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Патент USA US2412970

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Dec. 24, ‘1946.
v ' s, B_ cRARY
2,412,970
SUPERCHARG'ED ENGINE EX’HAUST POWER SYSTEM
Filed Dec. 6, 1944
v
2 Sheets-Shee’g l
Inventor;
Selde‘n B. Crary,
‘by
HIS Attorney.
Dec. 24, 1946.
s. B. cRARY
SUPERCHARGED ENGINE EXHAUST POWER SYSTEM
Filed Dec. 6, 1944
2,412,970
v2 Sheets-Sheet 12
- Fig.2.
Ihvehtor:
\ Selden B. CFary.
,
y
Attorney.
Patented Dec. 24, 1945
2,412,970
‘UNITED STATES.‘ PATENT‘ OFFICE
SUPERCHARGED ENGINE EXHAUST POWER
‘SYSTEM
semen B. Crary, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to
General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York
Application December 6, 1944, Serial No. 566,909
1Q Claims. (01. 290#—4)
2 _
‘The invention relates to supercharged engine
exhaust power systems, and provides improved
engine turbosupercharger and electric turbogen
erator combinative systems particularly adapted
mechanical drive from one of the variable‘speed
aircraft propelling engines in the same way as in
for converting engine exhaust power into elec
the parallel connected direct current generator‘
tric power on aircraft under varying ?ight con
ditions.
'
'
.
.
alternating current generator can then be oper
ated at independently varying speed by a direct
systems now in common use. But such a segre
.
gated alternating current system is quite unde
sir-able due to the impossibility of operating any
rl‘he principal object is to provide an improved
exhaust power driven turbogenerating system for
of the aircraft electrical devices constituting a
an aircraft propelling turbosupercharged engine 10 particular
segregated electrical load upon failure
of the corresponding generator driving engine as
capable not only of utilizing excess expansive
energy of the engine exhaust gases resulting from.
the decrease in the atmospheric pressure as the
altitude increases, but also of converting a vari
able part of the available basis pressure energy 15
in the engine exhaust gases into electric power
- whenever required for energizing the electrically
controlled and electrically ‘operated devices used
on the aircraft.
.
well as the impossibility of utilizing all the avail~
able aircraft electric power generating capacity
to supply any electric load demand on the air
craft.
'
It also has been proposed to operate ach par- ‘
_ allel connected alternating current gen rator at
the required synchronous frequency by means of
a small auxiliary internal combustion engine run
[a special object is to provide an improved on 20 ning at a constant regulated speed entirely in
gins’ exhaust power system particularly adapted
for synchronous or-substantially constant speed
’ operation of alternating current generators by
dependently of the main variable speed aircraft
propelling engines. But the resulting duplica
tion of internal combustion engine power equip
ment and the increased maintenance involved. as
well as the extra weight, space requirement, com
.Such an improved alternating current genera
plexity and general unreliability inherent in such
' * ating system is desirable for aircraft, particu
a separate auxiliary engine driven electric pow
- larly on large supercharged multi-engine, long
er system, also leave much to be desired.
range, high altitude planes, since it will mate
Likewise, difficulties are prevalent in the vari
rially reduce the excessive conductor weight re 30 able speed hydraulic power transmission mecha
quired by the low voltage, direct current systems
nism that has been proposed for operating each
now in common use, and also eliminate the ex
of the parallel connected alternating current
cessive commutator brush wear that occurs at
generators at substantially constant speed from
high altitudes and, in additoin, will effectively
a corresponding one of the variable speed air
avoid commutator ?ashing and circuit inter
craft propelling engines. In addition to the
the aircraft propelling turbosupercharged en
gines under widely varying ?ight conditions.
ruption difficulties encountered at high altitudes
with a high voltage, direct current aircraft power
' system. Furthermore, the improved system’
makes it ‘feasible to obtain driving power from
the exhaust gases of the supercharged aircraft 40
propelling engines for operating the parallel con- .
nected alternating current generators or alter
power transmitting ?uid maintenance di?iculty,
there is an excess weight problem involved, as
well as the general complexity of the variable
speed hydraulic“ power transmission control.
Also, there is inherent di?‘iculty in maintaining
the alternating current generators synchronous
ly in phase in case of rapid and uneven varia
nators synchronously at the required substan
tions of ' either the aircraft propelling engine
tially constant frequency, which power cannot
speeds or the generator loads due to the gener
be obtained by anydirect mechanical drive of 45 ally infiexible nature of any such noncompressible
the parallel connected alternating current gen
?uid power transmitting'mechanism. ;
_
erators since the propelling engines necessarily
' Hence, a particular object of the present in
must operate at widely varying speeds under
vention is to provide an improved engine i/zexhaust
varying flight conditions.
power system having a gas turbine connected
It has been proposed heretofore to eliminate
in series gas ?ow relation between the engine
the parallel connection of the alternating cur
and the engine turbosupercharger so as to obtain
rent generators that necessitates the synchronous
a very soft, flexible and substantially constant
operation thereof, and instead connect each gen
speed
drive of an alternating current generator erator independently to supply a separate seg
by partially expanding the exhaust gases. sup
regated electrical load. By this expedient,‘each
plied from the aircraft engine to the ‘engine turbo
2,412,970
3
plied with engine exhaust gas through the supply
conduit 10 that extends from the exhaust mani~
fold of engine I.
The speed and power of the supercharger driv
propelling engine supercharger operating require
ments, particularly under minimum available en
gine exhaust power conditions.
