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Патент USA US2412857

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Dec. 17, 1946.
8, 2p, BAKER
2,412,857
CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER
Filed Jan. 9, 1943
3
\
52b
4 Sheets—Sheet 1
‘
ATTORN
IDGQ 17, 1946-
B. P. BAKER ‘
2,412,857
CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER
Filed Jan. 9, 1943
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
24L
2.6
27
17
31
12
WITNESSES:
W.
’
INVENTOR
?ery'ammP?ake?
BY
U1.
ATTOR-N
rmfatenied @ec. i7,
_
g
1 '
uNlTeo stares PATENT
Benjamin P. Baker, Turtle ill-cell, Pa" assignor
to Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East
Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation
of Pennsylvania
Application January's, 1943, Serial No. 471,34?
19 Claims. (or. 200-150)
This invention relates to circuit interrupters
in general and, more particularly, to are extin~
'guishing structures and operating mechanisms
therefor.
a
.
‘ put the ?uid disposed therein under pressure
and to thus cause the motion oi‘the ?uid adia
cent one or more or the serially related arcs to
effect the extinction thereof. a
An object of my invention is to provide an im
'
Another object is to provide an improved cir
proved circuit interrupter comprising a substan
tlally closed chamber and to position the station
ary contact external to the chamber so that dur
‘cuit interrupter of the type described in the im
mediately preceding paragraph in which means
are provided for effecting the lateral movement‘
‘ing the opening operation an arc may be drawn
from the stationary contact through an aper 10' of the pressure generating are so that the pres
sure generating arc will contact fresh ?uid to
ture-in the wall. of the chamber into the interior
increase the pressure formed within the cham
of the chamber.
her.
.
Another object is‘ to provide an improved cir
I Another object is to provide an improved cir
cuit interrupter of the type described in the im
mediately preceding paragraph and to provide 15 uit interrupter of the tym drawing a pressure
generating arc and one or more series interruptmeans for putting the ?uid disposed within the
ing
arcs. I provide an interrupting unit adja
chamber under pressure to cause an election oi’
cent the pressure generating are which not only
at least a part of the ?uid out of the chamber
increases the gas generation of the pressure gen~
and through the aperture to extinguish the arc.
Another object is to provide ‘an improved cir 20 crating arc as compared to a plain break, but
also adds interrupting ability to the entire circuit
cuit interrupter comprising 9, substantially closed
interrupter.
chamber andto dispose a plurality of relatively
stationary contacts external to the chamber. I
Further objects and advantages will readily be
come apparent upon a reading of the following
also provide a plurality of movable contacts co
specification taken in conjunction with the draw
operable with the stationaryv contacts to draw a 25 ings,
in which:
plurality of serially related arcs through aper
Figure
1 is an elevational view, partially in sec
tures disposed in the wall of the chamber. Pref
tion, or a circuit interrupter embodying my in;
vention and shown in the closed circuit position;
apertures to extinguish the serially related arcs. 30 Fig. 2 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken
erably I put the ?uid disposed in the chamber
under pressure and cause its ejection out of the
substantially on the line iii-H of Fig. l and also
shows the interrupter in the closed circuit posi
Another object 'of my invention is to provide
an improved circuit interrupter having improved
piston means for facilitating circuit interruption.
I associate a series coil with the piston meansjto
assist the actuation of the piston means during
the interruption of high currents. ’
tion;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view taken
on the line III-4H1 of Fig. 2 but showing the dis
35 position of the contacts during‘ a circuit opening
Another object is to provide an improved cir
operation;
Fig. 4 is a view in cross-section taken on the
‘line IV—IV of Fig. 3;
chamber having a pair of stationary contacts dis_
posed externally of the chamber and substantially 40 Fig. 5 shows a modi?cation of my invention;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged elevational view in cross
on opposite sides thereof. I provide suitably dis
section of an interrupter shown in the closed
posed apertures adjacent to the stationary con
circuit position similar to Fig. 2 but embodying }
tacts in the walls of the chamber through which
a modi?cation of my invention;
a pair or movable contacts are actuated to draw
a plurality of serially related arcs from the sta 45 Fig. 7 is a fragmentary enlarged view in ele
vation, partially in section, taken on the line
tionary contacts through the apertures and into‘
VIL-VII of Fig. 6;
'
‘
'
’ cuit interrupter comprising a substantially closed
the chamber. Preferably I dispose improved in
terrupting means adjacent to the apertures to
facilitate the extinction ‘of the serially related
arcs.
.
Another object is to provide an improved “cir
cuit interrupter comprising a substantially closed
chamber in which a plurality of serially related
arcs are established. I contemplate establishing
a pressure generating are within the chamber to 55
Fig.‘ 8 is an enlarged fragmentary view taken
on the line VIII-VIII of Fig. 6 but showing the
' disposition of the contacts during a circuit open
ins operation; and
Figs. 9 through 26 show plan and sectional
views in cross-section of plate details utilized in
the interrupting units employed in the modi?ca
tion of my invention shown in Fig. 6.
Referring to the drawings
and more particu- ‘
'
asraesr
3
'larly to Figure l, the reference numeral l desig
nates a tank ?lled to the level 2 with a suitable
arc extinguishing ?uid, in this instance oil.
Clamped to the cover 3 of the tank I are two in
sulating bushings li. Depending from the lower
ends of the insulating bushings ll are conducting
brackets 5 which rigidly support in position’ two
At the upper end of the casing it I dispose
piston means generally designated by the refer
ence numeral 36. The piston means 35 com
prises a cylindrical iron member 36 screwed into
an aperture 36a formed in the cover plate la.
The cylindrical iron member 36 has a lower ?ange
portion 3'! which supports a guide cylinder ~38
made
of a non-magnetic material, in this instance
substantially closed chambers generally desig
brass. A series coil 39 is disposed between the
nated by the reference numeral e.
