one embodiment of my invention;
An object of the invention is to provide a sim
Figure 2 is a detail view in prospective showing
ple, practical and e?icient method and apparatus
a portion of the endless material con?ning means
for carrying out the above stated purposes.
shown in Figure 1;
Another object of the invention is to provide 10
Figure 3 is a front elevation of the embodiment
an improved method and apparatus for treating
of the invention shown in Figure 1, partly broken
material continuously, or in batches.
away for greater clarity in disclosing the inven
Another object of the invention is to transform
tion, with the casing shown in vertical section;
wet and often sticky material into dry powdered
Figure 4 is a plan view of a portion of the as
form.
'
‘
sembly shown in Figure 3;
Another object of the invention is to provide
attempering apparatus which is ?exible and may
be readily adapted to the varying moisture con
Figure 5 is an end view, partly in vertical sec
tion, of another embodiment of my invention;
Figure 6 is a plan view of the modi?cation of
tent of the many different materials which may
the invention shown in Figure 5, partly broken
be treated by the said apparatus, and according 20 away and with the casing removed;
to the condition desired for the treated material
Figure 7 is a detail view of a form of endless
which may vary widely.
member which may preferably be used in connec
Another object of the invention is to provide
tion with the embodiment of the invention. shown
apparatus which will require a very small amount
in Figures 5 and 6;
of space in proportion to the amount of material 25 Figure 8 is a plan view, partly in horizontal sec
which may be treated by it.
tion, partly cut away, of another embodiment of
Another object of the invention is to provide
the invention;
means for advancing material across the treating
Figure 9 is a plan view similar to Figure 4 show
surface adapted to meet the condition of shrink
ing a modi?ed form of material advancing
age of the material as it advances from the wet 30
end to the dry end of the treatment surface, and
thus to maintain a full volume of material on all
sections of the surface.
Another object of the invention is to provide a
method and means for attempering granular as
well as plastic materials including such diverse
means;
'
Figure 10 is a detail view showing a modi?ed
form a means for separating material from the
surface of the drum;
'
Figure 11 is a detail perspective view showing
a modi?cation of a section of the endless material
con?ning means shown in Figure 2; and
materials as paint pigments, dyes, intermediates,
Figure 12 is a view similar to Figure 11, show
sand and soils, sewerage, sludge, spent grain,
ing another modi?cation of a section of the end
cereals, vegetables, fruits, meats, and. a wide
less material con?ning means.
variety of other materials.
40
Referring ?rst to the embodiment of the inven
Another object of the invention is to provide
tion shown in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4, I provide‘ a
a method and means for continuously attemper
drum 40 mounted on an axle ll rotatably sup
ing material and exposing it at diiferent stages of
ported between the uprights l2. Extending over
treatment to differently conditioned air or other
and around a large portion of the periphery of
gas with an economy of space, and with a high 45 drlnn I8 I provide the endless, material-con?n
degree of ?exibility as to the ‘time of exposure
ing member is rotatably supported by the rollers
and the condition of the material and the gas at
The drum I0 is preferably pro
the time of each exposure.
vided with radially projecting end ?anges l1,
Other objects will be in part obvious or in part
and the endless member l3 preferably extends
pointed out hereinafter.
over the ?anges I‘! and bridges the space between
The invention accordingly consists in the fea
them thus forming a thin extended chamber C
tures of construction, combinations of elements,
between the portion of itself which surrounds
arrangements of parts, and in the several steps
and is concentric with the drum surface and the
and relation and order of each of said steps to
portion of the drum surface, and of its end ?anges
one or more of the others thereof, all as willbe 55 l7, surrounded by the said endless member #3.
2,412,763
3
4
in the solid lines in Figures 1 and 4; and then in
Positioned in front of drum i0, and supported
between uprights I2, is a vertically extending
a direction toward the left hand end of the appa
ratus, the member l8 also being moved in its'
slideways s to the left during this step, axially
of the drum, due to the contact between member
l8 and ?ngers 22 at the left hand margin of aper
member 58 the lower end of which extends into
abutting relationship with the portion of endless
member 23 overlying roller M. A hopper H is
thus formed between the member !8, the portion
of endless member l3 which is travelling over the
tures 2!. The member 24 thus moves through a
top of member Hi, and a portion of cylinder i0,
and this hopper communicates at its lower end
four motion cycle, and member I8 is reciprocated
in’ its, slideway during each such cycle, as indi
l0 and endless member l3. Communicating with
' ‘in Figure 3, isthrough pulley 30 mounted on
shaft lea,» which may be extended to a source of
power (not shown), through belt iii to pulley 32
cated by the arrows 29 in Figure 4.
‘ with the throat t of the chamber or space, C‘,
The drive for rotating earns 25, as illustrated
formed between the concentric portions of drum 3 '
hopper Hat one end is the chute 2% through
which material may be initially supplied to ‘the
mountedon the rod 33, rotatably moiulted in
bearings 3!! provided in the uprights l2, the worm
device, and at the other or outlet end oi'the ‘
hopper the end member I80, is provided extend
gears 35 mounted on rod 33, and the worm wheels
ilermounted on the cam shafts 26.
It will be understood that when roller shaft
ing inwardly from member l8 and having its
lower and rear edges shaped to conform to the
curvature of the endless member I3 and the sur
face of drum ii). A port I8b is provided in mem
20
ber 'Tilld through which material reaching the
discharge end of the hopper is discharged into
less member i3 and the peripheral surface ‘of
drum [9. In order to facilitate the positive driv
the screw conveyor S. As illustrated in Figure 4
an angle member 20a is provided, in the charging
endo'f' hopper H, adjacent the open, ‘inner ‘end
of chute 26, which is ‘slideable lengthwise of the
hopper and thus serves to control the Width of
the ‘portion of thechamber C into which material
me relation between the belt i3 and roller M
the latter may be provided with the peripherally
serrated end flanges 1412 the serrations 'or teeth
of which enter and positively engage the, links
38 of endless member or belt 13, and ‘if desired
is initially charged, and so serves ‘to control the
the rollers 15 and 16 may similarly be provided
with serrated end ?anges 15b andv l?b respec
volume ‘or material treated in the ‘device,
l, ‘The member 18, ‘forming the front ‘of ‘hopper
H, is mounted, in slideways s in the uprights ‘[2,
tively.
