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Dec. 17,1946. (5, G’. GILPIN 2,412,806 RAILWAY CAR WALL Filed Oct; 27, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet l w bl w. 1k|l.x‘ Fr aIl . Q. . INVE Goff/z [7‘ Gig/pin, Dec. 17, 1946.‘ G. G. GILPIN 2,412,806 RAILWAY GAR WALL Filed Oct. 27, 1943 ‘2~Sheets-Sheet 2 2,412,806 Patented Dec. 17, >1946 UNITED STATES PATENT I OFFICE ‘ ' 2,412,806 ' ' ‘ RAILWAY CAR WALL ‘Garth G. Gilpin, Chicago, nr, assignor to Stand ard Railway Equipment Manufacturing Com pany, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Delaware Application?ctober 27, 1943',‘Serial‘No. 508,082 " 14 Claims. (01. 105-409) 1 My invention relates to railway freight cars and more particularly to the wall structure for open top railway cars, such as hopper and gondola cars, though the construction is adaptable for other parts of conventional railway freight cars, such as end walls, doors and separate panels. Railway freight cars are generally designed so that the‘side walls are girders or trusses to carry part of the weight of the lading and the car itself to the body bolsters which transmit such load to the trucks. Such walls also, of course, retain the load in the car.‘ Since the outside width of any car is limited by the dimensions of tunnels and projections adjacent the track; and the pay-load is limited to the cubical capacity of the car, it is extremely desirable to so design the walls of the 2 the free and ready discharge of the lading. .rEven rivet heads are objectionable. It is important, therefore, that the portions of the car wall adja cent to or forming part of ‘the top and bottom chords. respectively, are sloped to eliminate pock ets which wouldretain partsof certain ladings (such as sand, chats or ?ne coal).- It ‘is also im_ portant that the upper sloping element be as ‘near the tend the side wall as possiblevand that the sloping element‘ of the bottom chord be as near the bottom of the interior of the car ‘as possible because the further these two elements are apart the greater the cubical capacity of the car will be. The entire wall being shaped from flat sheet metal plates, bent, pressed or otherwise formed Without the necessity of heating, provides the car so that the space, otherwise occupied by the most economical way of constructing the car wall, which is another important object of the wall itself, is available for lading and thereby the cubical capacity of the car is increasedwith— Other objects and advantages of the inven out’ increasing the overall car dimensions. This 20 tion will appear. in the following, description constitutes the principal-object of the invention. . Attempts have heretofore been made to in Referring now to the accompanying drawings crease the capacity of cars by bulging outwardly ‘forming part of this application and wherein like central parts of wall panels, such, for example, as characters indicate lik‘eeparts :. shown in Hart‘Patent No. 1,623,591, of April 5, 25 reference ‘Fig. 1 is‘a partial side-elevation of a hopper 1927. With my present invention, however, sub car side wall embodying one form of ‘my inven stantially the whole wall, from the center line of invention. thereof. bolster at one end to that at the other end, is disposed outside of the car posts, and thereby, is, infeffect, one continuous outwardly bulged panel, . a?ording the maximum possible inside width of car, and this without decreasing the strength of such'car wall, which is another object of my pres ent invention. " Another object of the invention'is to form the ‘ wall posts which extend within the ladin‘g com partment of a single web of relatively thin ma terial to thereby reduce the carrying capacity of the car the minimum amount and to assure a complete discharge of the load when the hopper 4.0 doors are opened or when the car is turned up side down for unloading. As stated before, the side Wall of a hopper or gondola railway car is a girder between the car bolstersv and as girders comprise top chords, bot tom chords, web plates and web platev stilfene'rs. The side walls are also load retaining means in which some of the stiffeners function as posts or stakes. Such cars are sometimes unloaded by opening the doors in the‘hoppers which areposi- ‘. tione'd between the center sills ‘and side sills of the ‘car and other times are unloaded by turning the car almost upside down in a dumping ma~ chine. In either event it is imperative that there be no obstruction within the car to interfere with. , tion. ' . .- ‘ -> i Fig. 3 is a longitudinal-section on . v r l . . .. ' . i Fig. 2 is a top plan view of Fig.» 1. _ of Fig.1. ‘ - the‘ line 3-,: . , Fig. 4 is a broken side elevation of a wall sheet forming part of the invention. ‘ - Fig. 5 is a vertical section on the line . 