A conducting bridging member ‘l arranged for 10 iron member at and the brass guide cylinder 36
and is electrically connected in series circuit
vertical longitudinal reciprocating motion by
by means of the connector fit, the other end of
means of an insulating lift rod s electrically con
which
is electrically connected to the support
nects the chambers '5 in the closed circuit posi
bolt
(ii
which supports the conducting bracket 5
tion of the interrupter asshown in Fig. 1. Dis
connect ?ngers 9 electrically engage the bridging 15 to the cover plate it.
The other end of the series coil as is electri-~
member 7 as shown. Disposed externally of each
cally
connected by means of the connector :32 to
chamber 6 are two insulating operating rods to
the stud bolt 633 which secures the annular con-'
_ biased ‘downwardly by compression springs ii,
ducting bracket 23 to the casing i'i.
the latter being disposed between washers l2
Operating within the brass guide cylinder 8%
rigidly secured to the rods it and ?xed guides 20
is a piston armature as composed of a suitable
63 rigidly secured to the chambers 6.
Operating levers is connected by the pins are , magnetic material, in this instance iron. Within
the piston armature as is a valve 65 which is
‘to the rods l0 rotate torsion shafts i5 (see Fig. 2)
slightly biased to a closed position by'the com
which actuate the movable contact structure
pression spring £35m The'compression spring (46a
disposed within the chambers 5. Electrostatic
exerts just enough upward biasing force to over- >
shields It are disposed at the lower ends of the
come the weight of the valve 65.
chambers 6 to minimize corona formation.
The upper end of the piston armature as is
Referring more particularly to Fig. 2, it will
pivotally mounted by a pin it to a lever til, the
be noticed that the chamber 6 comprises a cylin
drical insulating casing i'l having at its upper 30 latter being pivotally supported at its right»
hand end by a pin £8 to the bracket 59. A ten
end an insulating cover plate is threadedly se
sion spring so biases the left-hand end of the
cured thereto. Levers is rigidly secured to the
lever er in a downward direction.
torsion shafts it are utilized to actuate the
In this embodiment of my invention the in- '
movable contacts 211. The movable contacts 20
sulating operating rods is are bridged at their
have rear guide portions 2!, the purpose for
upper ends by an insulating cross rod El which
which will appear more clearly hereinafter.
engages in the closed circuit position of the in
Stationary contacts 22, in this instance com
" terrupter the lever d7.
prising segmental conducting members, are sup
In the closed circuit position of the inter
ported on annular conducting brackets 23 rigidly
secured by screws to the cylindrical insulating 40 rupter the electrical circuit therethrough com
casing 51. A helical tension spring 24 biases the
- _ segmental contacts 22 into engagement with vthe
movable contacts 20 as shown.
Disposed on opposite sides of the cylindrical
prises the conducting bracket 5, support bolt 4|,
connector M, series coll 39,‘connector t2, stud
i bolt 43, annular conducting bracket 23, upper
stationary contacts 22, upper movable contact
20, connector 53, intermediate movable contact
2d, intermediate stationary contacts 22, con
nector 5t, lower stationary contacts 22, lower
movable contactszli, connector 55;, movable pres
sure generating contact 36. stationary pressure
insulating casing I‘! from the stationary contacts
22, are‘ insulating guide cylinders 25 having in
sulating cover caps 26. Disposed iy‘within‘ the
guide cylinders 25 are insulating guide spiders
21 which cooperate during the opening operation
with the guide portions 2| to produce straight 50 generating contact 3!, stud 32, connector 38. elec- I
trostatic shield 66, disconnect ?ngers 9, movable
line movement of the movable contacts 211. Slots
conducting bridging member ‘I to the right-hand
28 disposed in the levers i9 cooperate with pins
chamber 6 ‘through which the circuit passes in
29, the latter rigidly secured to the movable
atsismilar manner to the upper right-hand brack
contacts 20, to cause the opening and closing
motion of the movable contacts 20 in'response 55
When it is desired to. open the electrical cir
to rotation of the levers is as a result of rotation
cuit through the interrupter shown in Fig. l the .
of the torsion shafts I5.
insulating lift rod 8 is actuated downwardly by
e
.
'
At the bottom end of the lower lever is is a
suitable mechanism, not shown, to cause down
movable contact 30 which cooperates with a stationary contact 3i to establish a pressure gen 60 ward movement of the conducting bridging
member 1. The conducting bridging member 1
erating arc during the opening operation of the
slides downward in the disconnect fingers9, but
interrupter. A stud 32 electrically connects the
. stationary contact 3i to a connector 33 which
maintaining electrical contact therewith.
The
initial downward movement of the conducting,
is secured to the electrostatic shield IS. The
disconnect ?ngers 9 in this instance are rigidly 65 bridging member 1 permits the compression
springs ii to cause downward movement of the.
secured to the electrostaticshield M as shown.
insulating operating rods Ill. The downward
the electrostatic shield It being threadedly se
movement of the insulating operating rods Ill
cured to the lower end of the casing l1 and clos
causes a counterclockwise ‘rotation of the operat
ing the lower end thereof. Two vertically up
standing insulating plates 34, only one of which 70 ing levers M as viewed in Fig. 2. The counter.
clockwise rotation of the levers II as viewed in
is shown in Fig. 2, provide means for preventing
Fig. 2 causes a counterclockwise rotation of they
the pressure generating are established upon the
torsion shafts IE to result in counterclockwise
separation of the movable contac't‘ill from the
rotation of the levers IS. The counterclockwise
stationary contact 3| from contacting the casing
rotation of the levers 19 causes the simultaneous
75
I1. and injuring the same.
.
9.412.382?
