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Патент USA US2412952

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Dm 2À1,1946.» y
Filed Nov. 20. 1944
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Patented Dec. 24,1946
UNirEo srA'ras PATENr orifice Y
_ 2,412,952
mrERNAL-oormosrron monza
Itudolph Danb, West Caldwell, N. J;
Application November zo, 1944, serial No. 564,191
4 Claims.
I Cl. 12S-51)
This invention relates to internal combustion
engines of the two-cycle type, and particularly
to such engines having opposed cylinders where
two crank shafts are placed in opposite ends of the cylinder block and crank case.
In such engines one crank shaft operates a
piston controlling the intake ports while the pis
ton attached to the other shaft controls the ex
haust ports of the same cilinder. The pistons are
four cylinder units, such as shownl in the draw
The _combustion chamber 3| is formed in the
main between the heads of pistons 23, 28, this
being spaced to give a comparatively wide gap
35 at nearest approach while pistons I8, l1 and
cylinder 22 at the same time form a very narrow
gap 35 between their head faces at the time of
injection of the fuel spray by the nozzle tip 30.
This violently squeezes the air out from between
phased in such a manner as to’eiîect an early
the faces of pistons i8, 2l and projects it tur
opening and closing of theexhaust ports in com~
bulently through the throat 36 into the gap 3G
parison with the intake ports.
between the pistons 23, 28, and in a direction op
The object of the invention. is to provide in
pOsite to the oncoming fuel spray. 'I'his causes
creased power w. lin the overall dimensions oi
an intimate and prompt mixing of fuel and air,
the engine.
good atomization and eñcient combustion since
Further objects of the invention, particularly
the velocity of the air. through the throat and
in the employment of a minimum number of fuel
the intensity of the turbulence reaches its maX
injectors or nozzles and the attainment of better
imum at about the time 0f the injection, i. e.,
cooling and scavenging will appear from the fol 20 the innermost positions of pistons I8, 27. The
lowing speciilcation taken in connection with the
result is a very thorough burning of the fuel.
accompanying drawing showing a central sec
'I‘he shape of the throat and its location be
tional view of a typical engine structure.
tween the gap 35 and combustion chamber 3|
may also be such as to cause a rotational whirl
In the engine shown in the drawing a combined
cylinder block and crank case housing l0 has the 25 of the air charge in combustion chamber 3|
around the axis of the cylinder 25. The forma
centers of the two crank shafts at || and i2
moving in opposite directions-with their positions
with crank- pins i3, I 4. Operably 'connected to
l tion of the piston heads lat both the narrow gap
35 and the wider gap 34 may be such as to give
crank pin I3 is master rod l5. and articulated
rod IB is hinged to master rod |5 by means of .30 any desired whirl, the throat outline and location
being correspondingly arranged for cooperation if
the fulcrum pin | l.
desired. Similarly the number of injectors and
Master rod |5 is attached to piston I8 by pis
ton pin i9, the edge 20 of piston I8 controlling v their positioning may be varied to cooperate in
creating the whirl.
the opening and closing of the intake ports 2|
of the cylinder 22. Attached to articulated rod 35 The intake 2| and exhaust 26 are formed as a
belt of orifices surrounding the cylinders and
I6 is the corresponding articulated piston 23
communicating with each other so as to provide
having its edge 2t controlling the intake ports 2|
for continuous distribution and passage of the
of cylinder 25.
gases into and out of the cylinders, suitable man
The exhaust ports 26 of the cylinders 22, 25 are
controlled by the other set of pistons 21, 28 con 40 ifolds being provided at the outside of the engine.