5-5‘ of Fig. 1. Fig. 6 is a side elevation of stakes. one of the car wall » . Fig. '7 is a perspective view of a portion of a car wall ‘embodying the invention. , My improved wall for railway cars comprises a vertical wall sheet extending substantially‘ from ‘end to end of the car in one or more pieces and comprising a main portion 3 and upper margin portion 4. r The girder stiffeners or stakes 5 ‘are ‘preferably made of'?at metallic bars extending transversely of the car. When‘the wall is made of more than one wall sheet the edges of the ad jacent wall sheets overlap the edge of a stake‘ 5 and the adjacent edges of the wall sheets are welded together and to the adjacent stake a singlerow of welded materiale By this arrange ment very few wall sheets per car need be .used; in fact, I contemplate extending each'sheet from the bolster line to the middle of the car,asshown in Fig. 1;, Since each stake 5 comprises a single 2,412,806 3 4 web there is practically no interference with the free discharge of the lading, as no pockets are struction provides a wider hopper and therefore formed where the stakes meet the top and bot tom chords, respectively. Furthermore, a flat metallic plate forms a very strong stiffener for In this construction the portions or ?anges ill of the top chord and I6 of the bottom chord are the car wall as a girder and a very strong stake or post for the car wall as a retaining wall; that is, provided that the ends of the stakes are ade quately attached to the top and bottom chords, respectively, as is hereinafter brought out. The stakes 5 are restrained from lateral de?ection under stress by being attached not only‘ to the one of greater cubical capacity. . provided with slots spaced apart coincidentally with the stakes 5 which extend through said slots and the top and bottom edges of the stakes are welded to the horizontal arms land l3, respec~ tively, of the top and bottom chord members to provide cooperative relation between these stakes (as girder sti?eners) and the top and bot tom‘. chords, respectively. Furthermore, the wall sheet but by also being attached to the top stakes 5, as horizontally loaded vertical beams of and bottom chords, respectively, as illustrated a retainingwall, are rigidly attached to the top particularly in Fig, 5. and bottom chords, respectively, to transfer any ‘The marginal portion 4 of the wall sheet'or horizontal load imposed thereon to the top and sheets is provided with a plurality of spaced apart bottom chords. } slots 6 and bent between the slots to provide up The continuity of the bottom chord between Wardly and inwardly inclined portions extending the car bolsters and. the sloping floor is provided between the stakes in alignment with each other 20 by short channels indicated in dotted lines at [9, and'welded to the opposite sides of the stakes to Fig. 5, which are secured tomy bottom-chord provide, in effect, a‘continuous element of the member and the car bolsters. ‘ ‘ top chord. The unslotted portion 3‘ of the wall The lower edge of the main portion 3 of the sheet is preferably welded to the outer ‘edges of wall sheet preferably terminates adjacent the the stakes 5. ' ' ' The top chord comprises a substantially chan jnelj shaped section including a member 26 hav ing a'horizontal portion or ?ange 1 welded to the top ‘edge 3 of the inclined margina1 portion 4 of thewa‘ll sheet, and also welded to the top edges of the several stakes 5. The member 26 also com prises a Vertical or'vveb portion 9 welded to the outer edges of the several‘ stakes 5 and an in wardly inclined portion or ?ange l0 welded to the ?anges ll, of the bottom chord member, as shown in Fig. 5, but, if desired, may be'extended downwardly to and be secured to the bottom flange it of ‘the horizontal arm I 3'. The‘ wall sheet thus extended would provide a stronger bot; tom chord, give a better appearing car, and re duce air resistance when the car is in motion. The side walls of the car, from the bolster line 21 to the end of the car, are set back, as shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, so that the ladder rungs 22 will not project outwardly beyond the main por tion 3 of the side wall sheets. This is accom inclined marginal portions 4 of the wall sheet, as shown at H. The member 26, cooperating with the inclined portions 4 of the wall sheet, plished by welding the end side wall sheet 23 provide a very strong hollow top chord, This to the inside of the'bolster stake. ' member 25 is preferably made of thicker material The