'
‘
4:
formation or four serially related arcs associated
extinction. vents 60 (see
with each chamber a The are drawn between
the movable contact as and the'stationary con-
in the washer members
~
Certain features or" the l tempting units
4)
be provided
tact 39 is a pressure generating are which puts
are described and claimed and the
theres
the ii-uid, in this instance oil, disposed within the 5 of given in my application filed May 153, i940,
chamber 6, under pressure. The oilwithin the
Serial No. 335,218, which issued December 8. i942
chamber c being under pressure assists in the
as Patent 2,304,529 and which was assigned to
interruption of) the other. three serially related
arcs associated with the chamber '8. Following
the assignee of this application.
In place or‘ the interrupting unit bl’ shown in
the interruption of any one of the serially re- 10 Fig. 3, an insulating nozzle 69 may be used, being .
lated arcs the circuit through they entire interrupter is broken, and the further downward
threadedly secured in the apertures 56 provided
in the casing i"! as more clearly shown in
5.
movement of the conducting bridging member?
When this construction is used‘the arc Bl is
breaks electrical engagement with the ringers 9
established centrally within the nozzle 69 and is
and produces tw isolating gaps in the circuit, .15 subjected to a- now oi’ ?uid indicated by the
one gap being in ed between each pair of disconnect ?ngers 9 at the lower end vof each chamher 8 and the movable conducting bridging memher 1. Consequently, in the open circuit position
of the interrupter all potential stress is removed .20
from the chambers 6.
V The interrupting means associated with each
pair of relatively movablecontacts will now be
descrlbed. Apertures 56 are formed in the side
walls of the casing ll adjacent the stationary 25
contacts 22. Also disposed adjacent each stationm‘y contact 22 is an interrupting unit, gen-
verally designated by the reference numeral 51
and shown enlarged in Fig. 3. The interrupting
arrows in Fig. s.
It will be apparent that the tension spring 59.
(see Fig. 2) may initially assist the compression
springs Ii in biasing the operating meechanism
to the open circuit position. During the inter
ruption of high short circuit currents the pres
sure generated by the pressure generating arc
established between the contacts 30, 3| will cor
respondingly be high to produce a high pressure
within the chamber to‘. This high pressure will
cause ?uid to ?ow through the interrupting units
51 to extinguish the arcs drawn therein in the
manner previously described.
During the interruption of low currents the
unit or comprises a plurality of insulating 30 pressure generated by the contacts 30, Si is cor
washer members 58 (see Fig. 4) having relatively
large internal diameters. Alternately disposed
respondingly low, and supplementary means for
raising the pressure within the chamber 8 is de
between the insulating washer members 58 are
sirable. In this event the piston means 35 assists
insulating washer members 59 having relatively
the pressure generating arc drawn between the
small inner diameters as more clearly shown in 35 contacts 3, 535 to raise the pressure within the
Fig. 4. The washer members 58, 59 are supchamber
It will be apparent that upon down~
ported by tie bolts Gil. The washer members
ward movement or the insulating rods lo the
58, 55 when assembled on the tie bolts 80 provide
cross rod Eli and the roller 62 will also move down
a plurality of annular recesses 6| (see Fig. 3).
to permit the tension spring to to force the lever
An insulating bushing J32 is threadedly secured 40 41 in a counterclockwise directionobout the pivot
in the aperture 55 and has a corrugated inner
pin 48 to result in the piston armature 45 being
surface as as shown, The annular corrugations
forced downwardly to compress the ?uid within
' $3 in the bushing 62 cooperate with the annular
the chamber t. Consequently the piston arma
recesses 6! provided by the washer members 58,
Wm M assists ‘the Pressure generating are drawn
as to provide an interrupting unit 51 having an 45 between the contacts 353. 35 to raise the pressure
‘ annularly corrugated inner surface_
within the chamber during the interruption of
The inner insulating ‘plate as (see Fig. 3) has a
guide portion 65 (see Fig. 2) which assists in
low currents. This increase of pressure within
the chamber facilitates the interruption of the
guiding the movable contacts 20. The guide porarcs Within the interrupting wills
.
tions as are enlarged at so (see Fig. 3) to permit 50
It will be apparent that the series coil 39 will
?uid ?ow from within the casing l1 through the
move the piston armature (‘l/l downward. in any
interrupting unit 51 and out between the stamagnetic circuit composed of movable parts the
tlonary contacts 22 as shown by the arrows in
parts tend to move in a direction adoring least.
Fig. 3. When the movable contact 20 separates
reluctance to the magnetic flux. Since the re
from the stationary contacts 22 during the open- 55 luctance 0f the piston armature 5x3 is relatively
ing operation, an are a‘! is established which is
subjected to a longitudinal ?ow of fluid through
the interrupting unit ‘57 and out between the
Small as compared with the brass guide cylinder
33, the piston armature (is will be moved down
info the center or the series coil 39 to a point
_ stationary contacts 22. When the instantaneous ' ‘where the reluctance offered to the magnetic
value of the current through the arc 61' decreases 60 ?ux is a minimum.
.21 its cyclic variation the longitudinal ?ow
through the interrupting unit 51 carries with it
the hot ionized gases and that portion of the oil
It ‘Will consequently Tie apparent that I have
provided means for assisting the tension spring
50 in operating the piston means 35 during high
which has lost its dielectric strength as a result-
short circuit currents at a time when high pres
- of its contact with the arc, so that as the current 65 sure within the chamber a is desirable to effect
zero approaches, the last thread of conducting ‘ the interruption of the high current arcs G1 estab
ionized gas is surrounded by fresh clean turbu- ,. lished between the stationary contacts 22 and the
lent oil, which quickly transforms the entire arc
movable contacts so. The assistance furnished
path from one of. fair conductivity to one of good
by the series coil 3i? will obviously decrease as the
insulation. This ?uid ?ow causes the dielectric 70 current through the series coil 39 decreases.
strength of the space within the interrupting
Thus during the interruption. of small currents
unit 51 to rise so rapidly that the recovery voltthe tension spring til may be relied upon to op
age is unable to reestablish another half cycle - crate the piston means it. However, during the
oi arcing. To allow the gas to escape from the
interruption of high short circuit currents the
recesses of the interrupting unit following arc 75 current through the series coil 39 will be increased
earnest
and in this event both the tension spg Eit and
the series coil 89 will cooperate to force the piston
armature (it downward to raise the pressure
8
'
I
?ngers 9 to the
ating bottom plate it.‘ The
other end ofthe series coil ‘it is connected by
the connector at to the stationary contact iii.
