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Патент USA US2412923

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Dec. 17, 1946.
2,412,923
' R. STEVENSON
VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
Filed Sept. 6, 1940
15 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR.
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ATTORNEYS.
Dec. 17, 17946.
R, STEVENSON
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VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
A TTORNEYS.
Dec. 17, 1946.
R, STEVENSON
2,412,923
VARIABLE P I TCH PROPELLER
Filed Sept. 6, 1940
15 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Dec. 17, 1946.
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R. ‘SLI'EVENSON
1412923
VARIABLE PITCH ~PROPELLER
Filed Sept. 6, ‘1940
15 Sheets-Sheet 4
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“ Dec. 17, 1946.
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VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
Filed Sept.' 6, 1940
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Dec. 17, 1946.
R, STEVENSON
2,412,923
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Filed Sept; 6, 1940
15 Sheets-Sheet e
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INVENTOR.
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Dec. 17, 1946.
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‘ VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
Filed Sept. .6, 1940
13 ‘Sheets-Sheet 7
A TTORNEYS.
Dec. 17, .1946. -
R_ STEVENSON
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2,412,923
VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
Filed Sept. 6, 1940
.13 Sheets-Sheet '8
INVENZ‘OR.
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A TTORNEYS.
Dec. 17, 1946.
R. STEVENSON
2,412,923
VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
Filed Sept. 6, 1940
15- Sheets-Sheet 9
A TTORNEYS.
Dec. ‘17, 1946.
2,412,923
'R. STEVENSON
VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER’
Filed Sept. '6‘, 1940 v
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Dec. 17, 1946.
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VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
Filed Sept. 6, 1940
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Dec. 17, 1946.
R STEVENSON
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2,412,923
VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
Filed Sept. 6, 1940
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IN VEN TOR.
A TTORNEYS.
.
Patented Dec. 17, 1946
2,412,923
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,923
VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER
Robert Stevenson, Providence, R. I., assignor to
Stevenson Engineering Corporation, a corpo
ration of Rhode Island
Application September 6, 1940, Serial N0. 355,626
' 5 Claims. (Cl. 170—163)
1
2.
This invention relates to aerial propulsion,
Fig. 4 is a section similar to Fig. 3 but showing
more particularly to a mechanism for changing
the more outboard portion of the mechanism and
the pitch of the blades of a propeller. It has for
also on the same scale as Fig. 3 and larger than
its pbjects various accomplishments in the im
the scale of Fig. 1;
provement of such mechanism. One of the ob Cl
Fig. 4a is a central longitudinal sectional view
jects of the invention is to provide a hollow shaft
of an alternative form of mechanism to that
in connection with a mechanism for varying the
shown‘in Fig. 4;
pitch of the propeller blades in order that a shot
Fig. 5 is a sectional view similar to Fig. 4 but
may be ?red through the shaft.
showing a diiferent plane of section through the
Another object of the invention is to provide
propeller shaft;
a self -locking arrangement in connection with the
_ Fig. 5a is a sectional view taken substantially
varying, of the pitch of the blades of the propeller
on line 5a-5a of Fig. 4a;
so ‘that there will be a sufficient resistance to
Fig. 6 is a section taken substantially on line
pressure on the blades to maintain them in ad
6-6 of Fig. 4;
justed position which under some conditions such 15 Fig. 6a is a sectional view taken substantially
as due to diving or failure of oil pressure causes
on line Sa-Ea of Fig. 4a;
the blades to move from adjustment and ?atten
Fig. 7 is a section on line 'l—'! of Fig. 6;
out.
Fig. 8 is a section on line 8-8 of Fig. 6; .
» Another object of the invention is to provide
Fig. 9 is a section taken substantially on line
for a large portion of the operating mechanism, 20 9—_9 of Fig. 3;
_
such, for instance, as the pumps and governors
Fig. 10 is a section on substantially line l0—l0
to beat a location inboard from the plane of
of Fig. 1;
rotation of the propeller blades that the operat
Fig. 11 is a detailed view of the pump assembly;
ing mechanism may be better supported.
Fig. 12 is a section on line l2—l2 of Fig. 11;
’ Another object of the invention is to improve
Fig. 13 is a section on line ill-I3 of Fig. 11;
the root mounting of the propeller blade in the
Fig. 14 is a section on line "-44 of Fig. 11;
hub of the propeller and to enable more blades
Fig. 15 is a schematic diagram illustrating the
to be mounted on a hub of a given size.
relationship of the pumps, control valves and con
‘ ' Another object of the invention is to arrange
duits in connection with the reservoir;
Fig. 16 is a detail sectional view illustrating cer
tain of the manual control valves and taken on
an operating hydraulic power mechanism for the 30
changing of the pitch of the propeller blades
which will have large areas that lower pressures
may be utilized of the hydraulic means to de
line ilk-l6 of Fig. 18; .
Fig. 17 is a section on line l'l-l'l of Fig. 16;
Fig. 18 is a sectional view taken at right angles
of the propeller.