the axis’of drum l6, and atspacedintervals along
doctor blade or scraper 31, the edge of which is
its lengthit is provided with apertures 2! through
in abutting relation with the peripheral surface
of drum ill. The doctor blade 31 is preferably
which ‘may be projected the fingers/or blades 22
which serve to advance the material axially of
inclined downwardly away from the drum, and
‘the drum as will nowrbe describe’dd Fingers ‘22
are secured atthe front end to the upwardly ex
40
moves with the rotary cams 25 which ‘as shown
are egg-shaped and mounted for rotation in a
horizontal plane on shafts 26 rotatably supported
from the horizontally extendings‘upport'armi'ia '
of support member “21, in bearings ‘25c. l‘ The
member 24 ‘is provided with slots 2M, and the
cams 25 are provided with the upwardly extend
‘mg lugs '28 which project into the saids'lots Zll'a.
Adjacent slots 24a, on the under surface of ‘mem; ,
‘b'e'r Y4, are ‘the brackets '1), extending at right
angles to ‘slots Eda, and positioned so ,that'oneo'f
said brackets will be engagedfby the point of one
“o'f‘cahis '25 during the ?rst w180° lof'its rotation
‘and So that the other will be engaged during the
second 185“ vof rotation by the po'intof the second
cam, thus causing member '2! to be reciprocated
and thus to reciprocate ?ngers 22'2.
‘
‘
Positioned above hopper H and extending be
tween, and supported by, the uprights I2, is ‘a
for reciprocal movement in a planeparallel with
ieetiieepor-iien .23 9f angle member. 24 which. is
a relatively heavy member and rests upon, and
Ma is, rotated drum ID will be rotated due to the
frictional ‘contact’ between ‘drum ‘Id and‘ belt l3
thereby causing synchronous rotation of the end
mounted so that, the material upon leaving‘ the
surface of drum ‘ill will ‘move across doctor blade
'3"! and be returned by gravity into the hopperH.
It will be seen from Figure 1 that,ei'n the modifi
cation of the ‘invention shown in .F‘igu're'sv 1 to
4 inclusive, the doctor‘ blade 3'! ‘is positioned
adjacent ‘a portion of’the peripheral path of ‘the
drum‘ l0 which is not covered by the material
con?ning member l3. As the material'leaves the
"surface of drum IE) it is returned by gravity into
the hopper I-I, and'is delivered from the ‘hopper
between the‘, moving con?ning member I3 and
the outer surface of drum Hi and ‘is entrained
by 'sa'id'member and surface and'is thus recharged
into the same portion of the treatment cham
ber inwhich it was previously treated; and these
vopei'ration‘s are repeated until the material, in
‘the portion of the hopper receiving it, builds up
to the height of "?ngers 22. Thereafter the’ih
crement of material ‘above said height is en
gaged ‘by ?ngers ‘22, during their cyclical move
When the cams 2‘5‘are revolved the engagement
or lugs V2% with ‘the edges of slots are and the 60 ment, ‘described above, and moved laterally to
ward ‘the right ‘hand end of the apparatiis as
‘engagement of'th'e points of the'cams with brack
shown in‘Figure' 3, ‘and will then'again be directed
ets "b ‘successively, causes the member 24 to move
fsiicces'siv'eiy thro-ugh'a ‘series of four steps; ‘in
wardly ‘toward the drum ‘It, thus projecting ?n
gers or vanesf22 "into the ‘hopper H, as shown in
‘between'a'nd entrained by, member l3 and‘the
outer surface of urumm, and will thus bechar-ge'cl
"into a portion'of the treatment chamber axially
‘dotted lines in ‘Figures '1 and 4; and then in a
direction at right angles to the aforesaid ,?rst
‘removed frointhefpor'tion'in ‘which'it ‘was pre
‘,Inotion, toward the right vendof the apparatus,
ment oil the material below the level ‘of ?ngers
v22 in the hopper H will be returned to, and re
viously treated; At thefsame ‘time the ain'cre
'the‘memb'er it also being moved axially of the
drum, in slid'eways 8, during this stepldue to the 70 treated in, the same portion of the chamber in
contact between member 18 and ?ngers 22 at the
which it was previously treated. A
The endless con?ning member l3 maybe .oon
frightihand marginof the apertures 2i through
‘which ?nger-s ‘22 extend; then rearwardly, away
‘
accordance
‘the particular mate
Lfrom‘the drum iii, thus substantially withdrawing , “rial ‘being treated‘iandthe kind ‘of, hampering
medium'crnpl'dyed and the ?exibiilty required for
?ngers '22 from‘h'opper'H to the ‘position indicated
2,419,763
.
,
‘5
travel in the endless path provided by the par
ticular embodiment of the invention. Y’As illus
trated‘inFigs. ‘1 and 3, the continuous member
6
‘At the discharge end of chamber 0, where the
material con?ning member l3 leaves contact with
l3, comprises two marginal chains of links 38, of
the material which has been con?ned between
member I 3 and the surface of the drum, a wire w,
standard construction, interconnected by the
shown in Figure 1, is provided to aid in separating
cross members or slats 33 which are disposed in
the material from the member I3. The wire w
substantially edge to edge arrangement, also of
preferably extends ‘the full length of drum l0,
across the entire width of material con?ning
standard construction.‘ Positioned on top of the
cross members or slats 39 in overlapped arrange
member l3, and may be supported at its ends in
ment are the thin belt sections or plates 40 which 10 the frame members I 2. Above wire w a doctor
blade 12 may also be provided to separate from
maybe of thin sheet metal or other suitable ma
con?ning member I3 any material still clinging
terial, and which in this embodiment of the in
vention are illustrated as non-perforate for con
to member l3 after it has passed beyond wire w,
?ning material which when dry‘ becomes of ?ne
and like wire w doctor blade d preferably extends
granular size. The plates 40 are preferably se-.
across the width of member l3 and may be sup
cured only at their front ends respectively, as by
the rivets 4| anchoring the‘plates 40 to the cross
members 39, and are thus capable of considerable
angular movement in the direction of travel of
ported between the frame members l2.
