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Патент USA US2412843

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Dec. 17, 1946.
'
|__ SPRAR'AGEN
2,412,843
WOVEN RESISTANCE UNIT
Filed Jan. 29, l944
INVENTOR
Imam Sprara 0?,
'23
BY Mmr
J
_
ATTORNEYS' '
Patented Dec. 17, 1946
‘2,412,843
UNITED STATES PATENT ()FFlCE
2,412,843
WOVEN RESISTANCE UNIT
Louis Spraragen, Bridgeport, C0nn., assignor to
Bridgeport Fabrics, inc, Bridgeport, Conn, a
corporation of Connecticut
Application January 29, 1944, Serial No. 520,228
18 Claims.
1
This invention relates to electric resistance
interwoven
units, and more
with particularly
insulating means
to a resistance
to form a rib~
bon or band which may be cut into suitable
lengths having a predetermined electric resist
ance or heating effect and other electrical prop
erties.
Heretofore, in making a resistance unit having a
predetermined ohmage or heating effect, two pro
cedures were ordinarily followed. In one, a pre
determined length of wire of desired unit resist-‘
once was wound around a coil or spool with the
ends of the wire connected to suitable terminal
pieces. In the other arrangement, especially for
use in electric heating pads, blankets or clothing,
resistance wire was led on the surface of the goods
and attached thereto by stitching or like means.
According to the present invention, a resistance
unit is easily and inexpensively manufactured,
preferably in the form of a continuous woven
strip, the warp strands of which comprise insulat
ing material, while the weft strands are formed
in whole or in part of one continuous resistance
wire. In this way, a product is obtained which
has substantially the same resistance or heating
effect per unit of length throughout the strip.
By selecting wire of a particular diameter and
material and making the strip uniform in width,
(Cl. 219-46)
a plurality of ?bers to form a substantial bundle
so that adjacent weft strands comprising, the re
sistance wire are substantially spaced to prevent
incidental contact between same, and yet the
strip will retain high degree of ?exibility. When
Nichrome or other wire which oxidizes upon
heating is used, there is no necessity for having
substantial bulk in the warp strands, since wire
of this type is largely self-insulating. Also, when
such wire is used, the bare bent portions thereof
which lie along the longitudinal edge of the strip
generally need not be provided with additional
insulation to prevent contact with other objects.
The resistance device of the present invention
is not only useful as a resistor or element of an
electrical circuit or net work, but is also advan
tageous when used as a heating element for its
heat-producing eifect, such as in a heating pad.
In this use of the device, a strip of the resistance
unit having a predetermined heating eifect is
‘cut-off from the continuous strip and then placed
on a supporting body, such as a blanket for in
stance, and attached thereto by stitching, and
the closely spaced weft resistance wires of the
strip provide a uniformly distributed heating ef
fect which is very desirable in such devices.
When the resistor strip of the present inven
tion is used for any purpose where it becomes
heated, whether it be in a heating pad or other
the resistance may be predetermined for any
given length. Thus, any desired quantity of re 30 device, I have found it to be particularly advan
sistance is obtainable by merely measuring and
tageous to employ ?exible plastic ?bers to make
cutting off the necessary length of strip.
up the warp strands of the stri' , one type of such
Preferably the warp strands are constituted by
?ber employed with success being spun glass.
?bers in or ‘er that the strip may be wound or
This ?ber is especially heat-resistant and non
rolled on a spool and in order that ut~oif sec
inflammable, has high tensile strength, heat con
tions of the strip may be bent or shaped to any
ductivity and radiation factors, and in the ?ne
desired form. Resistance wires of the larger sizes
sizes is extremely ?exible, and these properties
are usually quite still, but since, according to this
impart qualities to the strip which result in nu
invention they constitute the weft strands and
merous advantages as will be later brought out.
lie transversely of the strip, when the latter is 40 Anot
advantage of the present invention is
av
v1.
bent along a transverse line the wires suffer a
torsion and twist in response to said bending in
a manner to not substantially resist same.
Resistance wires of smaller sizes are substan
tially ?exible and are readily susceptible- to both
twisting and bending, and when a strip
made
up using these smaller sizes, it
be easily bent
that it may be used as a heating covering or
casing, as, for example, for heating the pipe lines
in an airplane which, at high altitudes, are
susceptible of freezing. For this use, in the form
at present preferred, the resistance device, as de
scribed above, is woven double to form a flat
tened sleeve or tube which, after being cut to
lengths, may be spread open and the pipe, etc.
fed into it. Or, the ?at woven strip may be
wire constituting the web of the strip, the latter 50 wrapped around the pipe line in helical fashion,
possesses non-inductive properties to a marked
or longitudinally folded thereabout.
degree, being considerably superior to coiled re
In the use of the device of this invention after
sistors in this respect.
a section of the strip has been cut-off for use,
The woven resistor of this invention is prefer
the resistance wire may be connected to current
ably made with warp threads each comprising 55 conducting means in any suitable manner. For
along longitudinal lines as well as transverse.