A further object is to provide an improved en
ing turbine 8 are controlled by means of a waste
gate II which is connected to the nozzle box 8
' so as to by-pass gas from. the turbine 8 and dis
gine exhaust power control system suitable for
parallel connected alternating current genera
charge the engine exhaust gases from the nozzle
box 9 directly into the atmosphere. Thus, with
waste gate H fully opened, practically all of,
tors, each driven by a series connected turbine
operated by the partial expansion of an auto
matically controlled part of the exhaust gases
supplied from the aircraft propelling engine to
operate the engine turbosupercharger with the
?ow and expansion ‘of the exhaust gases specially
4
haust gas turbine 8 having a nozzle box 8 sup~
supercharger. This enables the improved sys
tem more e?ectively to meet both the parallel
connected alternating current generator and the
the engine exhaust gases will pass through con
duit l0 and the nozzle box 8 and discharge direct
ly to atmosphere. But as the waste gate H is
' moved towards the closed position, more and more
of the engine exhaust gases will be discharged
regulated so as to be capable of providing syn
through the supercharger driving turbine 8 until
?nally all the gases will discharge through .tur
chronous operation of the generators at substan
tially constant frequency to balance the aircraft
blue 8 when the waste gate H is fully closed.
The waste gate H is, in accordance with the
and rapidly varying aircraft propelling and elec 20
usual practice, provided with some suitable form
trical power conditions likely to be encountered
of automatic operating means that is responsive
in‘ ?ight.
to the load demands of the supercharger B for
A further object is to provide an improved
variably opening and closing the waste gate H
primary and secondary exhaust gas turbine drive
system for operating each electric generator and 25 to vary the power produced by the turbine 8 and
thereby the operating speed of the supercharger
capable of operating primarily in parallel gas
6 in order to maintain the pressure of the air
flow relation and secondarily in series gas ?ow
electric loads therebetween under all the widely
supplied to the engine carburetor 3 at a desired
relation with the engine turbosupercharger so
as to minimize the increase in engine back pres
sure and generate the electric power required on
the aircraft as far as possible from the excess
energy available in the engine exhaust gases
constant value or within a desired range as the
altitude varies. As shown, the waste gate H is
operated by a reversible electric motor I2 which
is connected through the electromagnetic clutch
l3 and suitable speed reducing gearing M to
which otherwise, under. normal ?ying conditions
move the waste gate H to the open or closed
at high altitudes, would be wasted. In this way
the overall engine fuel economy, and hence the 35 positions or any intermediate position. The waste
e?ective operating range of the aircraft, can be
materially increased.
A still further object is to provide a combina
tive automatic regulating system for both the
exhaust gas turbine driven supercharger and gen 40
erator, capable of sensitive and selective response
both to varying electrical power conditions and
to varying propelling engine supercharging power
conditions so as to produce an e?icient and sub
stantially constant speed operation of the gen
erator under varying electrical load, engine speed,
and aircraft altitude conditions without adversely
affecting. the propelling power functions of the
aircraft engine.
Further objects and advantages of the inven
tion will appear in the description of the accom- ‘
panying drawings in which Fig. 1 shows schemat
ically an exhaust gas turbine driven, alternating
current generating system for an aircraft pro
pelling turbosupercharged engine embodying the
improvements of the present invention, and Fig. 2
shows schematically a partial modi?ed form of
the system of Fig. 1 wherein the alternating cur
rent generator is operated by two exhaust gas
driving turbines, one in parallel gas flow‘rela
tion and the other in series gas flow relation with
the engine turbosupercharger.
In Fig. l, the aircraft propelling internal com
bustion supercharged engine I is shown schemat
gate operating motor I! may be provided with any
well known form of automatic circuit control
means, indicated generally by the reference char
acter l5, which has a suitable bellows or dia
phragm operated circuit controlling device auto
maticaly responsive to variation in the altitude
at which the airplane engine 1 operates, and also
electrical means responsive to the speed of the
supercharger driving turbine 8 and, furthermore,
can be manually adjusted so as to vary the speed
of the supercharger driving turbine 8 in accord
ance with the desired propelling power output
of the engine I. Hence, the waste gate altitude
responsive circuit control apparatus I5 is shown
60 schematically interconnected to be controlled by
the engine throttle lever l8 which operates the
throttling valve mechanism 4 of carburetor 3
and, at the same time; through the connecting,
rod IT sets or adjusts the altitude responsive cir
55 cuit control apparatus 18 to increase or decrease
the speed of the supercharger driving turbine 8
as the throttle valve l is operated to increase
or decrease the propelling power of the engine I.
As the particular form of supercharger load re
80 sponsive circuit control means I! is not of the
essence of the present invention and such means
is known and in use, the details thereof are not
shown. However, if desired, this control mecha
nism I! may be of the improved'tyne illustrated
and described in the copendlng application Serial
ically as of the well known radial type directly
No.
481,444. assigned to the assignee of the pres
connected to drive the aircraft propeller 2. A
ent
invention.
suitable carburetor 3 is provided with a throttle
The alternating current generator l8 that
valve mechanism l for regulating’the aircraft
forms a part of the improved‘aircrait turbogen
propelling power developed by the engine l- as
system of the present invention is shown
required to meet varying ?ight conditions. The 70 crating
schematically as of the standard three-phase
engine carburetor 3 is shown connected through
type having a, rotating exciting field H energized
‘the usual intercooler 5 to be supplied with air
with direct current through the slip rings 28 from
under pressure by the engine supercharger 8
any suitable source such. for example, as the
through the conduit 7. The engine supercharger
-phase double rectl?ers 2| that are inter
6 is of the well'known type driven by an ex- 75 three
2,412,970
connected with the main alternating current sup
' at and as.