‘
w CH to the showing of Fig. 16 and taken through the
Another object of the invention is to provide an
center control valve;
automatic control by means of a governor for the
Fig. 19 is a fragmental section showing certain
?uid, pressure control of the blade mechanism.
?uid conduits on substantially line l9—l9 of
With these and other objects in view, the in
Fig. 10;
vention consists of certain novel features of con 40
Fig. 20 is a section on line 20—20 of Fig. 19;
struction, as will be more fully described, and
Fig. 21 is a section on line 2l—2| of Fig. 19; _
particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
Fig. 22 is a section on line 22--22 of Fig. 19;
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 23 is a schematic view illustrating the con
Fig. 1 is a sectional view taken generally cen
trol conduits with relation to the various valves,
trally and illustrating various parts of the out 45 governor, pumps and power mechanism, also
board propeller shaft .and certain of the controls
showing the electrical control for the motor pump.
for the varying of the pitch of the propeller
In the use of an air propulsion mechanism the
blades;
change of pitch of the blades for the purpose
Fig. 2 is a section on substantially line 2-2 of
of changing the effective drive of the propeller
Fig. 1;
and for feathering the blades of the propeller to
Fig. 3 is a section similar to Fig. 1 taken on a
lessen the resistance when the engine is stopped
different plane than Fig. 1 and on a larger scale
in the air or for unfeathering the blades when
showing certain parts of the operating mech
the engine is idling on the ground, strong pres
anism, the section being substantially on line
sures are developed which it is required to over
3-3 of Fig. 10;
'
.
55 come. There is also the problem of shooting with
velop the power necessary for shifting the pitch‘
‘2,412,923
3
4
feathering blade propellers which cannot be done
through the blade at the present time as it is not
so arranged that shooting may be done through
the shaft of the propeller, as this shaft has been
cup 46 which has an opening 41 to receive the
tube 35. The cup is threaded as at 48 to receive
the threaded root 49 of the propeller blade 50 and
To overcome these
after being assembled therewith is keyed to the
cup by dowel pin 50’ which projects from-the
disadvantages I have arranged that shooting may
inner side of the cup to be positioned into recesses
be done thrqilsh the. shaft Further, diving Of.
a plane,thou'sands of pounds p'erv square inch or
roller bearing" surface 5.! against which the rollers
utilized for other purposes.
in the ?ange. it This, can. ispreviolgl "with a
52 engagepn one side while engaging thecircular
pressure is 'd'e‘velopedbnthe propeller‘blade's" and
in propellers Whose pitch is changed there is free
quently. such pressures developed that the resist
ance to turning is overcome and the bladéd?atten
out because of such pressures as are developed.
Accordingly, it is desirable thatfseme arrange;
19
plate on the opposite side which is held in posi
tion by the nut 54 threaded as at 55 to engage the
outer threads 56 of the projecting portion 32. In
> this way the cup 45 is rotatably mounted on the
projection "Sill and provided with roller bearings
ment be made so that propellers cannot ?atten
out and that their driving force may still con
tinue to operate. Accordingly, I have arranged
_ to support the centrifugal force tending to throw
for a locking device so that the propellers cannot
Each gear 34 is in the form of a worm gear
and is‘ rotated by a worm 51 which has portions
the blade outwardly so that easier rotation of
the blade for changing its pitch may be had.
?atten out, and I have provided a controlledmpos‘i
tive actuating mechanism for returning the pro
pellers to their "feathering position.‘ Thisv mech_—_
shear whieh’I have ‘developed is" a completely
20
is of the same construction, ahd‘thé'fdur-‘Wornifsj
5T are‘operated in’ unison to actuate the'sram‘e;
s'elflcontained 'unit‘whi‘ch may be'applied'to the
propeller shaft and itself containing all of? the
liquid used for the hydraulic power, notutilizing
58 and 58' extending therefrom and in ‘which a
bore 42.. extends therethrough. Each blade léiot
Thus, all ofTthe blades will rotate about their
25
the ‘lubricating oil 'of the" engine which would
studs 3i simultaneously to receive thesame
feathering. or- angular ' position with‘ relation
thereto. Each of the worm gears 34 is’ of» $65
be entirely separate therefrom. ‘The'mechanism
is“ also "arranged so that‘it' will operate in the
powe'rltr‘a'nsrnitting" fluid‘ that the working ‘parts
"y' Theappai‘atus" may be‘co'n'sidered as a plurality
mental shape and is limited in? its rotating move'—_
ment by suitable abutment means as'59 “engaging
the ends of the segment. As this root mounting
is "located within theoil casing, it is continually
of ‘assembled cooperating units which ‘actto
operating. in "a lubricant.~ " Each‘ ‘worm, 5151s of
may be continuously lubricated].
'
"
’ " " ‘
30
the type more'fullyldescribed‘in my-P‘atent‘No.
