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Патент USA US2412998

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Dec. 24, 1946.
C. v. mwN
.
'
2,412,998 `
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE `
Filed Feb. 7. 1942
FIGA.
1
à TTORNEY.
2,412,998
Patented Dec. 24, 1946
narran stares Param“ orifice
2,412,998
ELECTRÜN DISCHARGE DEVICE
Charles V. Litton, Redwood City, Calif., assigner
to International Standard Electric Corporation,
New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware
Aapplication February '7, 1942, Serial No. 429,872'
6 Claims. (Cl. Z50-27.5)
2
l
lower periphery by a cylindrical vitreous seal 8,
and its upper periphery is closed by a circular
metallic anode 2 which may be sealed and at
tached to- the toroidalperiphery as by brazing.
The material of the metal I and 2- is~ preferably
This invention relates to electron discharge de
vices and circuits and particularly to such ar
rangements adapted to operate at ultra-high fre
quencies.
The principal object is to improve the perform
ance and power output at which such devices
copper.
may be made to operate effectively at ultra-high
contro-l grid 5, formed by an outer cylindrical
frequencies.
wall 5a, an inner cylindrical wally 5b and a num
ber of radial ñns 5c attached between the inner
This application is a continuation-in-part of
Just below the circular anode 2l is a
my co-pending application» Serial No. 334,535, filed 10 andV outer cylinders to provide the desired grid
construction. The grid is supportedy in position
May 11, 194i), patented as No. 2,372,213 March
by the sealing of outer cylinder 5a into the glass
27, 1945.
seal 8.
There have heretofore been used electron dis
The cathode 6, placed below- the grid, is of the
charge devices having cavity resonator circuits
tuned to ultra-high frequency resonance. >As dif
15 indirectly heated type, heated by a suitable heat
ferent operating voltages are ordinarily applied
to different electrodes of such devices, it has been
required that a cavity which is coupled between
two electrodes and directly connected to one of
them, should be coupled without any direct con 20
nection to the other, in order that the different
electrode operating voltages may beV kept sep
arate. The provision of an efficient low imped
ance coupling at ultra-high. frequency has been
a diliicult problem owing to the small dimensions
required of the conductingparts of the tube and
the high D. C. voltage which the coupling inem
ber must withstand.
In accordance with this invention, there is pro
vided a low impedance coupling capacity arrange
ing element l, across which is connected a Volt
age for producing the heat. The cathode is like
wise supported by means of its outerl cylindrical
wall 6a which is embedded in the seal 8; and the
electron emitting surface is provided by the cy
lindrical portion Bb extending centrally across
ment within the vacuum for coupling a tube
the cylinder iâa.
The metallic toroidal resonator I, directly con
nected to the anode 2, is coupled to the grid to
' complete a resonant grid-anode circuit, by the
lcylindrical extension of the toroid Ib into the
evacuated vessel and closely surrounding the cy
lindrical member 5a of the control grid. The
proximity of cylinders 5a and Ib produces a cou
pling capacity therebetween which is of a de
sired low impedance at ultra-high frequencies.
electrode with the cavity resonator. The provi
sion of the capacity plates or surfaces within the
By this arrangement, a high voltage can be con
nected to the anode and a diiîerent Voltage can
vacuum facilitates the provision of a large cou
be applied to the grid, as these two-electrodes
pling capacity, permitting the condenser arma
are insulated from each other for direct current
tures to be placed closer together for a given volt
age than would be practical in the atmosphere.
A feature is the utilization of the electrode sur
face itself, as an armature of the coupling ca
voltages even though they are eiTectively cou
pled together at ultra-high frequencies.
pacity.
‘ The output terminal for the tube I, Whether
it is used as an oscillator or an amplifier, may be
taken in a well-known manner, the means shown
The invention will be understood from the fol
lowing detailed description and the accompany
being the coaxial line formed by the looped wire
I9 brought into the resonator and connected
ing drawing, of which
thereto, concentrically within the metallic cyl
inder Illa connected and sealed to an aperture
Fig. 1 illustrates an electron discharge device
having a cavity resonator coupled to the control 45 in the resonator. To maintain the vacuum, the
wire I0 and coaxial cylinder Illa are sealed by the
grid by a capacity coupling constructed in accord
vitreous seal II, which is sealed to the portion
ance with this invention; and
IIlb of the cylinder.