6
These contacts selectively control
the energization of the reversing ?eld windings
ply lines 22, 23, 24 from the three-phase windings
of the alternating current generator l8. These
lines 22, 23 and 24 supply electric power through
the three-phase circuit breaker 25 to the three
39 and 40 of the reversible motor 4| that is con
nected through suitable gearing 42 to operate the
throttle valve 29 between open and closed posi
tions responsively to variations .in the generator
phase load supply busses 26 of the aircraft.
The power required to drive the rotating field
l9 of the alternating current generator [8 is pro
duced by the exhaust gas turbine 21 which, in
speed from a desired critical synchronous value
so as thereby to maintain the speed substantially
constant.
accordance with the present invention, has the 10 In order to increase the sensitivity and accu- I
nozzle box 28 thereof connected tov conduit l6
racy of control, the cooperating contacts 31 and
ahead of a throttle valve 29 which is mountedin
38 preferably are mounted for oscillation with
a rod 43 which, as shown, is slidably mounted in
suitable bearings with the left-hand end thereof
spring biased into operative engagement with a
the engine exhaust gas conduit l0 and has the tur
bine exhaust gas casing 30 connected with the en
gine exhaust supply conduit It on the other side of
the throttle valve 29. In this way, the alternat
ing current generator driving turbine 21 is con
rotating actuating cam 44 that is driven through
suitable gearing 45 from the driven shaft 34. In
this way, continuous periodic oscillation of the
charger driving turbine 8 so as to partially ex
pand a variable part of the gases passing through 20 cooperating contacts 31, 38 is produced upon
rotation of the drive shaft 34. Such oscillation
conduit ill under the control of the throttle valve
periodically makes and breaks the energizing cir
29. Thus, the alternating current generator driv
cuit
of each of the reversing ?eld windings 39 and
ing turbine 21 can by-pass engine exhaust gases
40 at frequent recurring intervals and thereby
around the throttle valve 29 and produce a par
enables the reversible motor H to position the
tial expansion of the engine exhaust gases sup
25 throttle valve 29 in the engineexhaust gas supply
plied to the supercharger driving turbine with
duct I 0 very accurately.
the throttle valve 29 controlling the partial ex
In order to introduce an anti-hunting follow
pansion to regulate the power produced by the
up action into the positioning control of the
generator driving turbine 21.
‘ nected in series gas flow relation with the super
With the improved construction illustrated,
there are in effect two parallel exhaust supply
conduits for the supercharger driving turbine 8
with the generator driving turbine 21 operating
in response to the ?ow of exhaust gas through one
of the parallel conduits and the throttle valve
29 controlling the gas ?ow in the other parallel
conduit. Hence, when throttle valve 29 is open,
there is practically no restriction to the flow of
gas directly through the conduit id to the super
charger turbine 8, and the back pressure of the
engine exhaust gases is then dependent practi
cally entirely upon the degree of closure of the
waste gate ll. ' However, as the throttle valve 29
is moved towards the closed position, the engine
exhaust gases are thereby forced to ?ow through
the generator driving by-pass turbine 21 so as to
cause the generator driving turbine to produce
power in accordance with the pressure drop pro
duced by the throttle valve 29. In this way the
engine back pressure is increased a correspond
ing amount substantially independently of waste
gate ll. Thus, it will ‘be seen that, in the im
proved system, the throttle valve 29 constitutes
a by-pass control around the generator driving
turbine 21 and the wastegate valve ll constitutes
a by-pass control around the supercharger driv
ing turbine 8 and each is capable of controlling
the power produced by the corresponding turbine
throttle valve 29, a lever 481s pivotally supported
30
intermediate its ends and interconnected at one
end by the link 41 with the movable contact con
trol arm 35. The opposite end of the lever 46 is
biased by a suitable spring into engagement with
a graduated operating cam 48 which is intercon
35 nected by a suitable lever and link mechanism 49
‘to be rotated proportionately to the opening and
closing movements of the throttle valve 29 in the
‘engine exhaust gas conduit 13. In this way, a
follow-up action is obtained such that whenever
40 the motor ?eld winding 39 is energized by en
gagement of contact 36 with cooperating contact
31 to energize the motor 4| to move the throttle
valve 29 slightly toward the open position, the
resulting movement of cam 48 serves to move the
lever 46 and link 41 in a direction to disengage‘
the movable contact 36 from the cooperating con
tact 31. Likewise, when the movable contact 39
engages with the cooperating contact 38 to ener
gize the motor ?eld winding 40 so as to operate '
50 the motor 3| in the reverse direction to move the
throttle valve 29 slightly towards the closed posi
tion. then a corresponding movement of cam 48
operates through lever 46 and link 41 to disengage
contact 36 from the cooperating contact 38.
This follow-up anti-hunting action cooperates
with the continuous oscillationof the cooperat
ing contacts 31, 39 so that a 'very sensitive and . '
accurate anti-hunting control of the position of
-the throttle valve 29 is obtained.