A bolt iii ‘electrically connects the metallic top
cover plate ‘it to a connector 82, the lower end of
'
.
A further advantage of the coil 39 is that it
which is electrically connected to the upper con
exerts its force on the piston lid immediately
ducting bracket 23.
.
when the high current or short circuit is estab
Consequently, in the closed circuit position of
" lished. This speeds up the opening movement
the interrupter shown in Fig. 6 the electrical cir
of the contacts and exerts considerable pressure _10 cuit therethrough comprises the conducting
within the chamber d.
on the oil. even before the pressure tong are
between contacts to and iii is formed, or has
reached sumcient length to become very effective.
For high speed operation this feature is very
important.
_
During the closing of the
interrupter the valve is
as will open to permit ?uid, in this instance oil,
bracket 5, plate it, bolt Eli, connector 82, con
ducting brachet 23, stationary contacts 22, mov=
able contact 2@, connector as, intermediate movable contact 2d, intermediate stationary contacts
22, connector 56, lower stationary contacts 22,
lower movable contacts 26, connector lib‘, movable
contact to, stationary contact 8i, connector tit,
series coil ‘it, connector ll, stud bolt l8, discon
nect ?ngers e to conducting bridging member ‘i.
_
to ?ow into the interior of the chamber t through
provision of the
‘the piston armature (ill.
valve to speeds up the closing operation, and also
The circuit then passes through the conducting'
insures that fresh ?uid will enter the chamber e 20 bridging member ‘8 to the other chamber t
through the top thereof during the closing opera
through which the circuit passes in an identical
tion. During the opening operation the valve to
manner to the other line terminal not shown.
will, of course, remain closed.
7
. Associated with the lower contacts 3i, so is an
It is thus apparent that any breaker operation
interrupting unit generally designated by the rei
_
at low current or at no current will cause the 25 erence numeral 88. The unit 83 comprises an
piston to and valve or to operate as a pump, cir
end insulating‘ plate 865, the con?guration of
culating ?uid in the top through the ‘valve Q6
which is more clearly shown in Fig. 7. Refer
and out through the interrupters 5i, thus re
ring to Fig. '7, it will be observed that the end.
the casing ill, with fresh .oil
30 insulating plate 85 ‘has a cutout portion $5 to
from the larger. volume in tank i.
accommodate the movement of the movable con
During the closing operation the insulating lift
tact so. Immediately adjacent to the end insu
rod 8 moves upward to raise the conducting bridg- ‘ ' lating plate 841 'is a pocket insulating plate 86
ing member ‘l. The conducting bridging member
which forms a plurality of pockets t‘i more clear
'5 ‘?rst electrically engages the disconnect ringers
ly shown in Fig. 7. The pockets 81 retain a
35
9 and slides upward between them. Further up
plentiful supply of fresh ?uid ready to be acted
ward movement of the conducting bridging mem
upon by the pressure generating are established
- placing the oil in
ber ‘i ‘ raises the insulating operating rods it
etween- the contacts 30, 3!.
against the bias of both the compression springs
Immediately adjacent to the pocket insulating
H and the tension spring 5b. This upward‘ move
plate 86 is a group of three insulating plates, the
ment of the insulating rods it rotates the operate 40 center one of‘ which is herein called an insert
ing levers it, the torsion shafts i5 and the levers
insulating plate 88. The insert insulating plate
is to result in contact being made between the
85 has a con?guration, in this instance identical
movable contacts 20 and the stationary contacts
with the con?guration of the end insulating plate
22 to e?ect a closing of the circuit through the . 85. The insert insulating plate 88, however, has
interrupter.
'
a recess disposed therein to accommodate the in
It will be obvious that I have positioned the
sertion of an insert of magnetic material 89, in
22
externally
of
the
chamber
~
stationary contacts
this instance composed of iron and having a con- .
6. This has distinct advantages. The movable ' ?guration more clearly shown in Fig. '7. On each
contacts to establish and draw the arcs W from
side of the insert insulating plate 88 is a guard
' the stationary contacts 22 through the apertures
insulating plate 90 having a configuration iden
58 and into the interior oi’ the chamber 8. By
tical to the and insulating plate 84. Tie bolts 9|
initiating the arcs 6? outside of the chamber t
rigidly secure the insulating plates into position,
there is thus provided sumcient space for venting
and they are supported in spaced relation above
around the stationary contacts 22. Also this
the insulating bottom plate 19 by a bracket 92
construction has the additional advantage of hav
secured by screws 93 to the bottom insulating
ing the stationary contacts 22 exposed for ready
plate 1'9. The plates within the interrupting unit
inspection, adjustment and cooling.
83 may be repeated.
