Патент USA US2412967код для вставки
Dec. 24, 1946. J. H. CHURCH E1- AL 2,412,967 PETARD MISSILE Filed April 23, 1941 i ' \ 2 2/ /8 2O \\ I9 I /.9 \ l9 \_ \ \ l2 9 7 28 25 //0 /0 -2s ll 22' ., ‘ >< ~24 3 / 231 a I PI _E1_ H Fl -7. as 6567 '/ a go 29 66 ‘am-59;’ 5 4 5a / / Inve n’: ans LILEJJH H. Church WilfredElT'hibudeau 5 3y OéM/H f,‘ M Mays Patented Dec. 24, 1946 2,412,967 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,412,967 PETARD MISSILE Joseph H. Church, Austin, Min” and Wilfred E. Thibodeau, Cleveland, Ohio ‘Application April 23, 1941, Serial No. 389,923 13 Claims. (01. 102-56) (Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as , amended April 30, 19 28; 370 0. G. 757) The invention described herein may be manu factured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment to us of any royalty thereon. This invention relates to explosive missilesyand in particular to a petard to be applied from a distance. 2 tion work on moving fortresses such as tanks or other automotive vehicles, ships and aeroplanes, armored or otherwise. Application of a petard in the case of moving targets would necessarily take place from a remote position, a procedure heretofore not considered. , Petards ‘are particularly well adapted for use Petards have been known from the earliest as comparatively slow-moving offensive missiles, days of gunpowder. They consisted of a hood shaped or bell-shaped container with a planar 10 in which in a more modern view, emphasis is placed upon penetration rather than demolition rim at the large open end for application at the work. The ?at-faced missile is, therefore, face of the work to be blasted, and were ?lled mainly a carrier for an explosive which is, itself, with an explosive which was set off from the designed to effect penetration, and the missile, apex end of the petard. The peculiar destructive by its shape, serves to position the explosive at action of a petard is due to the fact that the con the target for most effective results. With a large tainer holds the explosive at the face of the ob area of explosive presented to the target at im ject to be destroyed for a very small time interval pact, penetration is enhanced, even at glancing which is su?icient to give direction to the blast. angles of impact. However, the optimum case After this very small time interval, the container may fall away or recoil, but the main result of 20 will obtain where the explosive body is detonated with its axis perpendicular to the target and. the directing the blast has already been accom ?at-faced missiles are admirably adapted to» swing plished. Early petards were heavy affairs as to into such position in the case where angular con the container and thus lent some degree of tact is made. However, such a righting‘ action emcacy by reason of their inertia. However, the provision of a heavy container is burdensome and / will not take place if the projectile rebounds or ricochets from the target. A rebound or ricochet unnecessary since a petard will function as well would also vitiate the delicate matter of timing with a light container, especially when a close of the detonation of the main charge, important seal is maintained between the petard rim and in penetration missiles of the type herein de the target. Petards have been used in under scribed. water blasting, wherein the weight of a column 30 We have found that by including on the front of water lends its inertia to the holding of the face of our missile, especially at the rim, a leading container during the necessary time interval. At impact unit of a material of low resilience, or detonating, and even defiagrating, time intervals, of a hollow structure to simulate, by collapsing, the inertia of the atmosphere becomes ap the shock-deadening effects of a material of low preciable for this purpose and petards with light containers have been used in modern blasting Li resilience, the missile is improved in its function ing as regards impact and penetration. The cal (Patent No. 1,440,601). As noted in the afore culated timing is preserved and the detonation mentioned patent, a dead air space at the blasting takes place with the missile at a favorable angle. face forms a desideratum of petard practise, and Furthermore, such agleading impact unit will this well-known expedient is contemplated in the petards of the present invention. The patent 40 serve to hold the face of the missile in sealed rela tion with the target for the small period of time further advises that the “ ‘striking gap’ . . . may between impact and detonation which is requisite be varied in shape and volume to secure different for petard action. This full rim contact for effects.” In this regard, the teaching in petard action