The‘throttle valve 29 is in accordance with the
In order also to control the position of the
present invention provided with automatic oper 60
throttle valve 29 in response to variations in the
ating means responsive to conditions appurte
electrical load of the generator l8, an electrore
nant to the generator l8 and indicated generally
sponsive
control element 50 responsive to a load
by the referencecharacter 3|. As shown, these
' condition of the generator is provided. As shown
means include a generator speed responsive gov.
ernor 32 which may be of the centrifugal spring 65 schematically in the drawings, this electrorespon
substantially independently of the other.
biased type indicated schematically in the draw
ings and driven by means of suitable gearing 33
from the drive shaft 34 of the rotating generator
sive load control element 50 operates an arma
ture 59' which is interconnected through the link
it with the movable contact arm 35. The de
?eld‘ l9 that is connected, to be 'driven'by the 70 vice 63 is provided with an energizing winding 62
that is connected to be energized in accordance
driving turbine 21. The speed responsive gover
nor 32 is suitably connected to operate a movable
control arm 36 which carries at one end thereof
the movable circuit control contacts 36 for oscil
with the kilowatt output of the alternating cur
rent generator l8 by means of an electrical con- ‘
' ducting element 53.
As shov'n, a bridge connec
tion of the rectifier unit 64 is provided for super
lation between the cooperating control contacts 75 imposing upon the electrically conducting ele
2,412,970
7
ment}: an energization component equal to the
kilowatt output of the generator l8. One leg of
the rectifier bridge is connected through the con
ductor 55 with the neutral or grounded point of
the three-phase generator windings. The other
leg of the recti?er unit BI is interconnected to the
conductor 56, and the auxiliary switch 51 and
resistor 58 with the generator power supply line
by interconnecting the voltage regulator operat
ing winding 89 through an electrical conducting
element 10 and the auxiliary switch ‘H with the
reactive volt-ampere bus 12 and superimposing
upon the conducting element In a component in
dicative of the reactive volt-ampere characteris
tic of generator l8. This latter is accomplished
by means of the recti?er bridge 13 having the
mid-point of one leg connected directly to the
24. The current transformer 59 circulates a cur
generator line conductor 24, through conductor
10
rent through a portion of the resistor 58 propor
‘I4, and the mid-point of the other leg connected
tional to the‘alternating current vflowing in the
through auxiliary switch 15, conductor 16, re
supply line 23. In this way the current compo
sistor
17, to the other generator line conductor
nent is combined with the neutral to line voltage
22. The current transformer 18 is connected to
component to provide an energization of- the
circulate a current through a portion of resistor
conducting element 53 in accordance with the lo ‘I1 in accordance with the current flow" through
kilowatt output of the generator.
- the generator phase conductor 23. With this
It will be understood that each of the other
connection arrangement, whenever the reactive
propelling engines of a multi-engine aircraft is
volt-amperes
oi the generator 18 are above or
provided with a turbosupercharger and turbo
the average of the reactive volt-amperes of
generator combination identical with that just 20 below
the other parallel connected generators, each of
described and illustrated in Fig. 1, with all of the
which, it will be understood, has a similar inter
three-phase alternating current generators con
connection with- both the power supply bus 26
nected in parallel through the common three- '
and the equalizing busses 60 and 12, then the volt
phase power busses 25 from which the electrical
age regulator operating winding 68 is energized
25
load demands of the aircraft are supplied.
~in one way or the other so as to act cumulatively
Since the alternating current generator 18 is
or diiferentially with respect to the voltage re
connected to busses 26 for operation in parallel
sponsive operating winding 66. In this way, the
with other similar alternating current generators,
voltage and speed of the generator 18 are auto
to equalize the electrical load on the generators,‘
the energization of the operating winding 52 30 matically controlled so as to equalize both the
kilowatt and the reactive volt-ampere loads
preferably is made responsive to the unbalanced
thereof with that of the other parallel connected
kilowatt load of the corresponding generator by
generators.
interconnecting the electrical conducting element
‘With the improved turbosupercharger and al
51 to an average kilowatt bus 8G through the aux- ,
ternating current electric turbogenerator com
iliary switch 81 and the conductors 82. In this 35 binative system schematically shown in Fig. 1 of
way, whenever the kilowatts produced by gen
the drawings, when the airplane is preparing to
erator 18 are below the average produced by the _
take on or land, or operating at relatively low
other parallel connected generators, the operat
altitudes, the supercharger load requirements
ing winding 52 of the electroresponsive control
normally will not be very large and waste gate l I
device 59 becomes energized to move the arma
will be partially open except, perhaps, during ac
ture 55' in a left-hand direction so as to operate
celeration of the propelling engines for take-0E
the contact arm 35 to engage contact 38 with the
or similar full power manoeuvres. Thus, there is
cooperating contact 38 and thereby e?ect opera
tion of motor
in a direction to close throttle
valve 29 and thereby increase the power produced
by the generator driving turbine 2‘! in order to
equalize the kilowatt output of generator 18 with
the average of the other parallel connected gen
erators. In case, however, the kilowatt output of
generator is is above the average output of the ‘
other generators, then the operating winding 52
is oppositely energized so as to move the armature
tall’ in the opposite direction and thereby control
always ample available energy in the engine ex
haust gases not only to operate the supercharger »
driving turbine '8 to produce suiilcient power to
drive the supercharger i at the speed required to
meet the normal supercharger load demands, but
also to operate the generator drlving'turblne 21
in order to drive the generator I! to supply the
normal electrical load demands. Under such
normal operating conditions, the supercharger
load responsive control means 15, operates the
the motor 3! to e?ect an opening of the throttle
waste gate i l in accordance with variations in the
supercharger load demands, and the control
means 3| operates the throttle valve 29 in accord
ance with variations in the generator load de
mands. Any increase in engine back pressure
erator 18 preferably is automatically maintained
due to the partial expansion of the engine ex
at a desired value by means of an automatic volt
haust
gases in the generator driving turbine 21
age regulator mechanism, indicated generally by 60
is ‘not likely to become excessive unless there
the reference character 53. As shown, the volt
should be, for some reason, an abnormally large
age regulator 53 has a contact arm 54 for variably
electrical demand imposed on the generating sys
controlling the resistance 55 that is connected in
tem simultaneously with a large supercharger
the circuit through which the ?eld winding 19 is
load demand while the engine exhaust power out
energized from the double recti?ers 2 L. One op
put is very low as, for example, due to a quick
erating winding of the voltage regulator 83 is en
manual increase in the setting of the super
ergized in accordance with the voltage between
charger load responsive control -to increase the
the phase conductors 23 and 25 by means of the
power output of the propelling engine I from
bridge connected recti?er arrangement 81 and
‘the minimum to the maximum. However, this
the regulating resistor 88. A second operating
valve 25 and, in this way, reduce the power pro
duced by the generator driving turbine 21.