,
In the embodiment of my invention ‘shown in
When the movable contact 30 is separated from
Fig. 6 the insulating casing ill has a metallic top
the stationary contact 3| a pressure generating
60
cover plate to threadedly secured thereto. A
arc is established. The magnetic inserts 89 dis
cylindrical member ‘ii composed of magnetic
tort-themagnetic ?eld about the pressure gen
material, in this instance iron, is threadedly se
erating arc to cause it to move downward as
cured in an aperture ‘Ha provided in the insu
indicated by the arrow 92a in Fig. 7 into the
. lating bottom plate 19. A guide cylinder 12 com
lower portion ill of the interrupting unit 83,
posed of a suitable non-magnetic material; in
where the pressure generating arc constantly
this instance brass, is supported by an annular
contacts fresh ?uid, in this instance oil, to gen
plate 12a, the latter being composed of a suitable
erate increased gas and hence to greatly increase
' magnetic material, in this instance iron. A pis
the pressure within the chamber 6.
ton armature 13 having a valve 16‘ disposed there
By my providing the magnetic inserts-89 the
in is biased downwardly by a compression spring 70 pressure generating arc established between the
15. Disposed between the iron cylinder member
contacts 30, 3| will be biased downwardly into
‘II and the'_ brass guide cylinder 12 is a series coil
the lower portion 94 of the interrupting unit 83
16 connected in series circuit.v One end of the
to constantly be maintained at-the gas-oil bound
series coil 18 is connected by the connector ‘II to
cry and thus to generate an increased amount of
75
the stud. bolt 18 which secures the disconnect
- atlases
‘
‘
'
I;
9
.
,
‘
id
.
gas. The increased amount of gas formed as. a
charge plate 101, an ori?ce plate 503, an insulat
result of the lateral movement of the pressure
ing inlet plate I04, and ?nally an‘ end insulating generating arc increases the pressure within the
plate 500 the con?guration of which is more
chamber 8. It will, furthermore, be obvious that
not only-does the interrupting unit 88 function . clearly shown in Figs. 25 and 26. The insulating
end plate I08 has a central aperture 99 and two _
to move the pressure generating arc laterally to
. cutout portions Q00.
effect increased pressurewithin the chamber 0,
Referring to Fig. 8 it will-be observed that upon
assembling the several insulatingplates within
guished by the interrupting action furnished by 10 the insulating cylindrical member 96, the‘centrai
the interrupting unit 83.
'
apertures 99 align to form an‘ arcing passage
means generally designated by the reference
- Even if the magnetic inserts 89 are omitted so
but also an interrupting action takes place so that
the pressure" generating are thus may be extin
that comparatively little lateral motion of the‘ 7
pressure generating arc takes place, still the
drawing of said arc past the pockets 81 con-_
15
stantly causes fresh liquid to engage the arc and
hence to greatly increase the pressure‘ within-the
chambert and the interruptingability of the en
tire circuit interrupter.
numeral I01. It will also be observed that the
cutout portions I00 align to form P8858868 which
communicate at their inner end with the interior
of the chamber 0, and serve to force ?uid into
the arcing passage means I01 at a plurality of
.
spaced points therealong.‘ Referring to Fig. 8 it
will be ‘observed that the cutout portions I00 also
'
_ Consequently, in this embodiment of my inven 26 serve to provide discharge passages which lead ‘
to the region external to the chamber 8 and which
_ on, I have provided four eifective interrupters
are spaced at a plurality of spaced intermediate
associated .with each chamber 0, the lower inter
rupter 83 not only affording an interrupting ac
_ points along the passage means I01. The direc
tion but also‘considerably raising the pressure
within the chamber 0 to effect ?uid ?ow through
the three’interrupting units 95 associated with.
the other three serially related arcs drawn during
an opening operation of the interrupter.
General aspects of the interrupting unit 183 have
‘been described and claimed in the following pat-. 30
ents, 1,899,605 which issued February 28, 1933,
to Benjamin P. Baker and Ernest G. Kees;
tion of the fluid discharge is shown by the arrows
in Fig. 6. The direction of now of the ?uidfrom
the interior of the chamber 6 into the arcing
passage means it? is indicated by the arrows in
Fig. 8.
It will be obvious that the fluid entering the
interrupting unit 95 through the inlet plates I00
may either exhaust directly between the. sta
tionary. contacts 22 or pass through the central
aperture 99 in the orifice plates I03 to exhaust
through the discharge passages I02 provided 1
1,911,072 which issued May 23, 1933, to Lloyd W.
Dyer and Winthrop M. Leeds; 1,914,137 which
I
-issued June 13, 1993, to Winthrop M. Leeds; 35 the insulating discharge plates I 0|.
General
features
of
the
interrupting
unit
90
1,991,901 which issued February 19, 1935, to
are described and broadly claimed in an appli
Winthrop M. Leeds; 2,039,054 which issued‘ April
cation entitled "Circuit interrupter” ?led Novem
28, 1936, to Samuel H. Boden and Stanley T. ' her
11,
1942, Serial No. 465,244, now U. S. Patent
Schofield and 2,138,382 which issued November
2,406,469,
issued August 2'1, 1946, by Leon R.
29, 1938, to Winthrop M. Leeds and Ennio Or 40
Ludwig, Winthrop M. Leeds and Benjamin P.
tensi, all of the foregoing patents being assigned
Baker and which was assigned to the assignee of
to the assignee. of this application.
this application.
The interrupting units 95 will now be described
The operating mechanism shown in Fig. 6 cp
with particular attention directed to _Fig. 8. An
erates in a manner identical to the operating
insulating cyclindrical member 90 is threadedly
previously described in connection
secured in the apertures 50 provided in the cas ~ mechanism
with Figs. 1 and 2. A
further description thereof,
ing I1. The insulating cylindrical member 96
consequently, seems unnecessary. It will be ob-’
has disposed at each end ?ange portions 91 which
served that by varying the distance between the
serve to compress and hold in rigid position a
plurality of insulating plates which form the in 430 pins E08 rigidly secured to the insulatingoperat
ing rods I0‘ and the. torsion shafts I5, the speed
terrupting unit 95. At the inner end or the interrupting unit 95 is .
of rotation of the levers 19 as a. function of the
downward velocity of the conducting bridging
disposed an end insulating plate 98, the con?g
member 1 may be varied. Obviously, by increas
uration of which is more clearly shown in Figs,
9 and 10. The insulating plate 98 has formed d5 ing the distance between the pins I08 and the
torsion shafts ie, the rotation of the levers I9
therein a. central aperture 99 and two cutout por
and, consequently, the speed of operation of the
tions l00, the purpose for which will appear more
contacts 20, 22 may be increased with respect to
clearly hereinafter.
the downward velocity of the conducting bridging
Immediately. adjacent to the and insulating member
°l.'