accompanying drawings illustrate the pre-‘ than: the wall sheet to provide the necessary 40 ferred form of the invention, though it is to be strength as a chord and therefore I preferably re understood that the invention is not limited to duce the width of the stakes (as shown at‘ l2 in the exact details of construction shown’and de Figs. 5" and 6) where the vertical arms 9 of the scribed, as it is obvious that various modi?cations member 25 are attached thereto so that the out thereof, within the scope of the claims, will oc side of the member 26 will not extend beyond the ' cur‘ to‘persons skilled in the art. , plane of the outside of the main portion -3 of the I claim: ' ' wall sheet. The bottom chord likewise comprises a sub stantially channel shaped section having a hori zontal arm or ?ange l3 welded to the bottom I. A wall for a railway car comprising a wall sheet comprising a‘ vertical main portion’ and‘ an upwardly and inwardly inclined marginal por said marginal portion having spaced slots, edges of the several stakes 5, which is preferably 50 tion, a plurality of. spaced vertical stakes formed of “provided with a lateral ?ange l4 to stiffen it be ?at metallic bars extending normally to said wall tween thestakes. The bottom‘ chord also in sheet which extend through said slots and are cludes a continuous vertical web portion l5 which weided'to the inside of the'main portion and ' is welded to the inner edges of the several stakes '5, and an inclined portion or ?ange l6 extending . the marginal portion ofthe wall sheet; and a top chord including‘ a member comprising a sub stantially horizontal arm welded to the upper wardly and outwardly to the lower edge of the part of said marginal portion and to the tops main portion 3 of the wall sheet where it may be of said stakes and a. substantially vertical arm provided with a lateral ?ange I‘! which is welded 60 having a flange extending to and welded to said or riveted- to the inner surface of the‘ wall sheet. marginal portion below the tops of the stakes, The‘ bottom chord member is preferably made of whereby the said marginal portion andthe said .thickermaterial than the wall sheets to provide member form a hollow top chord in overlapping relationship with the‘ stakes. V ‘strength- and furthermore to allow for wear due 2. A wall for a railway car camprising a plu :to- abrasion upon the inclined portion 16 thereof rality of spaced. vertical stakes extending nor caused by discharging lading. The inclined por mal to said wall, a wall sheet secured to the tion iii, due to its position in the car, is also sub outer edges of said stakes, and a chord compris ject to considerable corrosion and the action of .from the upper end of the vertical portion l5‘ up sulphuric acid caused'byv wet coal retained upon it," which is another‘ reason for making it of thicker material, ' ‘ The hopper sheets‘ indicated in dotted lines at I lB'are secured in any" desired manner to the ver tical portion 15 of the bottom chord. This con ing a substantially channel shaped section, one ?ange of which is continuous and secured to the ends of said stakes and the other ?ange of which is‘ slotted to overlap said'stakes and have ing the edges thereof secured to said wall sheet, the web of said section being securedfto'said stakes. 5 2,412,806 6 3. A wall for a railway car comprising a girder formed of a plurality of spaced vertical stakes extending normal to said wall, a wall sheet se cured to the outer edges of said stakes, and a which said stakes extend, a substantially chan nel-shaped section facing said sheet, one ?ange substantially channel shaped section, one ?ange of which is continuous and overlies the ends of said stakes and the other flange of which is slotted is slotted to overlap said stakes and is secured thereto and to said well sheet, the web of said section‘being continuous and extending over a to overlap said stakes, the edges of the ?anges of the channel shaped section being secured to plurality of said stakes. of which is continuous and secured to the ends of said stakes,,and the other ?ange of which 10. A wall sheet for a railway car wall hav the wall sheet to form a hollow chord for said 10 ing a plurality of vertical stakes extending nor girder. mal to said wall, said wall sheet formed of ?at 4. A structure as de?ned in claim 3 wherein the web of said channel shaped section is con plate material having a body portion adapted to be secured to the outer edges of said stakes and tinuous and secured to the adjacent edges of said a marginal portion inclined and extendable to 15 the plane of the inner edges of said stakes, said stakes. 