The voltage of the alternating, current gen
winding 69 of the voltage regulator 63 is energized
in accordance with the differential between the
reactive volt-amperes of generator it and the
average reactive volt-amperes of the other paral
lel connected generators. This is accomplished 75
is not likely to occur except in an emergency, par- ,
ticularly ii’ the generator power output is prop
erly limited so as not to adversely affect the pro
pelling engine performance under any normal
operating condition.
'
2,419,970
Whenever the aircraft is operating at high‘
altitudes, the increased expansive energy in the
engine exhaust gases 'due to the decrease in at
mospheric pressure then becomes available for
supplying without any excessive engine back
pressure not only the supercharger load demands,
but'also the generator load demands. Thus, on
long ?ights at high altitudes, with the propelling
blue
10
21 becomes operative to produce the re
quired additional driving power by increasing the
engine back pressure and thereby converting a
variable part of the available energy in the ex
haust gases into electric power.
The power produced by the parallel turbine I 00
is controlled by suitable throttling means for re
engine I operating at normal rated or cruising . stricting the ?ow of exhaust gases through the
power, the generation of electric power for use on 10' conduit I02 to the nozzle'box IBI. As shown in
Fig. 2, two throttle valves I04 and I05 are pro
the aircraft can be obtained largely from the ex»
vided. The throttle valve I04 is operated by re
cess exhaust energy which otherwise would be
wasted.
' ‘
In Fig. 2 is shown a partial modi?cation of the
turbosupercharger and turbogenerator combina=
tive system shown in Fig. 1 that may be em
ployed more e?ectlvely to utilize the excess ex
pansive energy in the exhaust gases at high aid
tudes, while at the same time retaining the ability
versible electric motor I06 through suitable speed
reducing gearing it'll. The operating motor S06
is provided with the ?eld winding Hill for opera
ating the motor in a direction to close throttling
valve i043 and with the field winding i 09 for opera
ating the motor in the direction to open throttling
valve tell.
'
a
In accordance with the present invention; the
to convert a variable part of the available back
are seiec=
pressure energy in the engine exhaust gases into 20 reversing ?eld windings of motor
electric power whenever required for ‘energizing
the electrically controlled and. electrically oper
ated devices used in the aircraft. In Fig. 2, it
will be understood that the supercharger t and
tively controlled by the automatic generator con=
trol apparatus 3i, operating arm 35 and control
contacts is, ill and 38 of which are shown in
- Fig. 2.
These contacts are connected to selec“
tively energize one or the other of the ?eld windq
the supercharger driving turbine 8 are intercon
ings ltd and 509 whenever the auxiliaryswitches
nected with the aircraft propelling engine i in
iiil are in the cIOSecl position, as shown. The
identically the same way as shown in Fig. 1, al
auxiliary switches H0 are operated by means of
though various parts of the system havebeen
a suitable lever Iii, shown schematically on the
omitted for the sake of clarity. Likewise, in Fig.
2 the generator driving turbine 21 is intercon 30 shaft of the throttle valve 29, so as to close the
V nected with the engine exhaust gas supply con
auxiliary switches iii? whenever throttle valve
29 is in the full open position, as shown in Fig.
The operating motor iii for throttle valve 29
duit ill in identically the same manner as pre
viously described in connection with Fig. '1.
However, Fig. 2 shows an additional generator
driving ‘turbine i00 connected with the generator
drive shaft 353 for producing power to separately
drive the generator whenever the engine exhaust
also is selectively controlled by the generator con“
dition responsive control apparatus whenever the
auxiliary switches i l 2 are closed. These auxiliary
switches iii? are operated bya rod H3 and a level‘
power is more than sui’?cient to supply the power
iiii, which is shown connected to the operating
demands of the supercharger driving turbine 3.
shaft of the throttle valve lull so as to close the
40
Under such conditions, the waste gate l i ordi~
auxiliary switches H2 whenever throttle valve
narily would be partially open. _
iilll is in the fully open position.