As a result of the zigzag pattern of the resistance
2,412,843
3%
instance, the ends of the strip may be unravelled
to produce a free strand of the wire which may
be fastened to a binding, post, etc.
Or, if de
sired, the ends of the strip may receive an eyelet
or clamp which would contact with the resist
ance wire at or near the end of the strip. If it
should be desired to tap into the resistance unit
between the ends thereof, this may also be done
readily bent or shaped. When larger sizes of
resistance wire, which are usually quite stiff, are
employed in the tape, they tend to stiffen it.
But, since they are the weft strands and there
fore lie transversely of the tape, there is no sub
stantial resistance to transverse bending or shap
mg.
Where the smaller sizes of resistance wire,
which are substantially ?exible, comprise the
or by clamping a conductor upon the strip and in 10 weft strands [2 of the tape, it may be easily bent
by piercing the strip with an eyelet, staple, etc.,
contact with the resistance wire.
or shaped longitudinally as well as transversely.
'
Other features and advantages will hereinafter
appear.
In the drawing—
Figure 1 is a perspective View of a tape made
according to this invention.
Fig. 2 is a fractional sectional view of the same
taken along line 2-2 of Fig. l on an enlarged
scale.
'
Fig. 3 is a plan view showing a tape, made ac
cording to the invention, fastened to a piece of
fabric.
a Fig. 4 is a side elevational view showing the
tape of Fig. 1 helically wound around a pipe line,
Fig. 5 is a plan view showing the tape of Fig.
l encircling a portion of a pipe line.
As illustrated in Fig. 2, each warp strand ii
may comprise a plurality of ?bers of insulating
material and the substantial bundle formed
thereby spaces and prevents contact between ad~
iacent weft strands 12 of continuous resistance
wire and also functions to embed the resistance
wire in the tape to prevent incidental contact
between the Wire and other objects. When ni
chrome, or other wire which oxidizes upon heat
ing and becomes self-insulating, is used, there
is no necessity for having the Warp strands of
insulating material in such bulk. When that
type of wire is used, the side edges iii of the
tape need not be insulated against contact with
other objects.
~
I
The resistance device of the present invention
Fig. 6 is an end view of a modi?ed form of the
may be advantageously used as a heating ele—
invention showing a double woven strip con
ment, and as such constitutes a, new article of
stituting a ?attened tube.
Fig. '7 is a side elevation of the tube of Fig. 6, 30 manufacture. In this use of the device, in the
form illustrated herein as exemplary thereof, see
receiving a pipe line.
Fig. 3, a strip lea having a. desired predetermined
Fig. 8 is an end view showing the double strip
of Fig. 6 with an interposed insulating strip.
The resistance device of the present invention,
in the form illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2, com
prises a strip ill which is substantially ?at and
heating effect, as heretofore described, is at
tached to
supporting body it, as, for example,
a blanket, heating pad or heat transmitting ma
terial by a suitable attaching means, as by stitch
in the form of a continuous tape. This tape is
ing, which passes thru the strip iila and the sup
made by interweaving strands of insulating ma
terial with a single continuous strand of wire in
resistance device provides for great saving of time
porting body. It will be seen that this use of the
such a manner ‘that the tape functions as an 40 over the practice heretofore in use, where indi
vidual wires were sewed on the surface of a sup
elongate resistor having a value which varies ac- .
cording to its length. This is accomplished
porting body.
'
In the illustration, Fig. 3, the strip i?a is pro
by a weaving process wherein, as seen in Fig. 2,
vided with eyelets 18 or the like, which contact
strands i l of insulating material are arranged to
form the warp of the tape, and a single electrical 45 the ends of the resistance wire at or near the ends
of the strip Eta, but the latter may be connected
resistance wire [2 is woven back and forth be
to current-conducting means in any suitable
tween the warp strands to form weft of the tape,
manner. When the wire of the strip is connected
all in a manner that, as the weaving of the tape
to a current supply, a uniform and distributed
proceeds, the wire I2 is interwoven to follow a
heating occurs which is evenly transmitted to
closely spaced zigzag folded path. According to
the supporting body it, providing an efficient
this arrangement, the weft of the tape I0 pro
heating device.