is but a cumulative incident in the Zeitschrift fur clas gesamte Schiesse und series of advantages presented by the shock Sprengsto?wesen, May 15, 1914, pages 183-187 absorbing impact member of the invention. If will be found of considerable importance. lead is used as an impact unit, a further advan In a military sense petards have been used in tage is noted in that the center of gravity of the the past to good advantage in siege work to batter missile will be moved forward, especially where down doors and other obstacles. In these cases, a light container is employed, and aid the missile the petard, usually a cumbersome object, was in aligning itself in ?ight for proper approach carried by the petardier to a stationary object to the target with a view to petard action. Soft and secured, facing thereto, or positioned as with noses on ogival projectiles are common, but their a bipod and sling, and touched off. In modern warfare it becomes desirable to perform demoli 56 use was never conceived with such problems in mind as are dealt with in the present invention 2,412,967 4 3 . ‘ which concerns a faced missile. ‘ The problem of preferably lead, but which may be constructed the present invention is to dec'elerate, align and seal a plane-faced missile at the target as well as direct it in ?ight, or any combination of these copper, felt, pressed paper, or various plastics. functions. _ ' The invention further contemplates the pro vision of, a percussion ?ring unit which is so coordinated with the impact face of a missile as to remain unarmed after impact until or unless of other shock-deadening materials, such. as or it may consist of loose material such as shot or sand con?ned in a container. The anti-skid features of the annulus 5 are enhanced by the addition of an annular trough 3 on its front face. Instead of an annular trough, a series of circular cup-like depressions may be employed ' the missile is aligned perpendicular to the target. 10 in the front face of the annulus 5. In the rear stem 3 is located the percussion It might well be mentioned that toy darts are ?ring means operating on the inertia principle. known which are built with a target-gripping cup, usually of rubber, but these do not involve problems attending the use of an explosive, nor are they concerned with penetration of a target or other objective. Neither do they involve an impact unit of low resilience which will bring Within stem 3 an inner sleeve 1 with closed bottom 8 isthreaded. Slidably received in sleeve 1 and resting on the sleeve bottom 8 is a ?ring - pin 9 of appreciable mass. The ?ring pin 9 is immobilized by shear pins l0 and is additionally secured by a pull pin Hr passing through the stem 3, sleeve v‘I and ?ring pin 9. Threadedly bound. The petard of the present invention is distin 20 received in the top of sleeve 1 is another sleeve I2 carrying a primer capsule l3. Prior to of guished from known devices of a similar nature fensive use of the missile, the pull pin H is with in that it is essentially a petard missile for ap drawn, and on impact the pins [0 are sheared plication from a distance and-carries an impact while the ?ring pin 9 continues into the primer ?ring means. It is believed that such a com detonating capsule 13. bination spells a novel concept in the art. 25 or In Figure 8 is shown the rim of a missile gen It is therefore an objectof the invention to erally similar to that of Figure 1, but wherein provide a plane-faced explosive missile with a about a deceleration of the missile without re non-resilient, shock-absorbing impact member. It is a further object of the invention to pro vide a petard missile with a coronal impact mem the shock-absorbing impactmember is provided ' with a flange l4. Considerations of design may 30 require that the missile body proper bear a high length/width ratio which would not favor re tention of the missile in righted position after inclined impact on' the target, but rather a con tinued tumbling. The ?ange operates to reduce ?ight, decelerate at the target, align itself and adhere thereto, or respond in any combination of 35 this ratio at the impact section and hence lower the probability of continued tumbling. The these functions as the exigencies require. ?ange may be employed on any of the modi?ca It is a further object of the invention to pro tions shown. , vide a petard for application from a distance, In Figure 3 isshown a missile like that of Fig and having impact ?ring means. It is a further object of the invention to 40 ure 1, in which the shock-deadening annular member [5 is of sheet material lapped about the provide an explosive missile which will ?re only rim of the body and keyed therein by indentations when positioned normal