The additional generator driving turbine Ill-ii
has a nozzle box Iili connected through conduit
The throttle valve its is operated by reversible
motor lit through suitatble speed reducing gear“
ing iiii. When the motor ?eld winding iii is
i
502 to receive gases from the engine exhaust gas 4.
supply conduit 5 0 ahead of the throttling valve it
energized, motor iilli operates in a direction to
which controls the power produced by the gen=
close the throttling valve Hi5 but when motor
erator driving turbine 27. Thus the additional
operates
?eld
winding
in a direction
I123 is energized,
to open throttle
the motor
valve 3
generator driving turbine N30 is connected in par=
allel gas ilow relation with both the generator
In accordance with the present invention, the
driving turbine 27 and the supercharger driving 50 two motor ?eld windings E23 and
are cone
turbine 0, and the gases supplied from the esr~=
nected to be selectively energized upon closure
. of the auxiliary switches
haust gas supply conduit I0 and passing through
iilll under the control
the generator driving turbine i00 are exhausted
of the supercharger load responsive means l5
directly to the atmosphere through the exhaust
casing I03. Thus, it will be seen that, in e?ect,
the generator driving turbine 27 is connected in
571 1,1
which normally controls the selective energize.“
tion of the ?eld windings of the waste gate op=
crating motor F2. The auxiliary switches it’ll are
closed by means of the operating rod M5 and
lever 526 which is shown connected to the shaft
series gas flow relation with the supercharger
driving turbine 8, while the additional generator
driving turbine I00 is connected in parallel gas
of the waste gate ii so as to close the auxiliary
?ow relation with the supercharger driving tur 80 switches IN whenever waste gate i i becomes
bine 0.
‘
'
are
substantially
provided for
closed.
connecting
The auxiliary
the wasteswitches
gate opera
In accordance with the present invention, the
parallel turbine I00 is operated to produce all
ating motor I2 to be selectively controlled by the
the power required to drive the generator as long
supercharger load responsive apparatus is when
as there is excess power in the engine exhaust 65 throttling valve its is in the full open position
gases beyond the power demands of the super
by means of the rod are and the lever 529 which,
charger driving turbine 8, as indicated by a par
as shown, is connected to the operating shaft
tial opening of the waste gate I i. This insures
of the throttle valve I05.
a minimum engine back pressure in the exhaust
Operation of Fig. 2
gas supply conduit I0 and thereby increases the 70
aircraft propelling engine operating e?iciency.
With the various control elements in their re
spective positions shown in Fig. 2, the waste gate
However, in case the generator load demands
should require more power than can be produced
I is partially open-and the throttle valve I04
by the parallel turbine I00, then the series tur 76 is partially open, while both the throttle valves
20 and I05 are fully open. Under these condi
2,412,970
11
tions, exhaust gas is supplied from the conduit
I0 to operate. the supercharger driving turbine
the supercharger driving turbine 0 with the super
charger load requirements.’
In case the supercharger load requirements
should increase to the point where waste gate II
becomes substantially closed, then auxiliary
tion of the waste gate II under the controlpf G1 switches I24 are closed. This transfers the con
motor I2 and the supercharger load responsive
trol of the supercharger. load responsive control
apparatus I5. At the same time, exhaust gas 15
means I5 from motor I2 to motor I20. Therel
supplied from conduit III to operate the generator
upon, any further increase in the supercharger
driving parallel turbine I00 with the power pro
load requirements will result in energization of
10
duced thereby under the control of the throttling
motor I20 through ?eld winding I23 so as to oper
valve I00 and with the positioning of the valve
ate throttle valve I05 from the fully open posi
under the control of motor I06 and the generator
tion in which it is shown towards the closed posi
load responsive control represented by the con
tion. This results in increasing the pressure of
tacts 36, Si and 38. It, will be understood that,
the gases in exhaust gas supply conduit I0, with
in case the supercharger load demands increase
a resultant increase in the power developed by
or decrease, then the supercharger load respon
the supercharger driving turbine 8. The move- r
sive control I5 will e?ect Operation of motor I2
merit of throttle valve I05 from the full open
in a corresponding direction to close or open
position effects the opening of auxiliary switches
waste gate II the amount required to enable the
I2‘? thereby disconnecting motor I2 from the
8 with the power developed thereby under the
control of the waste gate II and with the opera
' supercharger driving turbine 8 to meet the load
demands. Similarly, in case the generator load
demands increase or decrease, contact 30 will se~
lectively engage with either cooperating contact
31 to energize motor I00 for operation in a direc
supercharger load responsive circuit control
means I5.
' Since the movement of throttle valve its to
ward the closed position under the control of
the supercharger load responsive circuit control
tion to open throttle valve I00, or with contact 25 ling means I5 reduces the power produced by the’
30 to energize motor I06 for operation in a direc
generator driving turbine I00, the generator load
tin to close throttle valve I04 so as to vary the
responsive means will effect further closing of
power produced by the parallel turbine I00 to
the throttling valve 20 to further increase the
meet the generator load demands and maintain
power produced by the generator driving series
the operating speed of the generator substantially 30 turbine 27 so as-to balance the power produced
constant. Under these conditions, the series tur
with the load requirements. In the extreme case
bine Z7 is inactive since throttle valve 29 is fully
that throttle valve I05 should become substan
open. Hence, the engine back pressure 'is con
tially closed, then the throttle valve 20 necessarily
trolled jointly by the position of the waste gate
will close su?lciently to enable the generator driv
35 ing series turbine 21 to produce substantially all _
valve II and the throttle valve I00.