_
1
plate 98 is an insulating discharge plate IOI the 60 I have provided small
vents I09 at the top of
con?guration of which is more clearly shown in
the chambers 0 to permit any accumulated gas
Figs. 11 and 12. The insulating discharge plate
formed during an opening operation to escape‘
i0I has‘two discharge passages I02 and two out
but of the chamber 9. rThis helps to maintain
out portions I00. Immediately adjacent to the
the dielectric strength of the ?uid within the
insulating discharge plate I 0| is an insulating
ori?ce plate I 03, the con?guration of which is
more clearly shown in Figs. 13 and v14. The in
sulating ori?ce plate I03 has a central aperture
99 and four cutout portions I00.
chamber 8 at a high value.
'
I
It will be observed that the series coil 10 will
cause the actuation of the piston armature 13
upward to assist raising the pressure within the
Immediately adjacent to the ori?ce plate I 052 70 chamber 0 during the interruption of high short
circuit currents. Thus during the interruption
is an insulating inlet plate I04‘, the con?guration
of which is more clearly'shown in Figs. 15 and 16.
- The
insulating inlet plate I04 has two entrance
'
passages I05 and two cutout portions I00. Then
‘follows an ori?ce plate I03, an insulating dis
of high short circuit currents there is not only an
increased pressure caused by the pressure gen
erating are drawn between the contacts 30, 3|,
but also the piston armature 13 is then actuated
against the biasing action of the compression
I
amass? ~
,
a
11
,
spring ‘it to further raise the pressure within
.the chamber 6.
The rise in pressure within the chamber d is
desirable during the interruption.‘ oi high short
circuit currents to e?ect the necessary ?uid ?ow
through the interrupting units 95 to e?ect the
extinction of the arcs bi drawn between the sta=
tionary contacts 22 and the movable contacts it
12
circuit interrupters used in gaseous mediums or
even in air. If the circuit interrupters are oper
ated in a gaseous medium, for instance air, the
several insulating washers used in the interrupt
ing units 57, the insulating plates used in the
interrupting units 95 and the insulating plates‘
used in the interrupting units 83 may all be com
posed of a suitable material which evolves a vapor
upon being subjected to the action or an electric
in Fig. 6.
>
'
It will be observed that when the current being 10 arc. Such a use of gas evolving material would
facilitate the interruption of the arcs.
interrupted is high the biasing action exerted by
The term ?uid as used herein and in the ape
the inserts at. is greater and hence a greater
pended claims comprises liquids, vapors, gases and _
volume of gas- will be formed at the pressure
sprays.
generating are drawn at the contacts 3t, iii to
Although I have shown and described speci?c
increase the pressure within the chamber 6. Dur
embodiments
of my invention, it is to be clearly
ing the interruption of low currents the series coil
‘to will not be as e?ective as on the interruption
understood that the some were merely for pur
poses of illustration, andthat changes and modi
of high short circuit currents to cause upward
?cations may be made ‘without departing from
movement of the piston armature ‘it.
Thus I have provided a means for utilizing the 20 the spirit andvscope of the appended claims.
I claim as my invention:
‘
high short circuit currents to effect increased
1. In a circuit interrupter, means de?ning a.
pressure within the chamber e during the inten
substantially closed stationary chamber, a plu
ruption of high short circuit currents.
rality of relatively stationary contacts mounted
When the piston armature ‘it is actuated up.
wardly, the valve ‘it remains closed. When the 25 external to the chamber so as to be freely vented,‘
a plurality of apertures in the wall of the cham
compression spring ‘l5 returns the piston arma=
her, a plurality of movable contacts movable away
ture ‘it to its lower position the valve ‘id opens
from the stationary contacts and through the
to permit oil to ?ow into the chamber 6. .
apertures to within- the chamber to draw a plu
Although I have shown tour serially related
breaks associated with each chamber 8, not count 30 rality of serially related arcs through the aper
tures, and means other than the arcs for putting
ing the disconnect break, it is apparent that for
the ?uid within the chamber under pressure to
a higher voltage-more breaks could be used.
cause an ejection of ?uid out of the chamber and
Since the magnetomotive force of the series
' coils 39 in Fig, 2 and it in Fig. 6 isproportional
through the apertures substantially longitudinally
tov the product of-the number of turns in the 35 of the arc to extinguish the arcs.
2. In a circuit interrupter, a substantially‘ en
series coils and the electric current ?owing
through the series coils, it is readily‘ apparent . closed stationary chamber, a pair of stationary .
contacts ‘mounted substantially on opposite walls
that by increasing the number of turns in the
of the chamber so as to be freely vented, a pair
series coils 89, ‘it the respective piston armatures
til, ‘it will be actuated at correspondingly lower 40 of apertures through the walls of the chamber
disposed adjacent to the two stationary contacts,
current values. Consequently, by increasing the
a pair of cooperable moving contacts separable
number of turns in the series coils, the pistons
from the stationary contacts to draw two serially
will be operativeat lower current values to in
related arcs adjacent the two apertures, lever
crease the‘pressure within the chambers t. The
means for causing motion of the pair of moving
number of turns ‘in the series coils 39, ‘it will
contacts, means other than the arcs for putting
then be determined by the operating conditions
?uid ‘within the‘ chamber under pressure to force
required.