‘
In the embodiment‘of the invention shown in
Figures 5, 6 and 7, rotary drum 5!) is mounted on
an axle 5i ro-tatably supported between the frame
the member 13.
"
20 members or supports 52, and an endless member
53 is provided, extending around a large portion
' As stated above the rollers I4, [5 and it‘ are
preferably provided with peripherally serrated
of the periphery of the drum 55 but preferably
end flanges forming sprockets for engaging links
spaced from the surface of drum 50 by the ra
dially extending drum ?anges 55a, over which
38 of the marginal chains of the endless mem
bers l3, thereby providing positive driving en
member 53 extends, and supported and guided‘by
gagement between the‘rollers I4, I 5 and i6 and
rollers 55, 55 and 55 mounted on rotatable shafts
endless members [3.
54a, 55a and 55a, one of which may be driven by
a source of power (not shown), thus rotating end
Extending over the roller l6 and around the
less member 53 so that frictional contact between
lower course of endless member l3, over roller
14, and through hopper H to the throat t I pro 30 endless member 53 and drum 53 causes rotation of
drum 50, and the peripheral speed of drum 50 is
vide the guide wires or rods 42 which serve as
synchronous with the speed of member 53. As
means to hold the free ends of the overlapping
shown in Figure 5 the guide rollers 55 and 55 are
belt sections or plates 40 in substantially flat
supported between frame members (not shown)
position to prevent material from entering be
in substantially vertical arrangement, in front of
tween the plates 43 at the charging point, and
drum 5D, and roller 54 is also positioned in front
to prevent plates ?ll from ?apping during the re
of drum 5!], and somewhat more removed there
turn travel of the member 13, from approximately
from. Extending around the drum 55, and en
the point where the member I3 leaves the surface
closing the portion of endless member 53 which
of the drum IE! to the charging throat t of cham
surrounds and is concentric with the periphery
ber C. As illustrated in Figure 3 I have shown
of drum 55, is an enclosing casing 51.
several such guide rods 42 but it will be under
Mounted adjacent the drum surface and ex
stood that the number may be greatly varied,
tending across its length, between the upper and
and, if desired, as when a material-con?ning
lower ?ights of endless member 53 is the doctor
member with very thin plates is used, they may
be multiplied as required.
, blade 58 preferably of substantial width, the in
clination of which may be adjusted so that the
Preferably the whole assembly, above described,
speed of travel of material across it may be made
is enclosed in a casing 43 which may be provided
substantially equal to the peripheral speed of the
with ports 44 in which fans, such as are indicated
drum. As illustrated in Figure 5 the doctor blade
at 45, or other suitable means, may be provided,
to exhaust dust and dust laden air from the in- r
58is pivotally secured on the rear end of an apron
terior of the casing, and so that vapors from the
dryer or dusting portion of the material may be
removed from the casing separately from the va
pors arising from the non-dusting portion of the
material being treated. As shown in Figure 3
the casing 43 may be divided axially of the drum
59, which is supported between frame members 52
and is inclined downwardly from the drum. If
desired both the doctor blade 58 and apron 59 may
be vibrated.
In front of the drum 58 and extending across
its length between the upper and lower ?ights of
ill by a partition 35a separating the portion of
member 53, and above the rear end of means for
the casing containing the material which has '
. dried suf?ciently to give off dust from the portion
of the casing containing the substantially non
dusting portion of the material being treated.
Any suitable supports for the guide rods 42 may
be provided, such, for example, as support rods 46
and 4? respectively‘ ?xed to the wall of casing 43
returning separated material to be re-treated,
such, for example, as an endless conveyor 5!], pc
sitioned below the front end of apron 59, is a guide
member 6! which maybe supported on cross bar
61a and cooperates with the guide member 62,
positioned between the upper and lower ?ights of
endless member 53 and below the lower flight of
endless conveyor 60, to form a hopper H’, having
above and below drum Ill.
'
65 a gradually narrowing throat t’ communicating
It will be understood that the ?anges l 7 may be
with the thin extended chamber C’ formedbe
eliminated and the member l3 caused to lie di
tween the surface of drum 50 and the endless
rectly on material inserted between the surface of
member 53. Material is initially fed into cham
drum l0 and member l3, without departing from
the scope of this invention. It will also be un 70 ber C’, through the chute Ella through which ma
terial is supplied into the device, and through the
derstood that the surface of drum Iii may be
portion of throat t’ which is directly below chute
utilized at room temperature, or it may be at
60a. Chute 50a is preferably positioned at one
tempted as desired, as by introducing an attemp
end of the device, as illustrated in Figure 6.
‘ering medium into theinterior of drum 10, as for
example through the space I la around axle I I, '
The endless conveyor 60 is mounted on pulleys
254435765
7
63' and 64. rotatably supported on the ‘cross shafts
65 and '66, respectively, which may be supported
in bearings (not. shown) in support members 52,
drum 'lshown in Figure 3 is divided intosections 13>
14, 15 and 16. of different diameters; Separated by
radial ?anges 11a, 11b, and 170» equal ipdiameiel
and rotated in a direction Opposite to endless
member 53 to receive the material from drum 59;
as it'comes oil the front end-of apron 5,9 and carry
apart andisubror-ted by any desired spacingmeans, <
it back, and rte-charge it into the thin extended
mounted on the axle of the drum. The poripihe
chamber C’ through said throat tl'». ,
Either or both of said members 5| or GZmay be
providedrwith vibration means indicated at 61 in
connection with member 6|, to facilitate the re
turn of the material into the treatment chamber,
Positioned below the apron 59, and preferably
secured thereto as‘ by the vertically extending
member B8,.are a numberof de?ector plates {59
which extend toward the top of conveyor 60, the
lower ends thereof being, in the embodiment of
the invention shown in Figure 5, preferably spaced
from the top of conveyors!) by a distance equiva
lent to the height of chamber C’. The deflector
plates 69 are inclined toward the right,» hand side
of drum 59, as is shown in Figure 6, and are pref
erably mounted so that their‘ degree of inclina
tion may be adjusted.