5. A wall for a railway car comprising a plu marginal portion being slotted to overlap said rality of spaced vertical stakes extending normal stakes and be secured thereto. to said wall, a wall sheet formed of flat sheet 11. In a railway car wall of girder construc material secured to the outer edges of said stakes, tion having a stiffener extending normal to said bent to extend to the inner edges of said stakes, 20 wall; wall sheets adapted to form the web of and provided with spaced slots through which said girder, each sheet having a body portion and said stakes extend, and a chord member com a marginal portion, the vertical edges of the body prising a horizontal portion secured to the ends portions of adjacent sheets adapted to overlap, of said stakes and to the adjacent edge of said the outer vertical edge of said stiifener and be wall sheet and a vertical portion secured to the Welded to each other and to said sti?ener by a , outer edges of said stakes. single row of welding material, the marginal 6. A wall for a railway car comprising a plu portions of said sheets being inclined from the rality of spaced vertical stakes extending normal plane of said body portions, the edges of said inclined marginal portions being welded to oppo to said wall, a wall sheet formed of flat sheet material secured to the outer edges of said stakes, 30 site sides of said stiffener. bent to extend to the inner edges of said stakes, 12. In a railway car wall of girder construc and provided with spaced slots through which tion having a stiffener extending normal to said said stakes extend, and a chord member com wall; a wall sheet adapted to form the web of said girder and having a body portion and a prising a horizontal portion secured to the ends marginal portion, said body portion adapted to of said stakes, and a vertical portion, said ver tical portion having a ?ange slotted to overlap overlap the outer vertical edge of said stiffener said stakes, extend to and secured to said wall and be welded thereto, the marginal portion of sheet. said sheet being inclined from the plane of said 7. A wall for a railway car comprising a plu body portion and provided with a slot adapted rality of spaced vertical stakes extending nor 40 to overlap said stiffener and be secured to oppo site sides thereof. mal to said wall, a wall sheet formed of flat sheet material secured to the outer edges of 13. In a railway car wall of girder construction having stiffeners extending normal to said wall; said stakes, and a channel shaped chord mem ber comprising a horizontal ?ange secured to the wall sheets adapted to form the web of said ends of said stakes, a web secured to the outer 45 girder, each sheet having a body portion adapted to overlap the outer vertical edges of said sti?en edges of said stakes, and an inclined ?ange ers and be welded thereto, the marginal portions slotted to overlap said stakes, extend to and be secured to said wall sheet. of said sheets being inclined from the plane of 8. A wall for a railway car comprising a plu rality of spaced vertical stakes extending normal to said wall, a wall sheet formed of flat sheet material secured to the outer edges of said stakes, bent to extend to the inner edges of said stakes, and provided with spaced slot-s through which said stakes extend, and top and bottom chord members each comprising a horizontal. portion secured to the ends of said stakes and a ver tical portion secured to the adjacent edges of the stakes, said vertical portion having a ?ange slotted to overlap said stakes and extend to and secured to said wall sheet. 9. A wall for a railway car comprising a girder , formed of a plurality of vertical stakes; a Wall sheet formed of ?at material secured to the outer edges of said stakes, bent to form an inclined portion extending to the inner edges of the stakes, and provided with spaced slots through said body portion and adapted to be welded to the sides of said stiifeners. 14. A chord member for a railway car wall having a plurality of vertical stakes extending normal to said wall, and a wall'sheet having a main portion secured to the outer edges of said stakes and an inclined marginal portion having spaced slots therein so as to overlap said stakes and be secured thereto; said chord member formed of a substantially channel-shaped section, one ?ange of which is continuous and adapted to overlie the ends of said stakes, the web of said section adapted to be welded to the outer edges of said stakes. and the other ?ange of said sec tion being slotted to overlap said stakes and adapted to have the edge thereof secured to the marginal portion of said wall sheet. ' GARTH G. GILPIN.