‘
vides a de?nite electrical resistance, which may
In connection with this use, I have found it
be utilized in a circuit or other device by making
to be advantageous to make the warp strands in
connections to the ends l3 and M of the wire H.
The spacing between each adjacent pair of
the strip lila of flexible plastic ?bers, preferably
spun glass. In the smaller diameters these ?bers
are exceedingly ?exible and possess high tensile
and impact strength, and when woven with wire
mined number of weft wire folds per inch of
into a cloth strip the texture is smooth and pli
length. Also, the width of the tape is closely
controlled, andv as a result each inch of length of 60 able. When such a strip is used in a heating
pad, for. example, the pad does not have a‘ lumpy
the tape lil contains a ?xed predetermined length
feel, but-is uniform in thickness, and easily
of continuous weft wire, and therefore represents
formed into various shapes. Due to the resist
a ?xed Value of electrical resistance. This
ance of the glass fibers to damage-from impact,
makes it possible to utilize the tape H] as an
a heating pad made with such a strip will be
elongate resistor which has a resistance value
more rugged and less‘ likely to fail when used
directly proportional to its length, and as such
roughly. Moreover, glass fibers are better heat
the tape may be transversely cut o? so that a
conductors than woolen, cotton, silk'and other
given value of resistance is obtained by a given
?bers, and better radiators. They are ‘also non
measured length of tape. Or, the heating effect
inflammable, and the resistor strip ltd, when
of the wire may be considered, so that for a given
made up ‘using glass ?bers in the warp strands,
voltage a certain length of the tape will produce
provides a distinct improvement overany prior
a certain amount of heat.
article designed for similar use, since'the heat‘
The strands H which ‘comprise the warp of
ing is safer, more direct and more quickly trans
the tape ii! are preferably of insulating‘ mate
‘
rial which is flexible so that the tape may be 75 ferred, and also more uniform.
weft wires of the tape is substantially a constant,
so that for a given weave there are a predeter
5
2,412,843
Should the strip Illa, when made with warp
tween any two weft strands taken at points along
strands composed of glass ?bers, be used as a re
a side edge of the fabric is directly proportional
sistor where theheating is incidental to its main
to the distance between said points.
use, it still possesses- marked advantages, since
4. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, in
it provides a ?exible unit which may be made to in which the warp strands consist of bundles of glass
conform to di?ercnt shapes, is rugged and non~
?bers, and in which the resistance wire is suita
in?ammable, and has high heat conduction and
ble for heating use whereby the resistor is
radiation characteristics which are desirable in
adapted to function as a ?exible heating element.
this type device.
5. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, in which
The resistor of the present invention lends itself
the warp strands are ?exible and non-in?amma
to use as a heating casing or covering, as, for ex
ble, and in which the resistance wire is suitable
ample, for heating pipe lines in an airplane which
for heating use whereby the resistor is adapted
are susceptible to freezing. For this use of the in
to function as a ?exible heating element.
vention. as illustrated in Fig. li, the resistance
6. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, in which
tape [0b, which has interwoven therein warp
the warp strands consist of bundles of glass ?bers
strands of ?exible glass ?bers is wound helically
whereby the resistor is rendered substantially
around a pipe IS, the ends being fastened in some
non-in?ammable.
suitable manner. If the pipe is metallic, it may
'7. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, in which
be desirable to ?rst wrap it with an insulating
the warp strands consist of bundles of plastic ?
coating (see Fig. 5) so that the wires of the tape 20 bers whereby the resistor is adapted to dissipate
are prevented from accidentally touching the
heat by both conduction and radiation.
metal and‘becoming short-circuited. Or the tape
8. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, in
itself may be wrapped with an insulating coat
which the warp strands are ?exible and non-in
ing to effectively prevent adjacent edges from
?ammable, in which the resistance wire is suita
short-circuiting. As shown in Fig. 5, a ?at re
ble for heating use, and in which the strands of
sistor tape l?c may be curled about its longitudi~
weft constituted by said wire which are adiacent
nal axis around a pipe line H30 in the form of a
each other are separated by substantially the
sleeve which substantially retains its given shape.
thickness of a warp strand whereby the spacing
The sleeve may be positively maintained in posi
tion about the pipe by securing together the ad- ' between said weft strands is a minimum so that
the resistor will function as a ?exible heating
jacent longitudinal edges 20 of the tape, as by
element providing substantially uniformly dis
laces 2 i. As shown, a cord l3 may be interwound
tributed heating over its entire surface when
with the tape l?b.
energized.