'
to the cnd?anecs l8, and Which may be spaced
such for example, as the‘ spacing members" 8
ve es of the-flanges- ‘lla, 11b, ‘llc and '18 provide
bearing- Suriaces for the endless member 531.
which may be of the-general character ‘shown
in Figures 57-, 6 and 7, and there are thus formed
treatment chambers 80, 8|, 82 and 83, some vof
which are of different depths, which are shown
?lled with material. It will be noted that, as
illustrated, chambers 82' and 83 are of progres
sively greater depth than chambers 80, and 81,
The material reaching chambers 82 and 83 will
be at an advanced stage of dryness and there‘?
fore' more permeable to attempering gasl Use
of the chambers of increased depth permits a
greater volume of; material to be dried in 84 given
time during the continuous operation oi the de
vice.
As indicated by the arrows in Figure 8; attem
It will be understood that as material builds up 25 pering gas may be suppliedthrough intake 84, fan
or blower unit 8412, and conduit. 85, through port
on the conveyor 69, above a height equal to the
86 in one of the end ?anges ‘it at one, end of the
height of the attempering chamber 0’, it will be
brought into contact with the deflector plate 69
drum, into the interior of the drum, and can then
as it is being moved toward chamber C’, and will
be forced outwardly through the foraminous pe
be advanced a step toward the right hand side _
riphery ill of the drum, through the vmaterial [in
of the apparatus, as seen in Figure 6, and in this
chamber 83, and foraminous endless member 19
way material being treated will be advanced step
by step from the side of the device into which it
is originally charged, to the opposite side of the
into conduit 88. A portion of the gas reaching
conduit 88 will be exhausted through outlet port
89, another portion will be returned to blower
device, across the surface of the drum.v
35 unit 84a to be recirculated, while the remainder
of the gas reaching conduit 88, will pass through
As is indicated in Figures 6 and 7 the material
con?ning member 53 may comprise any suitable
conduit 99 .into blower uni-t ‘9|, from which it will
pass, together with new gas admitted through
foraminous belt, which, for example, may be of
intake 92, through conduit 93, through foram'ie
standard screen mesh construction comprising
marginal chains the links it of which are secured 40 nous endless member ‘i9 and the material in
together by the cross rods it which extend the
chamber 82, through the ioraminous surface of
the drum into the interior of the drum, from
full width of the machine between the chain mem
bers, and the screening 12,. Preferably the pe
where it passes through ,port 94 in partition mom.
ber. 1112 and outwardly through chamber 8| to
ri-phery of drum 56 may also be perforate so that
an attempering gas may :be passed through both 45 conduit 95. Similarly a portion of the gas reach
ing conduit 95 will be "exhausted through port
the endless member 53 and the, periphery of drum
59,, and the material between them. To facilitate
this step the chamber or treatment space formed
between said member 53 and drum 5!! is main-,
96, another portion will be returned tov blower
unit 9! to be recirculated through the material
in chamber 82 through conduit, 93, and another
tainedfull of material at all times, and free from ,
portion will pass throughrconduit 91 into blower
voids, as by employing the'material advancing
unit 90. from which it will pass, together with new
means disclosed herein in connection with this or
other embodiments of the invention, and whereby
only material in excess of that required to ?ll one
gas admitted through intake 99 through conduit
chamber portion is advanced to another chamber
foraminous periphery 8'! of the drum into the,
interior of the drum, and then outwardly through
portion.
'In Figure 8 a drum having a modi?ed material
receiving surface is shown, which'rnay if ‘desired
be‘substituted in the embodiments of the, inven
tion shown in Figures 1 and 5, modifying the
scraper means 3'? and 58 respectively, to separate
the material from the several portions of the drum
having portions of different. diameter by extending
portions of the scraper means toward the drum so
that the material separating edge of the scraper
will extend into ‘operative position relative to the
surface of the said several portions ‘of, the drum,
and employing without change, the means shown
H10, through the foraminous endless member 19
and the material in chamber 89, and through the
the drum surface, another portion of the mate,
rial in chamber Bil, and through the foraminous
endless member 19, into conduit. till, from which
a portion of the gas will be returned to blower '
unit'- 98 to be recirculated'through material in
chamber Bil through .COnduit [99, and another
portion of the gas will ‘be exhausted through ex
haust conduit I92. If desired heater units may
be provided at the inlet end of conduits. 85, 93
and. Hill,
It will be noted that in each of the‘ air intake
conduits 84, 92 and 99, andin- each of conduits
in Figures 1 or 5 respectively for shifting the ma
88, 95, and H31, and also in interconnecting» con.
terial axially of the drum. If the drum of Figure 70 duits 90 and 91, and exhaust conduit Hi2, valves
8 is substituted in the assembly shown in Figure 1
the length of the ?ngers 22 may be respectively
or dampers 'v are shown, and it will be undere
stood that by proper adjustment of the valves 12
three independent circuits may be provided, so
modi?ed in accordance withthe distance between
the front 18- of,v hopper Hand the. surfaces of the
that, if desired, a ?ow of atteinperine gas may
different portions, of. the, drum. The modi?ed 7:5 be Provided to either chamber 83, chambers 8!
2,412,768
10
.91
and 82, or chamber 88, separately, or any two
of these circuits may be operated without the
third. Obviously the number of circuits andthe
number of treatment chambers, and the number
of chambers in communication with a given cir
cuit, may be widely varied without departing from
the scope of the invention.