Assuming now that the supercharger load re
of the power required to meet the generator load
quirements are such as to maintain waste gate
requirements. This condition is not likely to oc
I I partially open but that the generator load re
cur except upon an excessive electrical load de
quirements increase to the point where throttle
mand during cruising with reduced engine power
valve I04 reaches the fully open position, there
output at very high altitudes or during takeo?
upon auxiliary switches II2 are closed and, upon
when there is insu?icient excess exhaust power
any further increase of the generator load de
over the supercharger driving turbine require
mands, the engagement of movable contact 30
ments to carry an excessive electrical load de
with cooperating contact 3‘! will energize motor
mand.
However, the present invention insures,
III through ?eld winding 39 to operate throttle 45 even under these extreme conditions, the produc
valve 29 from the fully open position in which it
tion of suihcient power to meet all the load de
is shown towards the closed position. This pro
mands even though the engine back pressure
duces a pressure di?erential on the opposite sides
may be increased temporarily to a value which
~ of the throttle valve 29 and the series turbine 21
would be undesirable if sustained.
'
begins to produce power in response to the amount 60
From the foregoing, it will be seen that, under
of the pressure differential. In this way, both
all normal operating conditions, the parallel tur
the parallel turbine I00 and the series turbine
bine I00 operates to ef?ciently utilize any excess
21 operate to jointly supply power to the gener
energy in the exhaust gases that would other
ator drive shaft 30, with the amount of power
wise be wasted due to the waste gate II being
supplied by turbine I00 controlled jointly by the 65 partially open. However, under extreme condi
waste gate II and throttling valve 29 since both
tions when the waste gate II is closed, the im
throttling valves I04 and I05 are in the fully
provements of the present invention enable the
additional available back pressure energy in the
open position. The amount of the additional
exhaust gases tobe utilized to supply the elec
power supplied by series turbine 21 is underv the
'1
‘
independent control of throttle valve 29. The 60 trical loaddemarids.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
movement of throttling valve 28 from the fully
Letters Patent of the United States is:
open position effects the opening of the auxiliary
1. In a supercharged engine exhaust power
switches IIO thereby transferring the control of
the generator load responsive control means 4| 85 system, the combination with an engine super
charger driving turbine, of means including a sep
\ from motor I06 to motor III. Thus, whenever
arate turbine connected to supply partially ex
waste gate II is partially open and throttle valve
panded engine exhaust gases to said supercharger
I04 is fully open, throttle valve 29 is operated
driving turbine, and an electric generator driven
under the control of the‘ generator load respon
by said separate turbine and having electrore
sive means so as to balance the power jointly pro 70 sponsive means energized thereby for. controlling
duced by the parallel turbine I00 and the series .
the partial expansion of said gases.
turbine 27 with the generator load requirements
{2. In a supercharged engine exhaust power
system, the combination with an engine super
and the waste gate II is operated by motor I2 '
under the control of the supercharger load respon
sive means IS, to balance the power produced by
charger driving turbine having means for regulat
ing the pressure or the engine exhaust gases
9,412,970
1
supplied thereto of a generator having a driving
percharger driving turbine, an exhaust gas tur
bine having an electric generator driven thereby
and having outlet connections for supplying par
turbine connected to partially expand the ex
haust gases supplied to said ?rst ‘turbine, and
means responsive to the generator load for regu
tially expanded exhaust gases to said ‘super
lating said partial expansion. ‘
charger driving turbine, altitude responsive ex
3. In combination, an engine exhaust gas driven
ply throttling valve and a waste gate valve and
haust gas control means for varying the speed
of said supercharged driving turbine, and gen
an electric generator having an exhaust gas driv
erator load and speed responsive exhaust gas con
turbo-supercharger having an exhaust gas sup
ing turbine provided with means for connecting 10 -trol means for varying the power produced by
said generator driving turbine at substantially
the inlet and outlet thereof on opposite sides or
' constant speed,
said throttling valve for operation under the con
trol thereof.
"
10. In an aircraft supercharged engine exhaust
4. In combination, an engine supercharger~
driving turbine, a generator having an exhaust
gas driving turbine connected to supply par 15
tially expanded gases to said first turbine, and
separately operable automatic by-pass control
means for each turbine to provide substantially
independent control of the operating speed there
of.
'
5. In combination, an engine supercharger
driving turbine having an exhaust gas supply
conduit provided with a throttling valve and a
separate waste gate valve having operating means
responsive to a condition appurtenant to said
supercharger for regulating the speed of said tur
bine, an electric generator having a separate driv
ing turbine connected with said conduit toby
pass said throttling valve, and means responsive
30'
to a condition appurtenant to said generator for
controlling said throttling valve to regulate the
speed of said separate turbine.
6. In an aircraft supercharged engine exhaust
power system, the combination withran engine
mating the pressure of said gases including a
partially expanding said
turbine provided with by~pass valve means for
supercharger driving turbine having supercharger
load responsive means for regulating the pres
sure of the engine exhaust
} to of an alternating current generator having a
driving turbine connected to partially expand the 40 into electric power.
gases supplied to said ?rst turbine, and means .
12. In a supercharged engine exhaust power
jointly responsive to the load and speed of said
generator for regulating said partial expansion.
engine exhaust power
combination of
4:
50
55
8. In a supercharged engine
13. In a supercharged engine exhaust power
system,
system, the combination with an
60
generator driven, thereby, a waste gate having
automatic control means responsive to a super
charger condition for regulating the ?ow of ex 65
expanding the exhaust gases supplied thereto and
haust gases from both said conduits to regulate
having means including a by-pass
valve for con
"
trolling said
70
'9. In an aircraft supercharged engine exhaust
series connected turbines for operation under the
gate and said by-pass
means and having means including a separate
power system, the combination of an engine su 76 exhaust gas throttling valve for regulating the
power produced thereby.