to the target. as at I6, leaving a hollow space I‘! above the rim. To these and other ends, the invention con , Here, the ?rst action of the shock member I5 on sists in the construction, arrangement-and com bination of elements described hereinafter and 45 impact is to deform in shape, followed by com pression. This initial change of shape serves to pointed out in the claims forming a part of this further soften the shock and lengthen the time speci?cation. of deceleration of the solid body, thus adding time A practical embodiment of the invention‘ is for righting the missile prior to detonation. illustrated in the accompanying drawing where In Figure 2 is shown a form of missile in which 50 in: the priming is accomplished by relative forward Figures 1, 2 and 6 are elevational views, partly motion of an inner charge container with respect in section of petard missiles. to the outside framework. An inner explosive Figures 3, 4 and 8 are fragmentary views, container I8 is carried in a framework compris partly in section of petard missiles in elevation. Figure 5 is a detail of a ?ring mechanism in 55 ing longitudinal bar members l9 held rigidly in spaced relation by a ring member 20. The for sectional elevation. ward rim of container 18 is spaced rearward of Figure '7 is a detail showing a modi?cation of the forward ends of bars 19 and within the step the device of Figure 6, and formed by members I8 and I9 is placed a tubular Figure 9 is a modi?ed ?ring mechanism for ‘use in a missile such as that of Figure 6. 60 shock-deadening member 2|, protruding forward of all other front members. The tube 2| is shown Referring to the drawing by characters of as welded or soldered, but may be riveted or se reference, there is shown in Figure 1 a missile cured by any other fastening means. composed of a cup-form main body I. An ex The bars [9 are integral with a’ tubular tail plosive charge is held therein by a closure mem piece '22 about which is threaded a tubular han ber 2, partially shown in the drawing. The par dling member 23 having a threaded closure plug ticular shape of inner containers or closure mem 24 held therein. The explosive container 18 .bers forms no part of the present invention. The threadedly carries a tubular tail piece 25 which is closure member, for instance, may be ?at or it slidably received in the tail piece 2!. Tube 25 may be formed with a hollow charge as shown in British Patent No. 28,030 of 1911. v A rear stem 70 contains priming material 26 within which is contained a smooth portion of a friction pull 3 is indicated on the missile. This may be a , igniter 2'l‘having a serrated or otherwise rough handle for carrying and manual delivery, or any ened portion 28 above the priming material and a conventional unit for attachment to a project lower bent portion received in slots 29, 30 in the ing device. Received about the rim 4 of the body I is an annulus 5 of a non-resilient material, 75 tubes 25 and 22 respectively. The thickness of ber of shock-dissipating material. > It is a further object of this invention to pro vide an explosive missile which will align in 2,412,911? 6 igniter 21 is slightly greater than'slots 28, 30 so that when handling member 23 is screwed up tightly the igniter 21 is securely held against the tube 22. will operate proportionately to their proximity to the point of impact and the angle of the im pact, to swing the spherical bolt 31 and cause the opposite strips to recede and raise that por Upon impact, the charge-carrying member I8 will advance, crushing the shock tube CI 2| and carrying primer 26 past serrations 23 to . tion of the impact rim 5| opposite the point of ignite the ‘primer. The shock member 2| will 1 impact. With the turning of the bolt 31 the ?ring pin 40 is directed away from the primer, function in the same‘ general manner as the an nulus 5 of Figure 1. ' > and when the full shock of impact comes through _ In Figure 4 is shown a fragment of a missile of 10 the same general type as that of Figure 2 wherein the shock member 3| is a tube of coiled section, and has a portion 32 extending into an opening 33 between the charge container l8 and the outer This form requires considerably member I9. ’ 31 and permittingspring 4| to force ?ring pin 40 into the primer. more work on the shock member before the con Since - tainer I 8 can advance to charge-initiating posi primer, ?ange 52 is chamfered as at 53 to regu tion. Obviously other forms of initiators than late the sensitivity to angle of detonation. that shown in Figure 2 may be employed. It will be understood that the pockets 49 will In Figure 6 is shown an explosive missile with a 20 ?ring unit designed to set be of such size as to offer no substantial hin drance to the