In Figure 9 I have shown a modi?cation of, the
means shown in Figure 3 for advancing material
cross member I I4, which may extend between the
supporting frame members of the apparatus,'
whereby by pushing on rod I I5 of the bell crank
the doctor blade H2 is caused to swing from the
position shown in full lines to the position shown
in dotted lines, thus removing it from operating
contact with the surface of the drum. By opera
tion of the means shown in Figure 10 the length
of time material remains upon the surface of the
in the hopper H. According to this modi?cation 10 drum, and the number of times it passes between
the material is advanced longitudinally of the
the surface of the drum and the surrounding con
axis of the drum, from the lateral portion of the
?ning member without being separated from the
hopper into which material supplied through
surface of the drum, may be controlled as desired.
chute ZIJ falls when it is ?rst separated from the
Thus material may be applied to the surface ‘of
surface of drum I0, tothe discharge end of the 15 the drum and allowed to remain thereon, and to
drum, and the discharge conduit S, by the parti
pass through the chamber‘ formed between the
tion members Hi3 positioned vertically in hopper
drum and the material con?ning member, for one;
H and pivotally mounted, at their ends which are
two, three, or any given number of rotations of
adjacent drum ID, on the supporting cross mem
the drum, whereupon, by operation of the means
ber I04, the ends of which may be supportedin
shown, it may be separated from the surface of
the frame support members I2. The partition
the drum, to be advanced along the longitudinal
members I03 are each apertured adjacent their
axis of the drum and re-applied to another por
respective ends which are adjacent the front of
hopper H, and through the said apertures ex
tends a cross bar I55 ?xed to the partition mem
bers IE3 by means, such as lock nuts Illliso that
tion of the surface of the drum, and it may be
then retained upon this portion of the surface of
the drum through any desired number of rota
tions of the drum.
the partition members swing laterally upon move
In Figure 11 I have shown a modi?ed form‘of
ment of cross bar “E5, the said ‘apertures in the
the overlapping belt sections or plates of the end
partition members I03 being large enough to pro
less material con?ning means shown in Figure 2.
vide for the necessary relative movement be 30 According to this modi?cation a plate Mia may be
tween the partition members I 53 and cross bar
bent along its free or rearward end, forming the
I05 during this movement. At its right'hand end,
as viewed in Figure 9, cross rod I95 is ?xed to a
rotatably mounted crank IB'I having thereon a
pinion I [33 which is adapted to mesh with the
teeth I09 on pinion H0 and to be rotated there
by. The number of teeth on pinion IE8 and on
pinion IIEI are proportioned so that the partition
members Hi3 will be swung from their position
indicated in full lines to the position indicated
in dotted lines at desired intervals, according to
the speed of travel across the drum surface de
sired for the material being treated. The pinion
I II] may be actuated in any desired way, as for
example, by a belt drive to pulley III from any .,.
source of power, not shown, which may conven
iently be the same source of power used to ro
tate the drum and the material con?ning means.
Thus, if desired, the partition members I93 may
inclined.‘ ?ange H6, adapted to aid in excluding
material being treated from entering be'tween'th
overlapping plates 40a.
'
In Figure 12 I have shown another modi?cation
of a belt section or plate, 4%, which is formed
with a portion of double thickness along its rear
edge. This may be conveniently formed by weld
ing a narrow strip such as II ‘I, which may be
of the same material as the plate or belt section
4%, across the under face of plate 40b, prefer
ably so that its rear edge is flush with the rear
edge of plate ‘Mlb. The addition of strip II ‘Lhas
the eifect of weighting the rear edgeportions of
the plates and thus preventing them from vibrat
ing'or springing apart during the portion of the
circular path of the material retaining member
when the material is being delivered from the
hopper onto the surface of the endless material
be caused to move angularly to the right once ,
con?ning member.
for each three rotations of the drum, permitting
material to pile up in the hopper, between the
partition members, through three rotations of
the drum, during which rotations the material
will be applied to, and cut off from, the same
portion of the drum, and will then, upon angular
movement of partition members I03, be moved a
A particular advantage of my invention, sev
eral embodiments of which I have described here
predetermined distance to the right along the
axis of the drum. Obviously the timing of the
angular movement of the partition members I93
may be varied as desired so that the material
may be treated repeatedly on the same portion
of the drum surface, or in the same portion of
the treatment chamber between‘ the drum sur
face and the surrounding con?ning member, a
desired number of times, and then moved later
ally of the drum surface tobe applied to another
portion of the drum surface, or, in other words,
into another portion of the-treatment chamber
between the drum surface and the surrounding
con?ning member.
,
,
1
a
,
In Figure 10 I have indicated means ‘for sepa
rating material from the drum surface, such for
example, as a doctor blade II2 supported on a
bell crank I I3 which is in turn supported on a r
I
' in, is its great ?exibility, making-possible a wide
~variation in speed of treatment, .th‘eilength of
time material is continuously in ‘contact with the
drum surface and in the treatment chamber pro
vided between the drum surface and the con
?ning member, the kind and number ‘of attem
pering mediums employed. and the di?erent ,at
tempering conditions to which different portions
of the material may be subjected. Thus it will
be understood that the material being treated
may be either heated or cooled with my device,
by contact with the air, or the surfaces of the
drum or the confining means which may be at,
tempered in any known way, andan attempering
medium may if desired be passed through both
the con?ning member and the drum,.,and the
material, in either direction, or by all or any of
these means.
,
It will thus be seen that there has been pro
vided by this invention a method, apparatus, and
an article in which the various objects herein
above set forth together with many thoroughly
practical advantages ‘are successfully achieved.
ama'ms
li
12
As various possible embodiments mightbe made
of the mechanical features of the above inven~
abovev la'predetermined level in said container and
charging ‘it onto another portion of ‘said attem
pering surface, and recharging onto the same
portion of the attempering surface onto which
it was previously ‘charged, the portion of mate
rial which is below the said predetermined level,
and discharging the material from said hon
tainer after it hasmoved ‘across the attempering
tion and as the art herein described might be
varied in various parts, all without departing
from the scope of the invention, it is to be under~
stoodlthat‘ all matterv hereinbefore set forth or
shown in the accompanying drawings is to be in~
terpreted as illustrative and not in .3, limiting
sense.
What I'claim is:
surface.‘
1.0
.