1,982,768 which will not be rotatedjby- torque ,ex;
get-her; 'T-he're is a‘ propeller'blade‘mounting‘ as
sembly, a pitch-changing mechanism forthe pro
peller'blades; a fluid pressure'supply'consisting of
a pump whichis located‘atsome convenient point,
usually‘ inboard cf thepla'r'iewo'frotation of the
35
40
'
'
‘
"
“
4.5
50
projec'ting'portions 3'0Ufrom'th'e' hub 28, each ar
eii- upon‘ this‘ stud having a long’ tubular ‘bearing
porti'olf35i?aredvas at 3i6~to receive the tapered
portion 33': of‘ the stud. This tubular bearing is
?anged inwardly as at‘ 31,- one end'to house a
thrust, ballbe’aring'SS therein, the inwardly-ex
tending, portion also 'receiving the reducedrpor
ti0n_39;;of. the stud..3l which ,is threaded as at 4B
and provided Witha nut 41 to rotatably mount the
same onthestud.
" ' “
‘
'
. A_ ?ange, 4_5._extends lat'erallyfromthe tubular
bearirigQpOrtiOl'I. 35.Which_ assists in locating the
‘
with a gear 15. (see Fig. 3; on an ‘extending ‘per;
drum is fOrmed-pf halves'vbolt'ed together as at 89
(Fig, 6)I and holding “between the seéiiéhsgso se-i
32 held between; the sections" as aridYtdfbf the
vanes by means of-rivets‘8'5l. End plates 86" (Fig.
All for; the drum‘ar'e 'rotatably'mounted- therein
by. means
and
packing
of. ball
ringsbearing
at arewrelativelyg
members 87‘ rotatably
mountedbetiween the'casing'l8- and? the end plates
86- by means of» tongues ‘ '89- (Figs; "'idc'a‘té'd iii
grooves 90 in the drum 1:; and in“ the e'hdpiatés
about the shaft, as ‘shown in' Fig' 2_._ Thisjhu'bZB',
a'ssh'ownf in‘ Fig) zifis arranged for the mounting
of four propeller blade'sfthe‘ same being equally
spaced at an arcuate distance of ninety“ degrees;
ranged tO’pirovide' an‘int’egral‘stud 3i and a collar
32"‘spacedlfrom‘ 'the stud; "This stud 31 is tapered
asat 33i at’itis‘inneriend, and‘a gear 341s mouht
'
curedtogether vanes’?yl having a' packing portion
nihuht’ed ir'fthe' casing, and dry/6,11 from: spine
suitable} driving mechanism such, ‘for instance,‘ as
anf'aéngil'lef A’ propeller hub}? is mounted, on
the pl'ope‘ller 'sha'i'tjzs'h‘y
of splines 23 at
a’lplu'rality" of di?erent location's, peripherally
and‘ ‘for this; purpose there are four ‘outwardly
'
casing l8-_'(see Fig. 4) of thevactuating druin'havk
merely" the statement‘ portion. of. theprqpeller
shaft 25>whi'chfe5it'ends outward through the cas
ing" 26' supported by‘ a radial‘ ball bearing 21'
'
ing ?ns i is ‘for. ‘strengthening the “sazii'ejf ' This
‘i
‘ Prqizelle'eblede mealtime
It will be understood that I have illustrated
'
tion. 58_which meshes with the internafteeth '16
(Fig. 1-) of; the ring gear '11; which is‘ ?xed tfothei
mechanism: will} be described substantially in the
‘
'
In order to rotate the worm 51 to change the
pitch of the blades 50-, each worm 5-‘!- i‘s'pfévided
changing mechanism,‘ anda‘mea'ns ‘for controlr
orderemr'ated.
'
Blqdrritch; changing: mechanism
propeller blade," but preferably close to the pitch
ling the pressure supply of the ?uid for thehy
drauli'c power‘irom the‘ ‘pump 'to the pitch-chang
ing mechanism. These various parts‘ of the
erted onthe blade.
8'61and- 86!. providing a‘ seat- at these relatifv ' ‘
ta'table connections,“ "Ifhe's‘e‘ emanates "86 (_ g}.
4). and 865 are eachlp‘rovi'ded» with inwardly 'eici
tending hubs 9i which are splined as'at‘ 9-2: onto
60
the shaft‘ extensions 93- provided with a
9.4.rboltedlas at 95 tolthe hub 28 of the propeller";
these‘hubs' interlocking with one ‘women's; at
96, the hubs beingheld togetherfby means 'ofjthe
nut‘ 9Thavingthréadedengagement as “at-'985witli
the-‘shaft 9_3andilockedsin‘position by the then;
nut- 99s A paclging “l0 prevents leakage." Radial
?n's- ml‘ (Fig, 6) consisting of sections I025 and
l03pare located in a recess I04 inthe hubsjl ‘arid
are connected- to the" end - plates '85? byineansi Qt
rods I05.‘ Packing members |06_ are held between
the' ‘sections 162 andTpIiT-by means" of'the r ,ets
WIT-‘land. are cast integral:with'thepackingri
Y‘
88} ‘Suitable‘inlet parts‘ HJSVandIUQYarepro
ml the- vanes’ HM 1' for trans'm'issiohrlv of} the??uidj
' which is to supply the force for relatively- rotating
2.412923
the vanes IDI and SI with reference to each other.
gaging ball 300". The section. I33 and the sec
These inlet ports I08 and I09 extend into circular
tion I35 are each provided ‘with'a central open
grooves IBM and Ill9a respectively, and which
grooves receive ?uid through communicating pas
sages to be hereinafter described.