ends of those strips 44 which are only when the missile is axially per pendicular to the target. This‘is accomplished by a coordination of the crown-shaped forward a complete annular shoulder and a. neck portion. end of themissile with the primer-actuating unit. In Figure 7 is shown a detail of a modi?cation A cup-like main charge container 34 threadedly carries a tail piece 35 having a primer 36, a spherical bolt 31 and a screw plug keeper 38. The spherical bolt 31 has a central bore 39, and in this bore is slidably ?tted a ?ring pin 40 held against the bars 54 meet the target prior to the body a spring 4| under full compression by a shear pin portion to unarm the ?ring mechanism as ex 42, and, in addition, by a pull pin 43 extending plained in connection with Figure 6. through the sphere 31 and the tube 35. In Figure 5 is shown another form of ?ring Encompassing the outside of container 34 is a mechanism. A tubular tail piece 51 with closed series of longitudinal strips 44 attached at their bottom 58 has a through perforation 59. An ex forward ends to a ring member 45 as by a turned tension 60 of the tail piece 51 is telescoped there end 46 ?tting in an annular channel 41 in the about and carries a pin 6| which passes through ring, or in individual recesses, passing through the perforations 59. Pin 6| passes through and carries a slidable ?ring pin 62. 40 may be removed cases, especially where the curvature of the mis sile is slight. In such case, also, the sphere may be engaged by the strips in pockets in its lower hemisphere. A shock-deadening impact unit 5:1 is fixed to ring 45 and the forward rim of container 34. Assembly is easily effected by inserting ?ring pin 40 into the sphere 31 against spring 4 i, which when fully compressed forms a guard against set back forces, and inserting the shear pin 42. The sphere 31 is then placed in tube 35 and pull pin 43 inserted. Plug 38 and primer 36 are then added. Strips 44 are then threaded 44 are then gathered in and permitted to expand into the receiving channel 41 in the ring 45. The tail piece is now threaded into container 34 car rying with it the strips 44 and ring 45. all are in place the impact member 5| by any convenient means and the added if necessary or desirable. At impact, assuming pull- pin 43 previously withdrawn, the pin 42 will be sheared and the ?ring pin 40 started toward the primer. How 70 ' ever, if the missile has hit the target at a glanc ing angle, the outer portion of shock-deadening member 5| and ring 45 will first yield without affording the proper stoppage to shear the pin 42. Thus those strips 44 nearest the point of contact 75 under setback forces or manually, in the’ latter case, by motion forward or rearward. The arms 53 may be of spring material with position of on removal of the band 66. Or, the arms 53, springy or otherwise, may have their normal posi tion with ends 65 within the perforations 59 in which case the missile remains safe even with the band removed until a sufficient shock is encoun tered to force arms 63 outward by tail 5'! acting on slant surfaces 61 of bent ends 65. The slant surfaces should be so designed as to function only at impact forces. In the embodiment shown in Figure 6, the ?r ing mechanism may be considerably simpli?ed by omitting the spherical bolt. ' As shown in Figure 9 the ?ring pin 40 moves in a bore 68 in a tail piece 69. This tail piece 69 is threaded into a plug 10 which is threadedly held in the body 34. Plug 14 and tail piece 63 are spaced to accom modate a. ring 1| of internal diameter equal to or slightly greater than bore 68, and to permit trans verse sliding of said ring. Bars 44 pass through bores 12 in plug 10 and contact the ring 1|. At glancing angles of impact of the missile the ring 1| will be forced by some of the bars 44 into the path of the ?ring pin ‘and will be' restored to normal position, clearing the pin, when the mis sile is brought to full-faced engagement, as in 2,412,967 the case of Figure 6. The sensitivity may be reg ulated by chamfering the ring as at 13. We claim: - 1. A petard of the type designed for front ex plosion comprising an axially symmetric body, prising a tubular tail piece ?xed to said missile and having a closed bottom, diametrically oppo _site openings in said tail piece, a tube telescoped on said tail piece, a ?ring pin in said tail piece, a pin passing through said ?ring pin, openings and tube, arms ?xed to the exterior of said tube percussion fuse means and an explosive charge and having ends bent over the top of said tube therein, an axial tail piece adapted for handling and engaging said openings, and a band sur the petard, a projecting annular rim forward of rounding said arms and holding said bent ends the