-
is. In a method 'of'attempering material ofithe ‘
kind described the steps which comprise continu
.1. In a method of‘ attempering materialof the
ously charging material onto one portion of the
kind described the steps which comprise charging
surface of a rotary drum,‘ separating the mate
'material'between‘portions of two concentricro
rial vfrom the said portion of the drum, and col
tatable surfaces, rotating the surfaces for apre»
a container, and redirecting the ma
determined distance, removing the material from 15 lec‘tin'g it
terial. and ‘recharging it onto the said ‘portion ‘of
between said surfaces, collecting the materialin
a container, " and recharging the material be
the drum surface, and repeating ‘the aforesaid
vsteps until the material rises above a ‘predeter
mined level ‘in said container, and thereafter pe
in the ‘container, and thereafter continuing to 20 riodically advancing a portion of the material ‘in
the container longitudinally of the drum to am
treatthe portion of ‘the material below a prede
termined level in said container by the aforee
other portion of ‘the drum surface, and returning
said steps, but advancing laterally of said surfaces
another portion of the-material to ‘the same por
tion of the drum surface onto which it was pre
‘material; ‘collecting in the container above the
tween vsaid surfaces, and, repeating these steps
untilth'e material reaches a predetermined, height
predetermined level, and thereafter charging the 25
viously charged.
laterally advanced material between ‘other por
"7. Apparatus for ‘treating material of the kind
described ‘which comprises ‘a thin extended treat
tions of the said surfaces.
7
.
.. j
Ina method of 'attemperin'g material ‘of the
kindiidescribed the steps ‘which comprise contine
uously applying material ‘to a portion of the sur
face ‘of ‘a rotary drum, confining the material on
the surface of the drum while rotating the drum,
separating the material ‘from the drum and di
recting it into a container, and returning the sepe
arated material to the same portion, of the drum '
surface to which it was initially applied and re
con?ning it thereon repeatedly until the said
container is ?lled to a predetermined height, and
thereafter advancing the increment of material
in ‘said container which is above the said prede 40
terminedw height, and reapplying it to another
, portion of said drum surface.
. .3.:Apparatus for treating material of the kind
,
r
meant ‘chamber, means for moving at least one
wall offithe treatment chamber to ‘transfer ma
terial ‘from a charging point to a discharging
point, a hopper adapted to receive material dis
charged from ‘said treatment chamber and to
charge material into said treatment chamber,
and means operative upon the increment ofthe
material contained in said hopper which is above
a given height in said hopper to move the mate
rial relatively to said treatment chamber so that
it will ‘be returned to a portion of the treatment
chamber other than the ‘portion from ‘which it
was
discharged,
>
'
r
.
>
-
8. Apparatus for treating'materialof the kind
described which comprises a rotary drum, an
‘endless member having a- portion substantially
concentrically surrounding ‘a portion of the pe
‘described ‘which comprises a rotary drum,having
amaterial receiving surface, means for separat~ . 'riphery of said drum and means for supporting
ing'rnate'ria'l from the drum, a hopper ‘adapted
the remainder of said endless member spaced out
‘to receive the. separated material and to direct
wardly from said drum causing the portion of the
andtreturn ‘material to the surface of said drum,
endless member not in contact with the drum to
and means operative upon material contained in
describe a ‘loop extending outwardly- from the
said hopper to advance along the axis of ‘the
drum and leaving a space adjacent‘the portion
drum theportionof the material therein which
of the drum surface within the said- loop, means
is‘ above a selected level therein from one portion
‘for rotating said drum and endless member syn- V
of the surface thereof to another portion, the re
chronously, a hopper ‘having a throat leading into
mainder of'the material being’ returned to ‘the
the space between the periphery of the drum and
same portion of said: surface from which it was
said surrounding ‘member, a doctor blade posi
separated. .
tioned ‘Withinsaid loop to separate material from
' 4. In apparatus of the kind‘ described compris
ing a rotatably mounted drum, means for rotat
ing the drum, a hopper extending longitudinal
1y o'fv'the ‘drum and adapted to feed material ‘so ,.
‘that 'it is charged'o'nto' the ‘surface’ of the drum,
the surface of the drum, an apron, positioned
within said loop, inclined downwardly away from
the drum and positioned to receive material sep
arated from. the drum by said doctor blade, means
positioned below the said apron, within said loop,
‘means for periodically transferring the material
adapted vto receive material from said apron and
from ‘the ‘surface of the drum into said hopper
‘to return it and to discharge it into the said hop
"means ‘intermittently projectable into the ‘hoppftir
and movablelaterally in the hopper to advance 65 per, and means'positioned .a predetermined dis
tance above ‘said ‘material returning means
alon‘grt'he-axis of the drum material which is
above a predetermined height in said hopper, and _ ‘adapted ‘to .de?ectalong the longitudinal axis of
the drum the increment of the material being re
‘means for actuating said projectable means.
turned "which ‘extends -a predetermined distance
" 5.111 a method of attemper'ing material or the
kind described the. steps which comprise charg
9. Apparatus as claimed in claim 8 inic'embina
ing-the material-onto a'portion of‘ an, attemper
t'ionfwi'th a casing enclosing a portion'of the drum
ing surface, periodically separating the'material
andthe portion of the endless’ member ‘surround
from said surface and collecting it in a container,
above
periodically’ moving, relatively to said surface,
the "portion of the collected“ material which is
sa‘id‘means.~
»
-
a
-
ing thesaid portion of the drum, and means caus
ing “and directing a ‘flow of attemperingi gas into
2,412,763
13
14
said casing and around the periphery of the said
ing points for advancing the material axially‘of
portion of the endless member.
the drum and from one chamber to another."
16. Apparatus of the kind described compris
s
i
10. In combination with the apparatus dis
closed in claim 8, means for imparting vibratory
motion to a wall of the said throat leading into
the space between the periphery of the drum and
the portion of the endless material con?ning
member concentrically surrounding the periphery
ing a plurality of superimposed spaced ‘movable
foraminous surfaces, means ‘for entraining ma
terial between said surfaces, means for attem
pering said material while retained between. said
surfaces, means for separating the material from
said surfaces,‘ and a hopper ‘for receiving the sep
of the drum.
11. In apparatus of the kind described a drum 10 arated material and returning it to be reentrained
having sections of different diameters separated
between said surfaces, and‘ means operative on
by partition members normal to the axis of the
drum and extending beyond‘the periphery of the
drum,‘ material con?ning means surrounding a
portion of the periphery of the drum, and spaced
therefrom by the portions of said partition mem
bers which extend beyond the periphery of the
drum, and means for spacing said partition mem
bers axially of the drum.
12. Apparatus of the kind described compris 20
ing a foraminous drum having a plurality of sec
tions of di?erent diameter, partition members
normal to the axis of the drum separating said
sections and extending beyond the periphery of
material in said hopper for advancing a portion
of the material therein laterally of said surfaces.
