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Патент USA US2412919

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Dec. 17, 1945. `
J. SLEPIAN ~
2,412,919
cIRcUIT-INTERRUPTER
Filed March 27, 1943
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Patented Dec. 17, 1946
2,412,919
UNITED STATES PATENT GFFICE
2,412,919
CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER
Joseph Slepian, Pittsburgh, Pa., assigner to West
inghouse Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh,
Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
1
>
Application March 27, 1943, serial »10.480.733
1o claims. (o1. zoo-_148)
2
This invention relates to circuit interrupters '
in general, and, more particularly, to circuit in
terrupters of the type which utilize an aro ex
tinguishing gas to effect-turbulence within the
Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary plan view of
the top fixed electrode looking down on the line
IV-IV of Fig. 2;
' Fig. 5 is an elevational View, partly in section,
arcing region to assist in extinguishing the arc 5 of a circuit interrupter embodying a modiñcation
drawn during a circuit interrupter opening
of my invention;
'
operation.
Fig. 6 is an inverted View in section taken on
An object of my invention is to provide an
improved circuit interrupter having cooperable
line VI--VI of Fig. 5; and
f
Fig. 7 is an inverted View in section taken on
electrodes, in at least one of which are disposed 10 the line vri-vir of Fig. 5.
a plurality of gas conducting apertures.
Referring to the drawings, and more particu
Another object is to provide an improved cir
cuit interrupter which' sends a plurality of gas
jets at substantially acoustic velocity into the
arcing region.
A further object is to provide 'an improved
circuit interrupter which has cooperable perfo
.larly to Fig. 2, the reference numeral I designates
a fixed plate electrode to which a terminal 2 is
rigidly attached. The fixed plate electrode I has
15 Y'formed therein a plurality- of exit apertures 3
inclined helically as more clearly shown in Figs.
3 and 4.
rated electrodes, and to send a plurality of gas
Cooperating with the ñxed plate electrode I is
jets at near acoustic velocity through the perfo
4Va second fixed plate electrode 4 which has a con
ratlons or apertures in one electrode into the 20 tact portion 5, and which has a terminal 6 rigidly
arcing region and out the perforations yor aper
connected thereto. The fixed plate electrode 4
tures in the other cooperable electrode also at
has'formed therein a plurality of inlet apertures
near acoustic velocity to effect rapid extinction
'I inclined helically as more clearly shown in Fig.
of the arc drawn between the electrodes.
3. _It Will be observed that the exit apertures 3,
Another object is to provide an improved cir 25 provided in the fixed plate electrode I, are in
cuit interrupter having at least one gas conduct
clined helically in an opposite direction from the
ing pa-ssage through one electrode to' not only
direction of the helically inclined inlet apertures
effect turbulence in the arcing region but also to
‘I formed in the ñxed plate electrode 4, as more
Aeffect a lateral movement of the arc to distribute
clearly shown inr Fig. 3, the purpose for which
the heating effect of the terminal of the arc over 30 will appear more clearly hereinafter.
the surface of the electrode.
`
’
A more speciiic object is to provide an improved
-circuit interrupter comprising a pair or cooper'
Disposed between lthe- fixed plate electrodes I,
4 and maintaining `them‘in spaced relation is an
"insulating ring 8', more clearly shown in Fig. 2.
-able electrodes between which :an arc-may be
Also disposed between' the plate electrode I, 4 is
established, and to provide gas conducting aper 35 an insulating plate 9'. v¿'I‘hreadedly secured to the
tures in both electrodes inclined helically in op
`iixed plate electrode 4 ist an insulating tubular ,
posite directions to effect both turbulence and
ñared conduit member I0, which serves to 'con
lateral arc movement in the arcing'reg'ion be
=duct a suitable arc extinguishing gas, in this in
tween the electrodes. ‘
'
'
~stance compressed air, toward the inlet apertures
Another object is to provide an annular arcing 40 "I' disposed in the fixed plate electrode 4, as shown
Vpassage between two cooperable electrodes in
more clearly by the arrows in Fig. 2.
which the established arc may be moved laterally.