Hitherto diiliculty has been experienced in op
nected to crank pin It by master connecting rod
cylinder engines in eiïectively cooling the
-I 5a, articulated rod |6a and piston pins |9a.
exhaust piston because the outer edge of the pis
The geometry of piston motions, side pressures
ton top is subjected to the scorching eiîect of the
and the effect of the relative phasing of the pis
tons are set forth in my copending application 45 exhaust flames passing at high velocity between
said edges and the edges of the exhaust ports in
Serial No. 510,717.
the cylinders. While the latter can be cooled by
Positioned in the cyllinder block |0 is the in
water, heat dissipation from the piston edge and l
jection nozzle 29, the inner tip 30 of which pro- '
piston top and piston rings must be provided by
trudes into the combustion chamber 3|. Cam
heavy sections of Äthe piston or by oil cooling, or
shaft 32 by means of rocker 33 operates the noz
both, if reasonably. high output is to be satisfac
zle 29 to inject the fuel jet at proper time inter
torily sustained. The larger the bore of the en
vals. Cam shaft 32 is rotated at crank shaft
gine the more this overheating is aggravated, and.
speed by gears (not shown). Water jacketing y'
in fact, this limits the size in.output per cylin
is provided around al1 of the cylinders, the en
der in present opposed two-cycle engines of this
gine usually comprising a longitudinal series of 55 type. In the engine of this invention, the spe
ciiic power output per cylinder unit is increased
by keeping the diameters of the pistons relatively
small due to the division of the power between
the two pistons for a given piston top area. This
increases the combined piston circumference by
41% as compared to a single piston of similar
area, thereby increasing the heat-dissipating area
f circumference multiplied by piston skirt length)
by the same amount.
The use of two pistons instead of one, increas
ing the circumference 41%, permits the equivalent
enlargement in inlet and exhaust port areas re
sulting in better scavenging and low pump losses,
better fuel economy and attaining a more eili
two sets of oppositelymoving pistons in said cyl
inders, one set being connected to one crank
shaft and the other set to the other crank shaft.
intake passages connecting said cylinders and
controlled by one set of pistons and exhaust pas
sages connecting said cylinders and controlled
by' the other set of pistons.
2; In an internal combustion engine a pair of
-parallel crank shafts having a series or crank
pins, a pair of pistons connected to each crank
pin, parallel cylinders containing said pistons be
tween said crank shafts, a passage connecting
each pair of cylinders midway between their ends
and forming with the heads of the corresponding
pistons a central combustion space, and intake
cient and more economical power plant.
and exhaust passages connecting said cylinders.
In current engines of the opposed type, two,
3. In an internal combustion engine a pair of
two, three or four injection nozzles are used per
parallel crank shafts having a series of crank pins,
cylinder unit because the combustion chamber is
a pair of pistons connected to each crank pin,
of the quiescent type with little turbulence and
parallel cylinders containing said pistons between
a rather flat shape, depending upon atomiza 20 said crank shafts, a passage connecting each pair
tion to produce distribution of thefuel. In the
of cylinders midway between their ends and form
present engine, the distribution does not so de
ing with the heads of the corresponding pistons
pend upon atomization but is achieved rather
a central combustion space, and intake and ex
by the highly turbulent air projected towarda
passages connecting said cylinders, said pas
single nozzle to meet the merging fuel spray 25 sages and pistons on one side of the engine be
head on. The _shape of the chamber is also
ing further from the center than on the other
very advantageous, being formed by the combined
side of the engine.
strokes of two sets of pistons, four in all.
4. A two cycle internal combustion engine com
` In addition to these advantages the engine is
prising parallel crank shafts-operating at the
shorter and more compact, permitting a lighter 30 same speed, master and auxiliary connecting rods
and safer structure with less tendency toward
for said shafts, parallel cylinders between said
torsional deflection of the shafting. The engine
is thus improved in operation and at the same_`
time reduced in cost and made more durable
crank shafts, -'pairs of oppositely moving pistons
in said cylinders journaled to said connecting rods,
in service, and it is apparent that various changes 35 a combustion chamber for said pairs of pistons
midway between the ends of said cylinders, in
in the details of the construction may be made
take passages connecting the cylinders for one of
preserving these advantages and within the scope
said crank shafts and controlled by _the corre
of the invention.
sponding pistons of said cylinders, and exhaust
1. An internal combustion engine comprising 40 passages connecting the cylinders of the other
crank shaft and controlled by the corresponding ,
parallel crank shafts operating at the same speed
pistons thereof.
and each having a crank pin, parallel cylinders
between said crank shafts, a combustion chamber
midway between the ends of said cylinders, and
I claim:
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