17. Apparatus of the kind described comprisé
ing a plurality of superimposed spaced movable
foraminous surfaces,’ forming a treatment'cham
ber, means dividing said chamber into a plurality
of ‘portions, means for attempering the material
while it is retained in one or said chamber por
tions, means for separating the material from
said chamber portion means for receiving the sep
arated material and‘returning ‘a portion of it
into the chamber from which it was last sep
arated and, means‘for returning another portion
the drum, means for spacing said partition mem 25 of the material into another chamber portion,
bers axially of the drum, an endless foraminous
and means for separately attempering the ma
‘member extending around a portion of the pe
vterial while itis retained in'said other chamber
riphery of said drum and spaced therefrom‘ by
said partition members and means for feeding
18. Apparatus of the kind described compris
material between the said endless foraminous U ing a ‘rotary drum mounted in an enclosing cas
member and the portion of the periphery of said
ing, the said drum having end ?anges extending
‘drum covered by said foraminous member, and
radially outwardly from the surface of said drum
means for removing material from the drum sur
and an endless member extending around said
face.
drum and across the said ?anges forming a
'13. Apparatus of the kind described comprising 35 chamber between itself and-the periphery of the
a rotary drum having a plurality of sections of
drum throughout a large portion of the rotary
different diameter, said drum having radially ex
path of said drum, the said casing having VET
tending ?anges at its ends and between said dif
tically spaced entrance and exit openings through
ferent sections, extending beyond the peripheries
which the said endless member extends, and
portion.
of the drum sections respectively and to the same -
distance from the axis of the drum, and an end
less member partially surrounding the circumfer
ence of said drum and extending over and bridg
ing the said ?anges thus forming a plurality of
chambers of different depth between the said ,
endless member and the periphery of the drum.
14. Apparatus of the kind described compris
ing a rotary drum having a plurality of sections
of different diameter, said drum having radially
extending ?anges at its ends and between said
'
'
l
through which material may be respectively
charged into, and removed'fr'om, the said cham
ber, means for rotating said drum and said end
less member at synchronous speeds, means adja~
cent the upper of said openings for removing ma
terial from the said chamber, means for charging
the material into said chamber, an inclined apron
adapted to receive 1the separated material and
to direct it downwardly at'substantially the same
speed as the peripheral ‘speed of the drum, said
apron being positioned to return the material
different sections, extending beyond the periph
for recharging into said chamber, and means lo
cated between the point where the material is
discharged from the chamber and the point where
it is charged into saidchamber for moving Ina~
cumference of said drum and extending over and ,Ll ,_vi terial transversely of ‘the drum surface, along the
bridging the said ?anges thus forming a plurality
longitudinal ‘axis of theL drum.
‘ .
of chambers of different depth between the said
19. In a device of the kind described a thin
eries of the drum sections respectively and to the
same distance from the axis of the drum, and an
endless member partially surrounding. the cir
endless member and the periphery of the drum,
extended'treatment chamber comprising two op~
means for charging material into said chambers,
posed spaced foraminou-s walls, at least one of
means for discharging material from said cham ii) the walls of said chamber being movable to trans
bers, and means operative on said material be
port material through said chamber, means for
tween said charging point and said discharging
charging material into one portion of said cham
point to move said material from one of said
ber to be transported through said chamber, and
chambers to another of'said chambers.
means for receiving‘ the material when dis
‘15. Apparatus of the kind described compris 135 charged from the discharge end of said chamber
ing a rotary drum having a plurality of sections
and means operative on the material while it is
of di?erent diameter, said drum having radially
in said receiving means for recharging it partly
extending ?anges at its ends and between said
into the same portion of said chamber and partly
di?erent sections, endless means extending par»
into another portion of said chamber to be re
transported through said chamber.
'
tially around said sections, forming with the drum
a ‘plurality of treatment chambers, means for
20. In apparatus of the kind described a plu
charging material into said chambers, means for
rality of ‘annular material treatment chambers of
discharging material from said chambers and re-g
different depths, having different internal. diam
turning it to be recharged into said chambers,
eters and substantially the same external diam»
and means between the discharging and‘ charg 75 ‘eter arranged co-axial in side by side relation,
2,419,763
15
means for' charging material ‘into one of said
chambers, .means for separating material from
said chamber and recharging it into said cham
16
for advancing material laterally across. said sur~
face, a casing enclosing said enumerated-ele
ments having a plurality of exhaust conduits par
tition means dividing said casing intotwo cham'
bers each having an exhaust conduit, one of said
chambers enclosing a portion of the material
ber, and means interposed between the separat~
ing and recharging means for moving into the
second of said chambers material in excess of
being treated which is substantially non-dusting,
the amount required to keep the ?rst chamber
and the other portion of the casing containing
?lled.
the material which is dried enough to give off
21., In apparatus of the kind described a drum
having a plurality of portions ‘of different diam 10 dust, and means for separately controlling said
conduits so that vapors containing dust may be
eter, a member extending concentrically of said
removed from the interior ofv said casing sepa~
drum surface throughout a portion of 360°, thus
rately from vapors arising from the non-dustin
forming between itself and the drum surface a
portion of the material being treated. ,
i
plurality of .chambers of differentidepth, means
26. The method of handling material for at-~
for charging the material into one of said cham
tempering it which comprises supplying the ma
bers, means for separating the material from said
terial into a portion of a :treatment chamber
chamber, a hopper adapted to receive material
comprising two foraminous surfaces, passing it
separated from the said chambers and to return
longitudinally and repeatedly through the said
it into said chambers, and means for advancing
portion of thechamber until said portion is ?lled,
laterally of the drum surface, and from one of
and advancing transversely of said chamber into
said chambers to another, material-‘that reaches
the adjacent portion thereof the increment of
a predetermined point in the said hopper. '
material in excess of that required to ?ll the said
'22. In the method , of attempering material
?rst portion of said chamber, and similarly ?lling
which comprises continuously charging material
successive portions of said chamber until said
into a portion of the chamber formed between
chamber is ?lled and thereafter advancing a part
two foraminous surfaces, said chamber compris
of the material in eachrportion of said chamber
ing a plurality of portions, and advancing the.