The fixed plate electrode | has an upstanding
For purposes of illustration I describe my in
guide portion II which serves to guide a movable
vention as applied to circuit interrupters of the
ltubular conducting bridging electrode I 2. In the
'compressed air type. Other gases such as carbon 45 closed circuit position of the interruptor the
dioxide, hydrogen, etc., may, however, be used.
movable tubular bridging electrode I 2 engages the
. .Further objects and advantages oi my inven
lContact portion 5 of the fixed plate electrode 4
'tion' will readily become- apparent upon a reading
toelectrically connect the plate electrodes I, 4.
ofthe following specification taken in conjunc
r‘Consequently,.the electrical ycircuit through the
»tion withi the drawings, in which:
'
50 vinterrupter >in the ‘closed circuit position (not
_ Figure 1` is a plan view of a circuit interruptor
l“slîiowrn comprises the terminal 2, the fixed plate
embodying my invention; `
’
'
Fig. 2 isa -view in cross section taken on the
line II--II of Fig. 1;
electrode l, the' movable tubular' bridging elec
trode> I2 ; Contact portion 5 of 'fixed plate electrode
4 to the other terminal `6 of. the interruptor." ’
= Fig. 3 'is a view in cross section taken on the, 55
Exit apertures '3"a1'e' also provided in the mov
line vIII-III-‘oi' Fig. 2;
' 1
able tubular electrode I2 and also in the upstand
2,412,919
3
d
ing guide portion II, as more clearly shown in
Fig. 2. It is, therefore, desirable to prevent a
rotation of the movable tubular bridging elec
trode I2 with respect to the fixed plate electrode
I. The key I3, rigidly secured to the electrode I2
sliding in the longitudinal 'recess I4 provided in
the upstanding lguide portion II, prevents rota
The arc I 6 is carried rapidly around the an
nular arcing passage I 5 at high velocity and per
mitted to play between the annular portions of
the electrode plates I and ß relatively unimpeded
and unrestricted.
At a current zero the arc will
not restrike because of the increase in dielectric
strength of the air within the rannular interelec
trode arcing passage I5 caused by the turbulence
tion of the bridging electrode I2 with respect to
of the air jets passing through the inlet aper
the plate electrode I.
Referring to Figure 2 it will be observed that ’ tures 7 in plate electrode 4 at substantially acous
the insulating ring 8 cooperates with the insu
tic velocity. Also the rotation of the arc I5
lating plate 9 to form an annular interelectrode
around the annular arcing passage I5 distributes
arcing passage generally designated by the refer
the heating effect over the extended surfaces of
he electrodes I, 6 to minimize the emission cf
ence numeral I5 the ends of which are bounded
ionized metallic particles from the plate elec
by annular arcing members formed by the in
trodes I, ll. rl‘he .arc I 6 is extinguished-at the
wardly exposed surfaces of electrodes I and 4
respectively. The edge portions of the insulating
first current Zero, and suitable means not shown
ring 8 and insulating plate 9 adjacent the arcing
may then stop the compressed air ñow.
passage I5 have apertures formed therein to align
In the embodiment of my invention shown in
Figs. 5 through '7 inclusive there is provided a
with the apertures 3, 'I of plate electrodes I, 4
as more clearly shown in Fig. 2. Positioning pins
fixed tubular electrode 2l having a plurality of
inlet apertures 22 preferably generally uniformly
I8, as more clearly shown in Fig. 2, prevent rota~
tion of the insulating plate 9A with respect to the
distributed across the face thereof. An insulat
ing gas conduit 23 is threadedly secured to the
_fixed plate electrode 4.
During the opening operation of the interrupter
fixed tubular electrode 2 I, and the passage of gas
therethrough is controlled by the electrically ac
the movable tubular electrode I2 is moved up
tuated valve generally designated by the refer
wardly by any suitable means to separate from
the portion 5 of fixed plate electrode 4 to estab
ence numeral 2d.
Surrounding the tubular electrode 2I is an in
lish an arc designated'by Vthe-reference numeral
I6 in Fig. 2. The arc extinguishing gas, in this 30 sulating casing 25, in this instance cylindrical,
instance compressed air, forced upwardly through
which also serves as a guide for a movable tubu
the tubular dared conduit II! passes through the
helically inclined inlet apertures 'I of ñxed plate _
electrode 4 to result in a plurality of air jets
lar electrode 26. Terminal k2'I is rigidly secured
to the fixed tubular electrode 2l, and a terminal
23 is rigidly secured to the movable tubular elec
trode 2’5 as 'more clearly shown in Fig. 5.
