Патент USA US2412998код для вставки
Dec. 24, 1946. C. v. mwN . ' 2,412,998 ` ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE ` Filed Feb. 7. 1942 FIGA. 1 Ã TTORNEY. 2,412,998 Patented Dec. 24, 1946 narran stares Param“ orifice 2,412,998 ELECTRÜN DISCHARGE DEVICE Charles V. Litton, Redwood City, Calif., assigner to International Standard Electric Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Aapplication February '7, 1942, Serial No. 429,872' 6 Claims. (Cl. Z50-27.5) 2 l lower periphery by a cylindrical vitreous seal 8, and its upper periphery is closed by a circular metallic anode 2 which may be sealed and at tached to- the toroidalperiphery as by brazing. The material of the metal I and 2- is~ preferably This invention relates to electron discharge de vices and circuits and particularly to such ar rangements adapted to operate at ultra-high fre quencies. The principal object is to improve the perform ance and power output at which such devices copper. may be made to operate effectively at ultra-high contro-l grid 5, formed by an outer cylindrical frequencies. wall 5a, an inner cylindrical wally 5b and a num ber of radial ñns 5c attached between the inner This application is a continuation-in-part of Just below the circular anode 2l is a my co-pending application» Serial No. 334,535, filed 10 andV outer cylinders to provide the desired grid construction. The grid is supportedy in position May 11, 194i), patented as No. 2,372,213 March by the sealing of outer cylinder 5a into the glass 27, 1945. seal 8. There have heretofore been used electron dis The cathode 6, placed below- the grid, is of the charge devices having cavity resonator circuits tuned to ultra-high frequency resonance. >As dif 15 indirectly heated type, heated by a suitable heat ferent operating voltages are ordinarily applied to different electrodes of such devices, it has been required that a cavity which is coupled between two electrodes and directly connected to one of them, should be coupled without any direct con 20 nection to the other, in order that the different electrode operating voltages may beV kept sep arate. The provision of an efficient low imped ance coupling at ultra-high. frequency has been a diliicult problem owing to the small dimensions required of the conductingparts of the tube and the high D. C. voltage which the coupling inem ber must withstand. In accordance with this invention, there is pro vided a low impedance coupling capacity arrange ing element l, across which is connected a Volt age for producing the heat. The cathode is like wise supported by means of its outerl cylindrical wall 6a which is embedded in the seal 8; and the electron emitting surface is provided by the cy lindrical portion Bb extending centrally across ment within the vacuum for coupling a tube the cylinder iâa. The metallic toroidal resonator I, directly con nected to the anode 2, is coupled to the grid to ' complete a resonant grid-anode circuit, by the lcylindrical extension of the toroid Ib into the evacuated vessel and closely surrounding the cy lindrical member 5a of the control grid. The proximity of cylinders 5a and Ib produces a cou pling capacity therebetween which is of a de sired low impedance at ultra-high frequencies. electrode with the cavity resonator. The provi sion of the capacity plates or surfaces within the By this arrangement, a high voltage can be con nected to the anode and a diiîerent Voltage can vacuum facilitates the provision of a large cou be applied to the grid, as these two-electrodes pling capacity, permitting the condenser arma are insulated from each other for direct current tures to be placed closer together for a given volt age than would be practical in the atmosphere. A feature is the utilization of the electrode sur face itself, as an armature of the coupling ca voltages even though they are eiTectively cou pled together at ultra-high frequencies. pacity. ‘ The output terminal for the tube I, Whether it is used as an oscillator or an amplifier, may be taken in a well-known manner, the means shown The invention will be understood from the fol lowing detailed description and the accompany being the coaxial line formed by the looped wire I9 brought into the resonator and connected ing drawing, of which thereto, concentrically within the metallic cyl inder Illa connected and sealed to an aperture Fig. 1 illustrates an electron discharge device having a cavity resonator coupled to the control 45 in the resonator. To maintain the vacuum, the wire I0 and coaxial cylinder Illa are sealed by the grid by a capacity coupling constructed in accord vitreous seal II, which is sealed to the portion ance with this invention; and IIlb of the cylinder. Fig. 2 illustrates another tube wherein the res Fig. 2 shows another modiiication in which the onator is coupled to the anode by a capacity cou 50 coupling capacity is placed between the resona pling according to this invention. tor and the anode, which enables the high'anode Fig. 1, which is the same as Fig. 3 of my said co voltageto be kept off the resonator. In this ar pending application, Serial No. 334,535, shows rangement, the resonator is likewise a toroid I, a cavity type resonator in the shape of a toroid forming a wall of the evacuated vessel. There I forming the larger portion of the envelope of a'vacuum tube. The toroid is closed near its 55 is attached as by brazing, to one periphery of 2,412,998 3 4 the toroid, a cylindrical sleeve I5 to which is also attached a suitable metallic sealing member I6, also generally cylindrical in shape and extending coaxially with reference to cylinder I5. Cylinder eiiiciency and output by reducing the voltage loss across this capacity and reducing the sparking which occurs less readilyin vacuum than in air; I6 may have a threaded portion for attachment to a suitable socket or terminal, for example, to a concentric transmission line. The anode l1 is in -the form of an elongated and this enables the condenser plates to be brought closer together than otherwise. The re sultant increase of capacity contributes to the reduction of the voltage drop across it. What iS claimed is: cylinder I8, closed by a solid cylindrical portion 1. A high frequency electron discharge tube I9 and having at its mouth a grid-like construc 10 including a conducting toroidal resonator having inner and outer cylinders, said inner cylinder tion, somewhat similar to the grid 5 in Fig.