while retaining another increment of material in
material from one portion of said chamber to
each of said portions of said chamber.
another portion by aseries of steps including sep
27. Apparatus of the kind described compris
arating'the material from said chamber,‘ advanc- ‘P
ing a rotary drum having a foraminous surfacea
ing it, and recharging it into said chamber, the
casing at least partially enclosing said-drum, and
step of maintaining all portions of said chamber
a foraminous endless member extending around
?lled by advancing an increment of the separated
said drum forming a chamber between itself and
material from one chamber portion to another
the periphery of the drum throughout a large
and returning another increment of the sepa- portion of the rotary path of said drum, the said
rated material to the same portion of said cham
casing having vertically spaced entrance and exit
ber from which it was separated, and passing an
openings through which the endless member ex
attempering gas through said surfaces and the
tends, and through which material may be re
material contained between said surfaces.
spectively charged into and removed from said
‘ 23. The method of attempering material which 1
chamber, means for directing a ?ow of air
comprises engaging the material successively be
through the walls of said chamber while the ma
tween successive portions of two foraminous
terial is contained therein, and means for sup
members, passing an attempering gas through
porting said endless member in its travel between
said members and through the material con~
tained therebetween, and eliminating any open g said entrance and exit openings, spaced outward
ly from said drum causing the portion of said
space between said foraminous surfaces by con
endless member not in contact with the drum to
tinuously supplying material into a ?rst portion
describe a loo-p extending outward from said
of the space provided between said members and
drum, and means within the said loop for remov
advancing from one portion of the space between
ing material fromrsaid chamber and for simul
said members to the other portions of the space
taneously returning a portion of the separated
between said members, successively, only the in
material to the same portion of said chamber
crement of material in excess of the volume of
from which it was separated, and advancing an
material required to ?ll the said portion of the
other portionof the separated material into an
space between said members.
'24. In a device for treating materialscompris- ~
other portion of said chamber.
7
28. Apparatus of the kind described compris
ing a surface adapted to receive material to be
ing a rotary drum mounted in an enclosing cas
treated, means for supplying material to a por
ing, and an endless member extending around
tion of said surface, means for separating mate
said drum forming a chamber between itself and
rial irom said surface,- and means for returning
and re-applying material to said surface, means (50 the periphery of the drum throughout a large
for advancing material laterally across said ‘sur
portion of the rotary path of said drum, said
chamber being adapted to receive material to be
face, a casing enclosing the surface and meansdi
treated, the said casing having vertically spaced
viding the casing into a chamber. containing a
entrance and exit openings ‘through which'the
substantially non-dusting portion of the material
said endless member extends, and through which
and another chamber containing the dusting por
tion of the material, said other portion having a '
port therein, and actuating means operatively
positioned with respect to said port to remove
from said casing the vapors that contain dust.
25. In a device for treating materials compris~
ing a surface adapted. to receive material to be
treated, means for supplying material to a por
tion of said surface, means for separating mate—
rial from said surface, and means: for returning
andre-applying material to said’ surface, means
material may be respectively charged into, and
removed ‘from, the said chamber, the said drum
and said endless member being foraminous, and
means communicating with the interior of said
casing for introducing an attempering medium
into-said casing and for forcing it through the
said endless member and the said drum and
through the material contained between the
drum and the endless member, said chamber
being divided into a plurality of sections by par
17
2,412,763
18
tition means, mounted on said drum and extend
ing into said chamber, and means for supplying
independent attempering mediums to the differ
ent sections of said casing.
29. In a device of the kind described a .thin
extended treatment chamber comprising a plu
rality of movable endless wall portions, and hav
around said drum forming a chamber, between
itself and the periphery of the‘ drum throughout ‘ ‘
r
)
a portion of the rotary path of said drum, having
vertically spaced entrance and exit openings
through which material may be respectively
- charged into and removed from said chamber,
means for supporting said endless member in its
ing a charging end and a discharge end, material
travel between said exit and entrance openings,
receiving means intermediate the said discharge
spaced outwardly from said drum, causing the
and charging ends and communicating with said 10 portion of said endless member not in contact
charging end, means for transferring material‘
with the drum .to describe a loop extending out
from said chamber to said material receiving
wardly from said drum, means within said loop
means, material engaging means cooperatively
for directing material into said chamber, means
positioned with respect to said material receiving
within said loop for separating material from
means, means for causing relative movement be
said chamber, and means within said loop for
tween said material receiving and said material
receiving material discharged from said chamber
engaging means to divert a vertical portion of the
and delivering it to said material directing means.
material on said material receiving means and to
32. Apparatus of the kind described comprising
cause it to be recharged into a portion of the
a rotary drum mounted in an enclosing casing,
chamber other than the portion from which it
and an endless member extending around said
was last separated, and means for actuating said
drum forming a chamber, between itself and the
movable wall portions.
periphery of the drum throughout a large portion
30. In apparatus of the kind described a cham
of the rotary path of said drum, the said casing
ber comprising two foraminous movable endless
having vertically spaced entrance and exit open
surfaces superimposed in spaced relation through
ings through which the said endless member ex
a part of the path of travel of each of said sur
tends, and through which material may be re
faces and having a charging end and a discharge
spectively charged into, and removed from, the ‘
end, means for actuating said surfaces, means for
said chamber, the said drum and said endless
directing material to be entrained between said
member being foraminous, and means communi
surfaces and transported through said chamber, 30 eating with the interior of said casing for intro
material transfer means movable between the
ducing an attempering medium into said casing
discharge end and the charging end of said
and for forcing it through the said endless mem
chamber to return discharged material to the
ber and the said drum and through the material
charging end of the chamber, means for actuat
contained between the drum and the endless ,
ing said transfer means, and material shifting : member, said drum comprising portions of dif
means operatively positioned with respect to said
ferent diameter, forming with said endless mem
transfer means to advance transversely of said
ber treatment chambers of different depth, and
chamber the portion of the material which is
means for separately attempering the material in
above a given level on said transfer means.
said different chambers.
31. Apparatus of the kind described comprising 40
a rotary drum, and an endless member extending
DAVID S. BAKER.
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