Consequently in the closed circuit >positicnof
the interrupter (not shown) the electrical circuit
therethrough comprises terminal 28., movable tu
bular electrode 2S, ñxed tubular electrode 2I, to
terminal 21.
Disposed in the movable tubular electrode 25
are a plurality of exit apertures 29 also preferably
generally uniformly distributed across the face
thereof. The reference numeral 30 generally des
ignates the interelectrode arcing region.
During the opening operation of the inter
rupter shown in Fig. 5 the movable tubular elec.
trode 25 is moved upwardly to separate` from the
which enter the annular interelectrode arcing .
passage I5 turbulently. The air flow through the
inlet apertures ‘I produces not only a very high
turbulence in the annular passage I5, but also
produces an _angular momentum which causes a
mass circulation of the air around the annular f
interelectrode arcing passage I5 at high Velocity.
The angular momentum carries the arc IB, which
is initially established, rapidly around the an
nular arcing passage I5 on the extended surfaces
of the plate electrodes,A I, 4.Y Fig. 3 shows the
position of the arc I6 after it has been carried
part way around the annular arcing passage I5
to a position designated by the reference nu
_meral I'I.
I have found that for a circuit interrupter of
the type shown in Figs. l-4 inclusive which is
designed for 15,000 volts, 60 cycles, and large cur
rents, thatA the pressure at the entrance. to the
linlet apertures 'I in ñxed plate- 4 may be substan--
fixedv tubular electrode. 2I to draw an arc 3l >in
V
the interelectrode arcing region 30 and which is
permitted to play relatively` unimpeded and un~
restricted between the electrodes 2l and 25 now
serving as arc terminal members. Simultaneous
ly, a suitable means (not shown) operates the
tially 60 pounds per square inch absolute pres- 7“ electrically actuated' valve 25 to force a stream
sure. The total area of the inlet apertures ‘I
of gas, in this instance compressed air. upwardly
is approximately 1115 of the eiîective> area of the
fixed plate electrode 4. The interelectrode pres
sure within the annular arcing passage I5 may
be 30 pounds per square inch absolute pressure. ‘T1
Consequently the air jets coming into the annu
lar arcing passage I5 through the inlet apertures
'I in fixed plate electrode 4 will have substantially
the velocity of sound-in air, that is 14,000 inches:
Der second.
Y
through the insulating conduit 23 and upwardly
through the inlet apertures 22 into the arcing
region 30.
~. /
The compressed air jets passing through the
ñxed tubular electrode 2l produce turbulence
within the interelectrode arcing region 30 to ex
tinguish the arc 3l at the first current zero. The
direction of the compressed airV ilow is indicated
by the arrows in Fig. 5.
.
,
The total area of the exit apertures 3 in fixed
For a circuit interrupter of the type shown in
plate electrode I is substantially Tis of the eifec
tive area of fixed plate electrode I. Atmospheric
Fig. 5 designed for 15,000 volts, v60 cycles, and for
high current, the separation between the fixed
electrode 2l and the movable electrode 26 may be
pressure, that is 15 pounds per square inch abso- '
lute pressure, prevails outside of the ñxed plate TI) taken as l centimeter at arc extinction. The
electrode I. Consequently the air jets which pass
transient peak voltage which the arcing'region
through the exit apertures '3 in ñxed plate elec
20 must stand after current zero will be under-50
trode I will have substantially lthe velocityv of `
kv. This dielectric strength can be insured by
providing that the compressed air in this space
sound in air. The width between the plate elet»4
is at 30 pounds per square inch absolutelpres'
trodes I. 4 may be approximately ‘f’a inch.
2,412,919
6
sure. After the transient it may fall to normal
15 `pounds per square inch absolute pressure.
Compressed air is injected into the arcing re
gion 30 at about acoustic velocity or 14,000 inches
per second through the inlet apertures 22 in the
fixed electrode 2| .
The driving pressure is then
60 pounds per square inch absolute.
The area
of the apertures 22 may be substantially il@ the
bodiments shown in the drawings the ratio is 1:2
which gives the best results.