.
,
It will, furthermore, be observed that in the . the ?uid out the apertures adjacent the arcs to
e?ect the extinction of the same, and a torsion
operation of_ the interrupter shown in Fig. 2 it
the pressure within the chamber 6 becomes very 50 shaft for causing motion of the lever means.
3. In a circuit interrupter, a substantially en
high during the interruption or high currents
closed chamber, a plurality of pairs of stationary
the piston means 35 may be held in its raised
position, the insulating cross rod M and the
_ 'roller '
contacts, an aperture through the wall of the
chamber adjacent each contact, each pair of sta
$2 meanwhile separating from the lever 41. In
this event the tension spring ill will not assist 55 tionary contacts being mounted substantially on
opposite sides of the chamber, a plurality of pairs
the compression springs H to bias the operating
of moving contacts to draw a plurality of arcs
adjacent the apertures, a plurality of levers for
causing the motion of the pairs of moving con
- sidence of the pressure within the chamber 8 of
Fig. 2 after interruption the piston means 35 60 tacts, a plurality of torsion shafts for causing the
motion of the levers, means for putting ?uid dis
will then be operative due to the tension in the
mechanism to the open circuit position. v Also in
this event it will be apparent that upon the sub
tension spring 50 to ?ush contaminated ?uid out
through the apertures 58 in the casing- i1. As
mentioned previously, however, the turns in the
posed within the chamber under pressure to effect
_ an ejection ofthe same out the apertures to ex
tinguish the arcs, and means for simultaneously
the rotation of the levers.
series coil 39 may be increased to such an extent 65 causing
4. In a circuit interrupter, a. substantially
that the piston means 35 will be operative even
:losed stationary chamber, a pair of stationary
during the existence of high pressure within the
contacts
mounted externally of the chamber so
chamber 6 caused by the interruption of high
as to be freely vented and substantially on oppo
currents.
’
It will be readily ‘apparent that although I have 70 site sides thereof, a pair of apertures in the wall
of the chamber adjacent the stationary contacts,
shown my invention as applied to liquid type
a cooperable pair‘ of moving contacts movable
circuit interrupters, the some were merely for,
away from the pair of stationary contacts to draw
purposes of illustration and my invention is not
two
serially related arcs through the pair of aper
limited to use only in liquid type circuit inter
rupters, but also may be used in connection with 75 tures, means for putting ?uid disposed within
it
.
across?
the chamber under pressure to eil‘ect an election
of the same out the apertures to extinguish the
41
.
_ arcing surface of each interrupting unit having
a plurality of recesses to forms corrugated arc
area-a lever for simultaneously causing the mo
tion of. the pair of moving contacts, and ‘means
in: surface, a pair or movable contacts cooperable
pivotally mounting the lever intermediate its
> with the pair of stationary contacts to draw two
ends.
.
serially related arcs through the pair of aper~
>
, tures and into the pair of interrupting units, le- ,
5. In a circuit interrupter, a chamber, piston
ver means for simultaneously actuating the pair
means for-putting the fluid within the chamber
> under pressure, spring means for urging the actu
of movable contacts, and means for putting ?uid within the chamber under pressure to cause the >
10
rupter opening operation, and a series coil to
election of ?uid through the pair of interrupting
units and out the apertures to effect the extinc
assist the spring means during the opening oper
ation.
‘
tion of the arcs.
10. In a circuit interrupter, a substantial
'
6. in a circuit interrupter, a substantially sta-v
tionary closed‘ chamber, a pair of relatively sta
1y closed chamber, means for establishing a plu
tionary contacts mounted externally of the cham~ 15 r'ality of serially related arcs within the cham
ber, means for putting liquid disposed within the
~ ‘her so as to he freely vented and substantially onv
opposite sides thereof,- a pair of apertures in the
“ the pair of station
chamber under pressure to facilitate the extinc- -
contacts movable through the pair of apertures
from within the chamber to engage the pair of
affecting the magnetic field about the pressure
it to move into engage~
ment with fresh liquid to give increased pressure
tion of the arcs, said last-mentioned means com
prising relatively movable contacts separable ‘to
posed in one of~v the apertures, a pair orv movable 20 establish a pressure ‘generating arc, and means
stationary contacts in the closed circuit position
of the interrupter, means for simultaneously ac 25 - within the chamber.
11..In a ‘circuit interrupter, two substantially
tuating the pair of movable contacts away from
the vpair of stationary contacts and through the
closed chambers, rnovahlecontact structure dis~=
posed, in each chamber, a plurality of torsion
pair of apertures to draw two serially relatedarcs
shafts extending through the walls of each cham
through the apertures, and means other than the
arcs for putting the ?uid within the chamber un 30 bar to operate the movable contact Structure dis=
der pressure to cause the election of the ?uid- out ' posed therein, arr-operating lever connected to
of the chamber through the‘ apertures to extin
each shaft, at least one operating rod for each
guish the arcs‘,
chamber which is connected to the plurality of
'l‘, in a circuit
operating levers associated therewith? and a con
interrupter, a substantially
closed chamber, a pair of stationary contacts
mounted externally of the chamber and substan
tially on opposite sides thereoi, a pair of apertures
35
formation of two disconnect gaps in the series
circuit, the bridging member also causing the how
tuation of the operating rod associated ‘with each
in the wall of the chamber adiacent the pair oi’
stationary contacts, a pair of interrupting units
disposedadjacent the pair of apertures, the arc
ing surface oi’ each interrupting unit having a
ducting bridging member operable to cause the
chamber.
-
40
plurality of recesses to form a corrugated arcing
surface, a pair of movable contacts cooperable
with the pair of stationary contacts to draw two
serially related arcs through the pair of apertures 45
and into the pair of interrupting units, and
means for putting ?uid within the chamber under
pressure to cause the ejection of fluid through the
pair of interrupting units and out the apertures
chamber under pressure, and means for directing
to effect the extinction of the area.