A modi?ed form of the invention, as shown in
9. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, in which
Fig. 6, is also applicable to heating pipe lines and
the warp strands are ?exible, heat conducting
their contents. In this form the heating strip
and radiating, and in which the resistance wire
is in the shape of a ?attened sleeve or tube 22,
is suitable for heating use whereby the resistor is
which is made by weaving two individual super
adapted to function as a ?exible heat-dissipating
posed layers having longitudinal insulating warp
strands, and resistance wire weft, the layers be- 1
heating element.
ing connected along both edges by the weft.
Referring to Fig. 7, the ?at sides of the tube
10. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, in
which the warp strands are more ?exible than the
22' at one end 23 may be spread apart and a pipe
line 24 or like object fed into the tube whereby
the latter effectively and completely encases the
line. When in this position, the tube 22 forms
a sheathing, the weft of which is a continuous
helical resistance wire. Connection may be made
whereby the weaving of the strip substantially
to the resistance wire by clamps encircling the
tube, or by eyelets or other means, so that a
heating may be passed therethrough for warm
ing the pipe.
It will be understood that the above uses are
merely shown as examples and not by way of limi
tation, and that the device may be used in many
other ways by skilled technicians in the various
arts.
I claim:
1. As a new article of manufacture, a resistor
comprising a fabric having warp of strands of
extruded insulating fibers and weft comprising
solely a single continuous piece of uncovered re
sistance wire interwoven with the warp to form a
pattern wherein no portion of the wire contacts 1
any other portion thereof so that a current will
?ow through the same which follows solely a
series path.
2. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, in which
the fabric is in the form of a ribbon or tape to be
applied as aplunit to an article to be heated.
3. The invention as defined in claim 1, in which
the fabric is woven in a uniform width, and in
which the spacing between strands of weft which
are adjacent each other is substantially equal to
a constant so that the electrical resistance be
weft wire, having a bulk relative to the wire size
embeds the wire therein below the surface de
?ned by the warp to minimize incidental contact
of said wire with other objects.
11. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, in
which the warp ?bers are more ?exible, and of
smaller diameter than the weft wire whereby the
weaving of the strip substantially embeds the
wire therein below the surface de?ned by the
warp to minimize incidental contact of said wire
with other objects.
12. A resistor comprising a pair of ?at equal
width, woven strips superposed one on the other,
each having warp strands of plastic insulating ?
bers and the weft of both strips comprising a sin
gle continuous piece of bare resistance wire in
terwoven alternately with the warp strands of
each strip to form a pattern wherein no portion
of the wire contacts any other portion thereof,
so that a current will ?ow through same which
follows solely a series path.
13. A resistor comprising a woven tube having
warp of strands of insulating ?bers and weft
comprising solely a single continuous piece of re
sistance wire interwoven with the warp to form
a helical pattern wherein no portion of the wire
contacts any other portion thereof so that a cur—
rent will ?ow through same which follows solely
a series path.
14. The invention as de?ned in claim 12, in
which there is a ?at strip of insulating material
interposed between the woven strips to separate
2,412,843
same for ‘preventing incidentallcontact between
their respective wefts.
_
7
15. A heating pad having a heating element
comprising a fabric having warp of strands of
plastic insulating ?bers and weft comprising
solely a single continuous piece of bare resistance
wire interwoven with the warp to form a pattern
wherein no portion of the wire contacts any other
portion thereof, and a fabric body superposed on
the heating element and stitched thereto to iso
late same from a user.
a
-
16. A heating element comprising a woven
strip having warp strands each consisting of a
8
stantially equal to a constant, and the width of
the strip being uniform. whereby. the electrical
resistance between any two weft strands taken
at points equidistant from a side edge of the strip
is directly proportional to the distance between
said points.
'
by
» _
Y
17. A resistor comprising a ?at woven strip
having warp of strands of extruded insulating
?bers and weft consisting of a single continuous
piece of bare resistance wire alone interwoven
with the warp‘to form a zigzag pattern wherein
no portion of the wire contacts any other-portion
thereof, and wherein the inductive e?ect of each
weft strand is reduced by the next weft strand to
produce a strip of substantially noninductive
bundle of glass ?bers, and having a single con
tinuous bare resistance wire alone constituting
characteristics.
a
i
the weft of the strip, the bulk of the Warp strands
18. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, in
being such that strands of weft which are ad
which the warp strands are ?exible, and in which
jacent each other are spaced and prevented from
the resistance wire is of small size to be easily
contact, and the size of the wire having a rela
tion to the bulk of the warp strands such that 20 bent whereby the resistor may be readily shaped
to ?t various forms. ‘ ‘
the weaving of the strip embeds the wire therein
LOUIS SPRARAGEN.
below the surface de?ned by the warp, said spac
ing between the adjacent weft strands being sub—
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