Alternatively, the gears 'I5‘may be driven as ‘il
lustrated in Figs. 4a, 5a and 6a, in which case
ing I40 in which‘one, element IIII of thepump is
rotatably mounted,‘ while I the other‘. element . I 42
ofthe‘pumpis keyedto the shaft ‘I30’ so that
upon rotation the?uid in the space I43;wi11 be
pinchedfahead of the rotor from one side to the
these gears engage with the internal teeth IIO of
the gear III which is ‘also provided with a hub
‘gear II2, which hub rotates upon the casing H3.
‘_ This casing I I3 is shaped to provide a cylinder
other, that the?uid maybe pumped, as is. a
known pump function, The other sections vare
10
H4 in which a piston I I5 operates. which piston
is provided with four threaded ape'rtured bosses
I I5a; each adapted to threadedly receive a
threaded shaft. I H. The threads I I 8 on the shafts
I I1 are of such long pitch that the‘piston I I5 may
be moved to cause rotation of the shafts. Each of
these shafts is equipped with a gear II9 which
meshes" with the teeth of the gear I I2 so that upon
operation of‘ the shafts i i‘! the ring gear II I will
be "rotated to- in turn rotate each of, the gears ‘I5.
The shafts I H are each suitably supported at one
end by thrust ball bearings I20 properly secured
in bosses I2! provided in the closure cap I Ilia
of the cylinder, while at the opposite end portion
.anism which it ‘is to‘ operate.‘ _ Thetreservoiris
in the bullet-shaped end and consists of the space
remaining in the casing 145 : surrounding’; the
blade-actuating mechanism. This reservoiruis
connected to the annular space I46 through con
duit I_4‘I (see‘Fig. 3), conduit I48,‘ I49 connect
ing with said reservoir. Conduit I48 is formed
by tube I59 having outward projections I52 to
engage the inner surface of the shaft 25 and pro
vide a‘plurality of channels of a necessary nume
ber for the conduction of fluid therealong. The
channel I48a provides a passage for the?uid
to openings 65 and 66 (see Fig. 9) which open into
the circular groove I 09a, and the channel I481)
of each shaft In a suitable packing I22 ‘and an
nular‘member I23 form a seal for the shaft which
provides a passage forthe ?uid to openings B‘!
and 68 which lead into the circular groove III8a,
The annular space I45 is connected to the aligned
protrudes from the cylinder that the operating
?uid will not escape. If it is desired to drivethe
shaft, liquid‘ will enter through the conduit :24‘ d
to drive the piston inboard, while if'it is desired
‘that the piston be driven outboard, the liquid will
be caused to enter through the conduit I24a. The
‘conduits for the supply of ?uid are formedi‘in‘
the forward portionof the‘ shaft,as illustrated in
Figs. 5a and 6a. Annular packing members H517
and H50 are properly secured‘to the piston H5
and form seals for preventing theescape of ?uid
‘from one side of the piston to the other. “
The pump -
provided with suitable channels for the conduc
tion of. the ?uid fromthe reservoir to thernech; .
openings forming a conduit I53 extending along
‘the length of the pump as shown in Figell. ‘The’
line ‘of fluid ?ow by reason of the pump maybe
traced fromitheintake side of the pump from
conduit I53 through Opening ‘I55, thence passage
(I55 into‘the interior‘ I43-of the uppenpumD. 11o
.tor. The discharge of this pump is through‘ pas
sages I5'I, I58, I59 and thence to recess I60 ‘(see
Fig. 12) and outwardly throughrecess I10 and
pipe I'II.'. If the pressure buildst-up. too high in
this pipe, the .recess‘ I60. will then discharge
40
through the ball I?lnbacked‘up by Spring I62
and controlled as to tension by. threadedrplug
I63. The .?uidllfrom the chamber IBLpasses
' There are three pumps utilized in this appa
through the conduit I65 back to the conduit .I53
ratus, each of which performs the function of ,
connected to the reservoir. The intakefof the
developing the required amount of ?uid pressure
for operation of certain ‘mechanism in response .45 lower pump is through opening I33, IE‘! to. the
pump’ interior I43 and from the pump into the
to controls for shifting the propeller blades an~
gularly. These pumps are suitably located, usu
space I68‘ which is of; arcuate shape and thence
lally‘ close to the mechanism which they‘ are to
,throughconduit ‘I69vto the outlet line. I'IIia and
I'II‘a. ' This'lower pumpispprovided‘with, a re‘operate that the control lines may be oi short
extent. The drive for’ the mechanically driven .50 lief ‘valve similar to‘that of the upper pumpand ‘
pumps is taken from the internal toothed ring
if ‘the pressure increases to too-great an extent,
gear I25 (see Fig. 3) which is suitablyfastened
passage I10 may then discharge byball I72 mov
‘by means of a web I 28 to the hub of the propeller
ing from its seat against the pressure spring I13
shaft and serves to drive a gear I21 (see also
controlled by screw I'IlI'so that the ?uid will
Fig. 10) meshing with the internal teeth‘ I28 of 55 .enter the recess I15 back of the ball then tocon
this ring gear. This gear I21 is secured to-‘a
duit I ‘I6, conduit I", back to’the conduit I53
'worm screw which in turn drives the gear I29
connecting to_.the reservoir. 1 I
a
‘
»
on shaft I33 which has the pumping elements di
' ' In Fig. 10 there is also another pump which is
rectly connected thereto. I will now shift from
driven from a separate electric motor. This pump
‘Fig. 10 to Fig. 11 for the continuation of the de 60 is mounted on the boss I85‘of ‘a ?xed. portion of
'scription.