8. In a circuit interrupter, a substantially
the ?uid under pressure into the arcing passage
means at a plurality of spaced points along the
closed chamber, a pair of relatively stationary
contacts mounted externally or the chamber and
extinction of the arc.
' substantially
on opposite sides thereof, a pair of
'
adjacent one end of the passage means, a “coop
erable movable contact movable through the arc
ing passage means
to establish an arc therein,
-
i
13. In > a circut interrupter, a substantially
apertures in the Wall of the chamber adjacent the 65 closed chamber; a stationary contact mounted
externally of the chamber, arcing passage means
pair of stationary contacts, at least one insulating
extending from the contact through the wall of
nozzle disposed in one of the apertures, a pair
of movable contacts movable through the pair of
the stationary contact heing diam
apertures to engage the pair of stationary con- '
tests in the closed circuit position of the inter~ 60
rupter, lever means for simultaneously actuating
the pair of movable contacts away-from the pair
of stationary contacts and through the pair of
‘. apertures to draw two serially related arcs
through the apertures, and means for puttingthe 635
?uid within the chamber under pressure to cause
the ejection of the fluid out of the chamber
through the apertures to extinguish the arcs.
9. In a circuit interrupter, a substantially
closed chamber, a pair of stationary contacts 70
mounted externally of the chamber and substan
tially on opposite sides thereof, a pair of aper~=
arcing passage means to establish an arc therein,
means for putting ?uid disposed within the shares
her under pressure, and means for directing the
means
fluid under
at‘ a plurality
pressure ofinto
spaced
the points
arcingalong the
length of the arcing passage means to effect the
extinction of the arc, and a plurality of discharge
passages disposed at a plurality of spaces‘, inters
mediate points along the length of the arcing
passage means and communicating to the region
exterior to the chamber.
14. In a circuit ' interrupter, a substantially
tures in the wall of the chamber adjacent the
closed chamber, a pair-oi’ stationary cents-lets
pair of stationary contacts, a pair of interrupting
mounted externally of the chamber and suh~
units disposed adjacent the pair of apertures. the 75 stantially on opposite sides thereof, a pair of
movable contacts movable through the well of
asiaesr
.
‘
t5
the chamber to engage the stationary contacts in
- the closed circuit position of the interrupter, an‘
interrupting unit disposed adjacent each station
ary contact through which the movable contact
passes to establish an arc therein, lever means
for simultaneously actuating the pair of mov
able contacts, means for putting ?uid within the
chamber under pressure, each interrupting unit
utilizing the fluid under pressure to direct a plu
rality oiiets toward the arc established wi
the unit from spaced points along the arc.
re
strikes the are at a plurality of spaced points
along the arc, the unit also forming a plurality
oi discharge passages spaced at intermediate
points along the are which communicate with the
region external to the chamber.
17. In a circuit interrupter, means for estab
' lishing a pressure generating arc and one or more
series interrupting arcs, means utilizing the pres
sure created by the pressure generating arc to ,as
in
15.111 a circuit interrupter, a substantially
closed chamber, a pair of stationary contacts
mounted externally of the chamber and sub»
stantially on opposite sides thereof, a pair of
~movable contacts movable through the walls of
sist in e?ecting extinction of one or more of the
interrupting arcs, and means for shooting lateral
movement of the pressure generating arc to cause
the latter to engage fresh ?uid to generate in
creased pressure for effecting a more rapid inter“
ruption of the electrical circuit through the in
terrupter.
,
_
‘
18. In a circuit interrupter, means for estab
the chamber to engage " the ‘stationary contacts
lishing a pressure generating arc and one or more
in the closed circuit position of the interrupter,
series interrupting arcs, means utilizing the press
an interrupting unit disposed adjacent each sta
sure created by the pressure generating are to
20
tionary contact through which the movable con
‘assist in effecting extinction of one or more of
tact passes to establish an arc therein, lever
the interrupting arcs, and magnetic means for
means for simultaneously actuating the pair of
e?'ecting lateral movement of the pressure gem
movable contacts, means for putting ?uid within
erating are to cause the latter to engage fresh
the chamber under pressure, each interrupting
fluid
to generate increased pressure for e?ecting
25
unit utilizing the fluid under pressure to direct a
a more rapid interruption of the electrical circuit
plurality of jets toward the are established within
the unit from spaced points along the arc, each,
interrupting unit also providing a plurality of dis:
through the interrupter.
' 16. In a circuit interrupter, a chamber, means
.
lishing a pressure generating arc and one or more
_ charge passages iromspaced inte he»: ate points
along the arc which communicate to the region
external to the chamber.
_ '
19. In a circuit interrupter, means for estab=
30
series interrupting arcs, means utilizing the prea
sure created by the pressure generating arc to
assist in enacting extinction of one or more or
the interrupting arcs, one or more ?uid retaining
for putting ?uid within the chamber under pres
pockets, means for lengthening the pressure gens
sure, a stationary contact mounted externally of :- erating are past one or more of the fluid retag
the chamber, a movable contact movable through
pockets so that the pressure generating arc will
a wall of the chamber to engage the stationary
continue to engage, fresh ?uid to generate in.
contact in the closed circuit position of the inter
creased pressure for effecting a more rapid inter=
rupter, an interrupting unit disposed‘ adjacent
ruption of the electrical circuit through thein»
the path of movement oi’ the movable contact,
terrupter, and magnetic means cooperating with
40
the movable contact being separable from the
p
_ stationary
contact to establish an are within the
unit, the unit forming a plurality of entrance pas=
sages through which the fluid under press
saidillast-mentioned means to move the arc lat.»
era y.
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