petard de?ning a ?at impact face of substan said openings. tial cross¢section with respect to the petard, and 10 in ' 9. An explosive missile comprising a ?at front an annular shock-deadening unit of low resilience impact portion and a percussion ?ring means, with respect to that of the petard ?xed to said compressed spring means tending to move said rim on an annular line concentric with said rim percussion means to ?ring position, shearable and extending forward thereof. means holding said percussion means prior to im 2. A petard of the type designed for front ex 15 pact, spaced movable impact members on the plosion as in claim 1 in which said shock-deaden missile and an operative connection between said ing unit comprises lead. impact members and said percussion means, said 3. In an explosive missile having a faced im operative connection arranged to disarm the per pact portion with projecting annular rim onthe cussion means from ?ring position after shearing said portion, ,an annular shock-deadening mem 20 of said shearable means by impact unless or until ber comprising a crown piece looped over and the said impact means makes ?at contact with enveloping the said rim, said member compris a struck target. ing a material of low resilience relative to the 10. A petard missile of the type designed for material of the missile. front explosion, comprising a body having a ?at 25 4. A petard missile of the type adapted for impact portion and having an annular member front explosion comprising a container having an of material of low resilience with respect to that opening and a planar impact portion de?ned by of the missile secured to saidimpact portion and a rim of the container at said opening, an ex extending slightly beyond said portion, to e?ect plosive charge in said container, a closure mem sealing contact between said impact portion and ber in said opening con?ning said explosive 30 a struck target, deaden the shock of said missile, charge, and an annular shock-deadening unit of and inhibit rebound, and impact ?ring means in low resilience with respect to the material of said said missile. , container on said rim only of said container and 11. A petard missile of the type adapted for extending into the opening and overhanging said front explosion comprising an explosive charge, closure member. , 5. An explosive missile having a rim-shaped 35 a handling portion for engagement with a pro jector and a ?at faced front portion, an annular impact portion and rear percussion ?ring means, shock deadening unit of low resiliency relative to said ?ring means comprising a universally the material of the missile, for impact with a mounted bolt, a recess therein, a primer adjacent target, peripherally attached to and protruding said recess and a ?ring pin in said recess, held 40 forward of said ?at faced portion, said shock against spring pressure by a shearable pin, spaced deadening unit being of a diameter substantially longitudinal impact transmission members con necting said impact portion and said bolt whereby , to swing said bolt recess out of alignment with commensurate with the largest diameter of the missile, and an impact ?ring means at the rear 45 of the missile. . said primer when less than all of said transmis 12. A petard missile of the type adapted for sion members are actuated at impact. front explosion, as in claim 11, wherein the shock 6. An explosive missile having a faced impact deadening unit comprises lead. portion, a spring member in the rear of said mis 13. In combination, a petard missile of the type sile, a ?ring pin forward of said spring and shear designed for front explosion comprising a hollow able means holding‘ said ?ring pin against the body containing an explosive charge and having pressure of said spring, blocking means in ad a front ?at faced end of substantial cross-sec vance of said ?ring pin and movable into and tional area, impact ?ring means in the base of out of the path thereof and spaced members ex, the missile‘ and an annular shock deadening unit tending from the periphery of said faced impact of low resiliency with respect to the material of 55 portion to the said blocking means and slidable the missile on the front of the missile and of a longitudinally relative to said missile to move said diameter commensurate with that of the missile blocking means at oblique impact of the missile. adapted to seal the missile against the target‘ '7. An explosive missile as in claim, 6 wherein upon impact of the missile. ' said blocking means comprises a ring with inside diameter suf?cient to pass the ?ring pin and nor 60 JOSEPH H. CHURCH. mally surrounding the path of travel thereof. 8. In an explosive missile, a ?ring means com WILFRED E. THIBODEAU.