the supporting structure and has secured on this
‘ The pump proper is secured, to a ?xed part'of
gbossa series of sections ‘I86, I81, I88, I89,; and
the. apparatus which provides a boss I3I extend
.a motor mounting plate I90. wThese sections are
ing radially of the ‘drive shaft. Assembled on
suitably bound in position. by bolts (not shown)
this boss there area plurality» of sections I32,
such as described in connection with'the pump
I33‘,I I34, I35, I36 held to the boss by bolts I54
shown in Fig. 11.‘ Through all of these sections
‘extending through all of the sections and sec
there extends drive shaft _I9I which hasimounte
tion I36’ held to section I36 by bolt I36". The
ed‘ upon it the impeller I92 surrounded by, the
boss‘ I3I is recessed as at I3‘! so as to receive the
portion I38 of the section I32 which is provided 70 portion ‘I93, each corresponding to the parts I42,
IIII shown in Fig.- 14. This pump connects with
with a bearing bushing I39 for the reception of
the reservoir by the conduit I94. A suitable elec
the shaft‘ I30. '(This shaft is» provided with a ?ange
tric motor is mounted and properly secured .on
I33-‘having sealing engagement with the bush
311g; I3.9.?.1I1.d. isheld in. Such‘ engagement by spring
-léllfmleeaigi ?ea-regress .igthe shart<lanandrenr
the plate 190 and when energized,;the shait. I9.I
will be driven to actuate the motor pump. _ .. . I
i3
$412,923
v7
8
The governor_
The controlm'eans
_
The‘ fluid pressure- supplied by the‘ pump is'di
Referring to‘ Fig, 10, a boss 29f}v provided one
consist essentiallyof manual-‘mechanism or valves
end driven by a gear 294. suitably secured on
the, end-of a short shaft 294a on which a gear
?xed portion of the mechanism is provided: with
rectedi to- the- drum‘ for shifting the pitch of the
a bore 255! in which there is rotatably mounted
5
propeller blades; Certain'con'trols, however, are
a shaft 292 provided-with a. gear 293 at its» inner
interposed in the line of» this’ ?uid supply and
which» are manually- operated for > the accomplish
ment ‘ of > different desired functions, automatic
valves‘ which will close7 when the angulari-t-y of
- the» blade has» arrived at a ‘certain position so as
29417‘ is mounted and which meshes with the
teeth of the gear I28 which is; connected to and
driven by the hub of the propeller. The shaft
tohold the same-there, and an automatically
. is- rotatably mounted in ball bearings, 295 held
ope'rated governorywhich- causes'a- balance and
‘controls the pump action‘ in its supply of pres
sure to- the actuating drum; These units will now
Imounted by pivot 298 on this shaft 292 are a
‘be-described‘.
.
-
r
-
i
I The manual control valve (seeF-igs. 16-1-8) con
by a cap 295; within the casing 293,, and suitably
pair of governor arms 299 having weights. 300'
on the ends- thereof. Portion 39.1 of these: arms
engages a plunger 392 in the bore 3930f this
shaft292 so as to-force thesame inwardly toward
the shaft as the arms are thrown to theirouters
suitable'support 228 in‘ ‘the cockpit or- control 20 most position, as shown in Fig. 10. When the
plunger is in. its innermost position, as shown
room handy for the operation by the pilot. The
sists-of a'bodyportion 225- suitably mounted upon
a‘ base 226- which in» turn is secured to some
body 225 has a series of bores 229, 236 and 25“
in accordance with the number of valves which I
are» to be provided. " In this case there are three,
one for the usual driving range of the pitch of
the- prop'ellenrone for feathering, and the other
for unfeathering of the propeller blade.
Each
in Fig. 10, one-set of, openings permits communi- .
cation, while, when in its different positions, a
different set, of openings operates. Pressures will
be effective to move the plunger 392 outwardly
when the arms drop.