-
2,412,970.
15
supplied thereto and having separately operable
14. In a supercharged engine exhaust power
exhaust gas flow control means for controlling
said partial expansion to regulate the power pro
system, the combination of an engine super- '
charger driving turbine, means including a waste
duced thereby, means including a device respon
gate for controlling the power produced by said
turbine, and an electric generator having a pair
sive to variations in the load of said generator
for separately operating said separately'operable
of exhaust gas driving turbines therefor, one con
exhaust gas ?ow control means in a predeter
nected for operation in parallel gas ?ow rela- '~
mined sequence to vary the power produced by
the corresponding turbines in accordance with
variations in the load of said generator, and over
riding means under the control of said super
charger load responsive means for ‘varying the
tion with said supercharger driving turbine and
having separately operable exhaust gas now con
trol means for regulating the power‘ produced
‘thereby, and the other connected in series gas.
flow relation with said supercharger driving tur
power produced-by said parallel connected turbine
bine for partially expanding the exhaust gases
inversely in accordance with variations in the
supercharger load whenever said waste gate is sub
stantially closed.
18. In a‘supercharged engine exhaust power
system, the combination of an engine super
charger driving turbine having a, waste gate and
supercharger load responsive means for. variably
, closing and opening said‘ waste gate to vary the
- supplied thereto and having separatelyoperable
exhaust gas flow control means for controlling
said partial expansion to regulate the power pro
duced thereby, and means including a device re
sponsive to variations in a condition appurtenant
to said generator for successively ‘operating said
separately operable exhaust gas ?ow control
means in a predetermined reversible sequence up
on opposite variations in said condition.
15. In a supercharged engine exhaust power
1 power produced by said turbine, an electric gen
erator having a primary driving turbine con
nected in parallel gas ?ow relation with said
system, the‘ combination of an engine super
charger driving turbine, means including a waste
gate for controlling the power produced by said
series connected turbines and provided with primary throttling control mean for regulating the
power produced thereby, and having a secondary
turbine, and an electric generator having a pair - driving turbine connected in series gas ?ow re—
of exhaust gas driving turbines therefor, one con
lation with said supercharger driving turbine for
vnected ‘in parallel gas ?ow relation with said
partially expanding the exhaust gases supplied
supercharger driving turbine and having control _ thereto and provided with secondary throttling
means interlocked with said waste gate for regug
control means for controlling said partial ex
lating' the power produced thereby only while
said waste gate is open, and the‘ other connected
for partially expanding the exhaust gases sup
plied to said supercharger driving turbine, and
having control means interlocked with said waste
gate for controlling said partial expansion to reg
ulate the power produced thereby only while said
waste gate is substantially closed.
-
,
16. In combination, an engine supercharger
driving turbine having an' exhaust gas supply
conduit provided with a main throttling valve and
a waste gate valve‘having operating means re
sponsive to variations in a supercharger condi
tion for regulating the speed of said turbine, an
electric'generator having a primary driving tur
bine connected to receive gas from said conduit
ahead of said main throttling valve and provided
‘ with a separate throttling valve and having a sec- -
ondary driving turbine connected with said con
duit toby-pass gas around said throttling valve,
and a control device responsive to variations in
a condition appurtenant to said generator and
having means for successfully operating said sep
pansion to regulate the power produced by said
secondary turbine, a generator load responsive
device having means for successively operating
said primary and secondary throttling control means in a predetermined reversible sequence to
control the power produced by the corresponding
generator driving turbines in accordance with
variations in the load of said generator, and over
riding control means under the control of said
supercharger load responsive means for varying
the power produced by said parallel gas ?ow con
nected turbine inversely in accordance with vari
ations in the supercharger load whenever said
waste gate iséubstantially closed.
19. In combination, an engine supercharger
driving turbine having an exhaust gas supply con
duit providedvwith a main throttling valve and
a separate waste gate valve having control means
responsive to a supercharger load condition for
regulating the speed of said turbine, an electric >
generator having one driving turbine connected
to receive gas from said conduit ahead of said
main throttling valve and provided with a sepa
arate and main throttling valves ‘in a predeter- _._ ratethrottling valve and a second driving turbine
mined reversible sequence to control vthe power
connected with said conduit to by-pass said main.
' produced by the corresponding generator driv
throttling valve, a control device responsive to
ing turbines in accordance with variations in the
a load condition of said generator and having
load of said generator.
' .\ means for separately operating said separate and
17. In a supercharged engine exhaust power
main throttling valves in a predetermined se
system, the combination of an engine super
quence to control the power produced by the cor
charger driving turbine, ‘a waste gate for con»
responding generator driving turbines in accord
trolling the power produced by said turbine su
ance with variations in the load of said generator,
percharger load responsive means for operating
and overriding control means including a second
said waste gate, an electric generator having'a " throttling valve for said one turbine having op
pair of exhaust gas driving turbines therefor, one
erating means under the control of said super
connected for operation in parallel gas ?ow rela
charger load responsive control means for vary
tion with said supercharger driving turbine and
ing the power produced by said one turbine in
having separately operable exhaust gas flow con
verseiy in accordance with variations in the su
trol means for regulating the power produced
thereby and the other connected in series gas
flow relation with said supercharger driving tur
bine for partially expanding the exhaust gases»
percharger load whenever said waste gate is sub
stantially closed.'
'
s_
a. caring.
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