`1. This grid-like construction comprises a ring 20 with a number of radial iins 2| extending from having a gap intermediate its ends, an anode mounted Within said resonator and connected to the ring to the peripheral mouth 0f the anode. said resonator on one side of said gap, and a By this arrangement substantially uniform anode 15 cathode and a grid mounted within said resona potential is presented across a surface parallel to tor and sealed to said resonator on the opposite side of said gap and electrically insulated there the cathode, but heat concentration that would occur with use of a plate surface is avoided. The from, said grid being positioned between said end of the anode structure opposite the mouth anode and said cathode and having a tubular is formed into a thin edge> 22 for sealing to a 20 extension extending away from said gap, the vitreous section 23, which is bent back and sealed diameter of said extension being smaller than the to member I6 to form part of the evacuated en inner diameter of said inner cylinder. velope. A length of tube 24 may be inserted con 2. A high frequency electron discharge device centrically within the outer elongated cylindrical including a conducting toroidal resonator having anode portion and supported by an extension 25 25 inner and outer cylinders, said inner cylinder hav of the anode by Webs or blocks 26. The inner end ing a gap intermediate its ends, an anode mounted 21 of the tubing should be spaced somewhat from within said resonator and connected to said in member I9 of the anode so that a cooling iiuid ner cylinder on one side of said gap, a grid such as air may be passed through the inside tub mounted within said resonator and insulatingly ing and around the outside thereof and through 30 sealed to said inner cylinder on the other side the spaces between supporting webs 26 in a con of said gap and including a portion spaced from tinuous stream to cool the anode. and substantially parallel to said inner cylinder The control grid'5 is of the same general form to which said grid is sealed, and a cathode insu as that shown in Fig. l, and is supported by at» lated from said resonator. tachment, as by brazing of its cylinder 5a to the 35 3. An ultra high frequency electron discharge periphery of the toroid remote from sleeve I5. device of the resonator type including a con There is attached to cylinder or sleeve 5a, a tainer having an outer cylindrical wall and re cylinder or sleeve 28, which may be provided entrant portions at both ends thereof, a ñrst with a threaded member 29 for‘attachment to - electrode mounted on one of said portions and a support or tube terminal. The opposite end 40 insulated therefrom, a second electrode mounted of member 28 is sealed to a re-entrant vitreous on the other of said portions, and a conductive section 3G, the inner pressed portion 3| of which member also mounted on the same portion as said supports three rods 32, 33 and 34, passing through first electrode and being in substantial capaci it. The central rod 33 is a support and terminal tive relation to the surface of said rlrst electrode. for the indirectly heated cathode 35 having the cylindrical portion 36 crossed by the circular elec 45 4. The combination according to claim 3 in which the conductive member extends parallel tron emitting section 3l. The other two rods 32 and 34 are terminals and supports for the to the surface of the anode, and in combination therewith means, connected with the reentrant cathode heating element 38. portion which mounts the second electrode, sup ' As the outer cylindrical Awall of the anode is (il' (J porting a cathode. within and closely spaced from the inner cylin drical surface of sleeve i5 there is provided the 5. An electron discharge device adapted for ultra high frequency operation comprising an desired coupling capacity between the cavity and the anode, so that the desired highfrequency resonant circuit is set up by reason of the direct connection of one periphery of the toroidal cavity to the grid and the capacity coupling of the other cavity periphery to the anode. This arrange ment likewise has the advantage of placing the coupling capacity within the vacuum of the evacuated vessel having a resonator, said vessel containing a cathode, a control grid and an anode, ` said grid being coupled to one portion of said resonator and means coupling said anode to an vessel. ' p, The output of the tube may be taken at the concentric line l0 and lila, these portions being sealed by the vitreous sealing section 39. The other portion of said resonator, said coupling means comprising means capacitatively coupling said resonator with the surface of said anode. 6. An electron discharge device adapted for ultra high Vfrequency operation comprising an evacuated vessel having a resonator, said vessel containing cathode, control grid and anode elec trodes and a cylinder, said resonator being direct input circuit could also be a toroid, or it might G f) ly connected at one side to one of said electrodes be a transmission line, located Aexternally of the and connected at its other side to said cylinder, tube and connected with the grid and cathode another of said electrodes being mounted at the as its opposing terminating electrodes. , ` same side of said resonator as said cylinder but The constructions according to this invention, enabling the coupling capacity Vin the anode grid resonant circuit to be placed within the vacuum of the vessel, results in an increased insulated therefrom and ’said cylinderv being mounted coaxially vand capacitatively coupled with respect to the surface of saidv other electrode. ' ' ‘ CHARLES V. LITTON.