The plunger is provided ‘
with a hollow portion asv at 394 and communir
cates with the conduit 39.5 which connects with
the reservoir annulus I45. Suitable openings 3,06
and233 for the bore 229'; 234 and 235 for the bore
230‘; and 236‘ and 231 for the bore 23; each of 30 ‘and ‘3,9? are provided from this hollow: center
bore is provided with a pair of conduits as’ 232
‘which is generally L-shaped as’illustrated in
Fig.1”; whileeach bore is-also provided with a
pair-0f conduits, as at 2310.,238, 239; 243, 24!,
2“;- In- each‘bore-Ythere- is a plunger? as at 243,
244i andii‘2‘4?i, ‘and eachplunger'is provided with -
openings. or channels 'aIs-at 246i,‘ 241, 248, 239; 250;
portion to register with, openings 358; and 3,09
in the shaft which connects with annular grooves
315 ands“ from which suitable conduits, lead -
through the boss
29!).
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..
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.
The. -automaticva1.ve' designated generally .325
is housed in a bo-ssalso extending outwardly from
the ?xed portion of the machine as showndn
251i for-alignment with the’ aligned channels per
FigmlO, which boss forms the outer casing. of
pendicular» tov the axis of‘ each. of the bores when
the valve having a. bore 326- in which there is
the‘ plunger is in; one position but. out of such
alignment when‘ the'plunger is ‘in a different po 40i the plunger type valve 321 having a valve seat
328 to engage the plunger portion 32s when seated. .
sition. Each of‘ these plungers is forced'lupwardly
Fluid enters through the opening 330 above the
by’ springs 252,’ 2515,2513 seated,‘ in suitable, re
valve and opposite a recess. in the valve and
cesses in. the. base and in each. plunger. Plungers
will be discharged through the valve seat and
are also ‘reduced to provide» a ‘neck portion 255,
outwardly at 331 when the valve is open, as shown
256, 257 which extends through a? top plate 258
in
Fig; 10. The valve is slidably guided: in the
having openings. suitably aligned with: the axial
bore 332 of the plug 333 and forced in one direc
bore in the body: A series of collars i259-v extend
tion by spring, 334'. This valve has a rounded
about.‘ each'offithe openings in the’ ‘top plate,
end 335'which rideson a fin 336 of a'plunger
I and'arpacking gland nut- 26B‘ is‘ threaded- into
s37 which is suitably‘ guided for axial movement
such collar‘ so as to provide a’?uid~—'tig-ht ?t about '
The. top- plat‘eiisaiso provided
with a bosslocrated’opposite to each plunger, as
at" 2'6‘! ‘(see Fig. 18), which‘ provides a pivot at
‘ the. plunger.
262 for a handle‘ or lever, there being one for
eachiplungeri' designated 263, 2631’; 2&3", each "
having; a rounded projection zen toveng'age the
top of the neck 255 of'eIachplungler-so that when >
the lever is depressed, the plunger will be forced
inwardly to‘ cause its open‘ingvto connect with
the openings in theibodyfor the passage of fluid
therethreughi IA‘catch 255 may engage with a
suitable portion 256 of the handle so as to ‘lock
the‘handle indepressed'. position and the valve
in positionfor‘communication to occur: An elec
t-ricalv contact. button designated 251:, ‘ there being
one for each of; the levers remand 2-63,", is en
gaged by- the portioniztu of the handle sov as
by other ?ns 338" and is'forced in one direction
byja spring 339-‘(see Fig. 3) having a plug 340
to’hold it in, adjusted position. This plunger is
provided with a stem 34'! which is secured to the
raceway of ball bearing member 3,42, the oppo
site raceway being'connected to the threaded
shaft‘ 344 which is splined to, axially slide with
reference to the worm; 51.; Thus, as ‘the pro
peller ‘blade turns, the plunger 34‘! is forced to
the right as shown in Fig. 3 against the, action
of the spring 339‘ so as to permit the valve to
‘ close and shut off the conduits through‘which
fluid flows for-control‘ of or providing pressure
for returning of the blade when it reaches‘ its
?ying pitch ‘of forty-?ve degrees.
'
'
'
‘
A similar arrangement, for moving another
plunger 366‘ to actuate the helically=slotted drum
'36lj is ‘provided so that an vindicatorOperated
through mi-tre- gears ‘36% and: 363' on’ shaft 364
to. depress ‘the. same and to. cause an electrical
maybe‘actuated;
‘
"
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circuit to occur for some suitable actuation such, 70
for instance,’ as the .energization- of the‘ motor
which drives the fluid pump. ' 'E'ach' plunger is
Iheldtin engagement with theportion of its wall
in'whi'c‘h the openings-0r.coriduitssoccur byreason
of set screws-2169.2
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v
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f
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For a better
. .
understanding
Ocemtivn of;
>_ the-. operationgof
.
.
‘this mechanism, reference is ‘made’ to‘ ‘Fig. 123',
shows diagrammatically‘ the» several clen
trel mechanisms,‘ pumps and valves forlcontrols
2,412,523
lingi'the ‘?owlo‘f ‘fluid through these ‘several ‘de
‘vices'i'Y 'Thef?uid from] the‘ pumps‘ ?ows through
proper conduits to the manually controlled valves
and from there through proper conduits enters
the channels I48," l48a and‘l49a through open
ings 69, 1D and1 -'H‘ >‘(Fig. 19) provided in the sec
tion 12 of the propeller hub. The governor is in:
terposed in‘the‘passages extending‘from'the man
ually controlled valves and in which the fluid from
the upper and lower pump flows.