The pressure of the gas on the low pressure
side of any of the electrodes I, 4, 2l, 26 should be
from 1A to 3A, of the gas pressure on the high
pressure side of the particular electrode. The
preferred pressure is from 1)/8 to 578 of that on
the high pressure side of the electrode. In the
area of the ñxed electrode 2l. The area of the
exit apertures 29 in movable electrode 20 may be
substantially 1%; of the electrode area. There
fore, the 30 pounds per square inch interelec
trode pressure will discharge the air out through
the exit apertures 2S in the movable electrode
two breakers shown, the pressure on the low
pressure side of any of the electrodes is 1/2 that
on the high pressure side. This I have found to
give the best results.
Although I have shown and described specific
structures it is to be clearly understood that the
26 at substantially acoustic velocity to atmos l5 same were merely for purposes of illustration,
pheric pressure.
and that changes and modifications may readily
The air between the electrodes 2l, 26 will be
be made by those skilled in the art without de
in a highly turbulent state. The intensity fac
parting from the spirit and scope of the inven
tion.
`
L'
tor of the turbulence will be close to acoustic
velocity, or 3.104 cm./sec. The scale factor of 20
I claim as my invention:
'
the turbulence will be about 0.5 cm. The eiîec
l. In a circuit interrupter, a pair of relatively
tive diffusion coefficient due to this turbulence
movable electrodes between which an arc is es
will be of the order of the product of these fac
tablished, means forming an annular arcing pas
tors or about 104.
sage disposed between the electrodes, an annular
The time constant for the decay of ionization 25 arcing member disposed at each end of said arc
and temperature in the interelectrode space will
ing passage and between which said arc is adapt
be
ed to be moved relatively unimpeded and unre
stricted, said arcing members having a plurality
d2
of gas conducting apertures formed therein, and
ä
30 means forcing gas under pressure at high velocity
where d is the interelectrode separation and D is
the effective diffusion coefficient. Taking d=1
and D=104, this gives a time constant of 10 mi
unidirectionally through said apertures and said.
arcing passage to create a highly turbulent at
mosphere therein for extinguishing the arc.
2. In a circuit interrupter, a pair of electrodes
croseconds, which is fast enough to ensure arc 35
between which an arc is established, at least one
extinction in any practical circuit.
of the electrodes having a plurality of gas con
Figs. 6 and 7 show a comparison of aperture
ducting aperturesformed therein which are in
areas provided in the electrodes 2|, 26.
clined helically.
Although I have shown an application of my
3. In a circuit interrupter, a pair of cooperable
invention to two different types of circuit inter 40 electrodes between which an arc may be estab
rupters operating at 15,000 volts, 60 cycles, and
lished, both electrodes having formed therein a
at high currents it is to be clearly understood that
plurality of gas conducting apertures, the aper
for higher or lower voltage ratings or currents
tures in the pair of electrodes being inclined hel
the dimensions and also the pressure of the gas
ically in opposite directions.
used would necessarily be varied to suit the oper
4. In a circuit interrupter, a pair of cooperable
ating conditions desired.
eiectrodes between which an arc may be estab
It will also be apparent that in both embodi
lished, at least one electrode being substantially
ments of my invention shown and described, the
compressed air is injected in the form of a plu
rality of air jets at acoustic velocity into the .~
arcing region, and is also exhausted out of the
arcing region at acoustic velocity. Using com
pressed air as the arc extinguishing gas, the ve
locity of the air jets entering and leaving the
arcing region should be in the range from 5,000
fiat and having one gas conducting aperture
therein which is inclined with respect to the lon
gitudinal axis of the electrode.
5. In a circuit interrupter, a relatively fixed
tubular electrode closed at one end except for a
plurality of apertures disposed therein, a oo
operable movable tubular electrode also closed at
“ one end except for a plurality of apertures dis
inches per second to 14,000 inches per second, the
latter figure being the numerical value of acous
posed therein, a relatively tight fitting insulating
tic velocity in air. My preferred range of veloc
ities is, however, from 10,000 inches per second to
14,000 inches per second using compressed air.
serving as a guide for the movable electrode and
For other gases the numerical value of the Ve
locity of sound is different from that in air.
In
hydrogen, for example, the velocity of sound is
approximately four times that for air.