'
5
10
motor circ'uit- 4-l2iwhich ‘will; cause'the' motor
‘
Let "it be assumed thatthe motive force has
been-set into‘motion and'the severalvparts prop
erly gadjusted which will,“ cause the“ propeller
hubs and parts‘ secured thereto'to revolve with
pump generally design'ated‘64, to bepla'ced' in
operation, and ‘ the‘ ?uid will ‘?ow therefrom
through conduit 4I3, thence through‘ aligned
openings 234, 248, 239, thence through conduit
4| 4 which connects to conduit 4G3’, and thence
through conduits 404‘ and 405 to the cyIinderTB'
to actuate the vanes to move the propeller blades
to If
featherposition.
it is desired to
" return
' ‘
the
= ' bladesto
F _‘
un
feathered position, other levers are allowed tore
turn to normal, and‘ the lever 263" is moved in'a
direction to‘ force‘the‘ plunger 245 tolalig'n‘ the
o-penings‘236,_ 253 and 24! and‘ openings 231,25}
the shaft 25 as a_ unit and, with the propeller 15 and ‘242 which will permit the ?ow of ?uid from
the pump 64 to conduits 4 l 3, thence through con;
duit' 496 " through conduit 236, then through
blades set at an idling position. Shaft-34! (Fig.
3) willlbe in a1 forward position ‘(to left Figs)
‘and valve_6l (Fig. 23 or 3215Fig‘. 3) will be ‘open.
The operator then actuates manually the lever
2630f the control mechanism; generally desig
nated 225 in Fig. 16, and forces the valve plunger
243 ‘ downwardly against ‘the pressure of ‘the
spring 252 until the latch 265 engages the por
tion 286 provided, on the lever and locks this lever
in position,lwhich aligns the conduit 243 with
the conduit 232 and 23111, and the conduit 24‘!
with the conduits 233 and 238. The ?uid will
then ?ow (Fig. 23) from the upper pump, here
designated 60, through the conduit 403, through
the' aligned conduits 233, 241 and 238, through
the conduit 4!“, through conduit 432, through
the valve 5|, which‘ at the ‘present instant is open
to the ?ow of ?uid, through conduit 403' which
branches into c0nduits=404 and 405; which open
into‘the clylinder provided in’the casing ‘I8; ‘ " -
' The ?uid from the lower‘ pump,‘ designated‘ 63,
?ows through‘405,‘aligned ‘openings 232, ‘243 and
me, through conduit'4l'l‘l, and through conduit
409 and into the cylinder through ‘branch con
duits4l0and4ll.
Under normal operating conditions pumps ‘63
and 63 apply pressure to opposite sides of the ?uid
motor to lock the ?uid motor. The governor
valve 62 vents or by-passes the ?uid from either
pump so that the normal pressure of the other -"
pump will operate the ?uid motor to vary the
pitch, it being apparent that the pressure on one
side of the vanes decreases through the opera
tion of the governor so that the pressure on the
other side will vary the angularity of the propeller
blades. The pressure built up on one side of the
vanes 8! will cause a relative movement of the
casing 18 and the vanes Hll which are secured
to rotate as a unit with shaft 25 and will rotate
the gear ‘I6 which is ?xed therewith to cause a
rotation of the Worm screw 51 and rotate the
propeller blades to an advanced position.
If the pitch is varied beyond the normal op
aligned openings 236, 250 and 24'l‘,'thence through
conduit 4!‘! which communicates withconduit
4l0'and'4l l', and from there into cylinder l8'_'-to
. move the vane'saffected‘ther'ebyina direction‘to
unfeather the propeller blades.‘ ‘ The fluid on the
opposite side of "these vanes‘ishreturned'to the
reservoir VI 46 through conduits 404'and‘ 405,1 thence
through aligned openings 242,‘ 25l,.231 and‘c'on
duit 418 ‘which leads into‘the‘reservoirfthe switch
261 affected by the'lmoving of the lever 253'.’ hav
ing previously set ‘the‘motor pump into‘action. '‘ 1
i The" return ?owiof ?uid whenvthe. plunger 244
‘ is in a position to align the several openings there
in may be traced through thelconduits ‘4H! and
4ll- and conduit‘ 4l8,?thence' through aligned
openings 240,249,235 and. conduit M9 which
also leads to the reservoir I46.
‘ i
"‘
f‘
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T ‘
. l Iclaim:
l. A variable pitch
'
Ypropeller
'
mechanism
"
.
a‘
com
prising a shaft, a'propeller hubmounted. on said
shaft and rotatbletherewith, a=plurality of pro
peller blades each rotatably anchored to said hub
for angular movement about their respective axes,
a plurality of threaded shafts, a gear train opera
tively connecting said threaded shafts to said
propeller blades for rotating the same about their
respective axes upon rotation of said threaded
shafts about their respective axes, said gear train
including a ring gear embracing said shaft, and
pinion gears carried by said threaded shafts and
in engagement with said ring gear, pinions en
gaging said ring gear and connected to said
blades, a cylinder, a piston slidably movable
therein having a plurality of threaded openings
extending therethrough, said threaded shafts/ex
tending through said openings and in threaded
engagement therewith and rotatable about their '
Ll respective axes in response to movement of said
piston.