Using other gases than air, the range of ve
locities of the jets entering and leaving the arc
ing region should be between 30% and 100% of
casing surrounding the fixed electrode and also
forming> an arcing region between the apertured
surfaces of said electrodes, and means for forcing
gas through the apertures in the fixed electrode
into the arcing region and out through the aper
tures in the movable electrode at a rate to create
within the arcing region a turbulent atmosphere
having a high coeflicient of diffusion to quickly
extinguish the arc drawn between the electrodes.
6. In a circuit interrupter, a pair of electrodes
the velocity of sound in the gas used. The pre
between which an arc is established, means form
ferred range is from '70% to 100% of the velocity
ing an annular arcing passage disposed between
of sound in the gas used.
70 the electrodes, at least one of the electrodes hav
I have found that the ratio of the total inlet
ing a plurality of gas conducting apertures formed
aperture area in the inlet electrode to the total
therein which are inclined helically.
exit aperture area in the exit electrode should be
'7. In a circuit interrupter, a pair of electrodes
in the range from 1:1 to 1:3. My preferred
between which an arc is established, means form
"il ing an annular arcing passage disposed between
range is between 1:11A to 1:21/2. In both em
v'.aeraa-le
.theelectrodes,A both the electrodes having‘a'íplu
.plurality _of -gas exhaust :openings therethrough,
rality of gas conducting apertures ¿formed there
in `Which îare inclined ¿helically in A,opposite direc
tions.
means ¿for establishing `an '.arc. between said arc
terminal members, and means for causing fa y'high
vVelocity ‘blast of gas `to flow longitudinally
, i8.. Ina circuit‘interruptenmeans of insulating Ci through said tubular vmember, said'inlet openings
material 'deñn‘ing `'the iside walls :of an arc cham
insaid one arc terminal member causing aïhig-h
ber, a pair of arc terminal members disposed >in
degree of turbulence in said arc -chamber, said
spaced relation Y'and >arranged >.with respect to said
exhaust openings in said other arc «terminal mem
'means of ¿insulating .material to enclose the op
.posecl ends of `saidarc chamber, means for estab
r:lishing an arc between said .aro .terminal mem
bers, one of said arc terminal members having a
vplurality of .generally uniformly distributed gas
inlet rpassages therethrough, :means ier imoying
.arc extinguishing gas fat .high velocity Vthrough -
said inlet ‘passages :to `crea-gte .a highly turbulent
atmosphere Within said chamber, .said other arc
terminal member ~'having .a plurality >of generally
uniformly distributed gas exhaust passages there
through the total cross-,sectional area vof ‘which y
is .such to' enable ysaid gas to exhaust from said
chamber lat a vvelocity substantially equal to the
inlet velocity -to enhance the turbulence -within
'the are chamber and bring .about a rapid ,diffu
v»sion of Aions .and .quickly extinguish >the arc.
'_9. In a circuit interrupter, a tubular member
of insulating material, a pair of arc terminal
members .of conducting material adapted to -be
.positioned in .spaced relation within said tubular
member .to provide rend walls of an arcing cham
ber being so -proportioned `with respect ,to :said
li) inlet openings to .cause said gas to exhaust :there
through at substantially` the same Velocity ras .the
gas entering lsaid chamber to .enhance the tur
bulent effect 'in .the :arc chamber to quickly de
ionize and extinguish the arc :and »to maintain
the gas :therein -at a predetermined pressure.
10. In a circuit interrupter of the compressed
gas type, a .pair of spaced >generally iiiat `arcter
minal members between which `an arc is adapted
to play, tubular tmeans rof insulating material ex
tending 'between said arc terminal members Lto
dei-lne .therewith an .arc chamber, `said arc ter
minal :members having `a .plurality of apertures
therein to permit va unidirectional flow of >gas
through said arc chamber, means forestablishing
an .arc .between >said farc terminal members, and
means :for moving gas‘under suiiicient pressure ‘to
produce a iiow through said apertures of the order
of 30% to 100% acoustic velocity, said apertures
fber, one of said arc terminal members having a
being so arranged to ¿produce within said arc
chamber a highly turbulent atmosphere having
a high effective diñusion coeñ‘ìcient to quicklyex
plurality of gas ‘inlet openings therethrough, the
tinguish the arc.
other of Vsaid are :terminal members 'having a
JOSEPH SLEPIAN.
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