2. A variable pitch propeller mechanism com
prising a shaft, a propeller hub mounted on said
shaft and rotatable therewith, a plurality of pro- ‘
erating range the valve 6| will close and render
the governor control of the pitch motor inoper or peller blades each rotatably anchored to said
hub for angular movement about their respective
ative. This valve 6| is controlled by the plunger
axes, a plurality of threaded shafts, a gear train
33'! which is operated by the rotation of the
operatively connecting said threaded shafts to
worm screw 51. This plunger will move to allow
said propeller blades for rotating the same about
the valve member 329 to be seated against the
valve seat 328 to stop the passage of ?uid through Aa, M their respective axes upon rotation of said
threaded shafts about their respective axes‘, said
the valve.
gear train including a ring gear embracing said
If it is desired to “feather” the propeller blades,
shaft and pinion gears carried by said threaded
the ?uid power is controlled for this purpose.
shafts and in engagement with said ring gear,
The lever 263 is moved to release the plunger
plnions engaging said ring gear and connected to
which is moved upwardly by the spring 252, and
said blades, a cylinder embracing said shaft, a
the lever 263' is then moved to force the plunger
piston movable in said cylinder having a plurality
244 downwardly to align the openings 234, 243,
of threaded openings therethrough, said thread
239 and‘the openings 335, 249 and 246 with each
ed shafts extending through said threaded open
other. In moving the lever 263' the electrical
' switch 26'! will be actuated to close the electric -r m ings and in threaded engagement therewith and
11
12
rotatable about their respective axes in'response
ton and another to the other ‘side of said piston",
to movement’ of said piston. ‘
a single manually operable valve vfor controlling ‘ '
Y
_
3, A variable pitch propeller mechanism com
prising in‘ combination with a hollow shaft opened
the flow of ?uid from said pumps, two iby-pass
conduits one from one of said conduits \and‘jthe
at each end thereof and free of any obstruction
other in by-pass relation to the other ofsai‘d
therein and a propeller hub mounted on said
conduits, a governor actuated valve through which
shaft and rotatable therewith, a plurality of pro
each of said by-pass conduits extend, ‘an addi_-'
peller blades each rotatably anchored to ‘said hub
tional pump,v a plurality of manually operable
for angular movement about their ‘respective axes,
valves, ‘conduits extending from said pumps to
a cylinder in the form of an annulus embracing lo said valves, conduits from each of said valves to
said hollowshaft intermediate the ends thereof a
either side of said piston, and means actuated
piston having a plurality of threaded openings
by the opening" of either of said valves foractuaté
therein movable in said cylinder, and threaded
ingsaid additional pump to force ‘?uid under
shafts extending through said openings and in
pressure through said conduits to a selected side
threaded engagement therewith and rotatable 15 ofsaid piston.
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about their respective axes in response to move
ment of said piston and a gear train for connect
5. A variable pitch propeller mechanism;.¢.in
combination with a propeller hub having ;.a plus
ing said threaded shaft to said propeller for ro
rality of propeller blades each rotatably anchored
tating the same about their respective axes upon
to said hub for angular movement about their
rotation of said threaded shafts, said gear train so respective axes, of means for biasing each of said
including a ring gear embracing said hollow shaft
blades about its own axis comprising a cylinder
at a location adjacent said cylinder and pinion
having a piston therein with ?uid on opposite
gears carried by said threaded shafts and in
sides thereof, and actuated by the diiference in
engagement with said ring gear, and additional
pressure of the ?uid on said piston, two conduits
pinions engaging said ring gear and each con
through which ?uid flows to said cylinder, S6133:
nected through a shaft to one of said blades.
rate sources supplying eachof said two conduits
4. A variable pitch propeller mechanism in
with ?uid under pressure, one .to one side of said
combination with a propeller hub having a plu
piston and the other to the other side of said
rality of propeller blades each rotatably anchored
piston, means to manually control the ?ow of
to said hub for angular movement about their 30 ?uid from said sources, an additional separate
respective ‘axes, of means for biasing each of said
source of supply of ?uid under pressure, a p111‘?
bladeslabout its own axis comprising a cylinder
rality of manually operable valves, conduits ex
having a piston therein With ?uid on opposite
tending from said additional source of supply to
sides thereof and actuated by the difference in
said valves, conduits from each of said vaivesto
pressure of the ?uid on said piston, two conduits 35 either side of the pistongone in reverse relation
through which ?uid flows to said cylinder, at plu
to the other whereby the selected valve will servev
rality of pumps each supplying ?uid under pres?
sure to said cylinder, one to one side of said pis
to move the piston in the desired direction- ' "
ROBERT STEVENSON.
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