Fig. 2 illustrates another tube wherein the res
Fig. 2 shows another modiiication in which the
onator is coupled to the anode by a capacity cou
50 coupling capacity is placed between the resona
pling according to this invention.
tor and the anode, which enables the high'anode
Fig. 1, which is the same as Fig. 3 of my said co
voltageto be kept off the resonator. In this ar
pending application, Serial No. 334,535, shows
rangement, the resonator is likewise a toroid I,
a cavity type resonator in the shape of a toroid
forming a wall of the evacuated vessel. There
I forming the larger portion of the envelope of
a'vacuum tube. The toroid is closed near its 55 is attached as by brazing, to one periphery of
2,412,998
3
4
the toroid, a cylindrical sleeve I5 to which is also
attached a suitable metallic sealing member I6,
also generally cylindrical in shape and extending
coaxially with reference to cylinder I5. Cylinder
eiiiciency and output by reducing the voltage loss
across this capacity and reducing the sparking
which occurs less readilyin vacuum than in air;
I6 may have a threaded portion for attachment
to a suitable socket or terminal, for example, to
a concentric transmission line.
The anode l1 is in -the form of an elongated
and this enables the condenser plates to be
brought closer together than otherwise. The re
sultant increase of capacity contributes to the
reduction of the voltage drop across it.
What iS claimed is:
cylinder I8, closed by a solid cylindrical portion
1. A high frequency electron discharge tube
I9 and having at its mouth a grid-like construc 10 including a conducting toroidal resonator having
inner and outer cylinders, said inner cylinder
tion, somewhat similar to the grid 5 in Fig.`1.
This grid-like construction comprises a ring 20
with a number of radial iins 2| extending from
having a gap intermediate its ends, an anode
mounted Within said resonator and connected to
the ring to the peripheral mouth 0f the anode.
said resonator on one side of said gap, and a
By this arrangement substantially uniform anode 15 cathode and a grid mounted within said resona
potential is presented across a surface parallel to
tor and sealed to said resonator on the opposite
side of said gap and electrically insulated there
the cathode, but heat concentration that would
occur with use of a plate surface is avoided. The
from, said grid being positioned between said
end of the anode structure opposite the mouth
anode and said cathode and having a tubular
is formed into a thin edge> 22 for sealing to a 20 extension extending away from said gap, the
vitreous section 23, which is bent back and sealed
diameter of said extension being smaller than the
to member I6 to form part of the evacuated en
inner diameter of said inner cylinder.
velope. A length of tube 24 may be inserted con
2. A high frequency electron discharge device
centrically within the outer elongated cylindrical
including a conducting toroidal resonator having
anode portion and supported by an extension 25 25 inner and outer cylinders, said inner cylinder hav
of the anode by Webs or blocks 26. The inner end
ing a gap intermediate its ends, an anode mounted
21 of the tubing should be spaced somewhat from
within said resonator and connected to said in
member I9 of the anode so that a cooling iiuid
ner cylinder on one side of said gap, a grid
such as air may be passed through the inside tub
mounted within said resonator and insulatingly
ing and around the outside thereof and through 30 sealed to said inner cylinder on the other side
the spaces between supporting webs 26 in a con
of said gap and including a portion spaced from
tinuous stream to cool the anode.
and substantially parallel to said inner cylinder
The control grid'5 is of the same general form
to which said grid is sealed, and a cathode insu
as that shown in Fig. l, and is supported by at»
lated from said resonator.
tachment, as by brazing of its cylinder 5a to the 35
3. An ultra high frequency electron discharge
periphery of the toroid remote from sleeve I5.
device of the resonator type including a con
There is attached to cylinder or sleeve 5a, a
tainer having an outer cylindrical wall and re
cylinder or sleeve 28, which may be provided
entrant portions at both ends thereof, a ñrst
with a threaded member 29 for‘attachment to
- electrode mounted on one of said portions and
a support or tube terminal. The opposite end 40 insulated therefrom, a second electrode mounted
of member 28 is sealed to a re-entrant vitreous
on the other of said portions, and a conductive
section 3G, the inner pressed portion 3| of which
member also mounted on the same portion as said
supports three rods 32, 33 and 34, passing through
first electrode and being in substantial capaci
it. The central rod 33 is a support and terminal
tive relation to the surface of said rlrst electrode.
for the indirectly heated cathode 35 having the
cylindrical portion 36 crossed by the circular elec
45
4. The combination according to claim 3 in
which the conductive member extends parallel
tron emitting section 3l. The other two rods
32 and 34 are terminals and supports for the
to the surface of the anode, and in combination
therewith means, connected with the reentrant
cathode heating element 38.
portion which mounts the second electrode, sup
'
As the outer cylindrical Awall of the anode is (il' (J porting a cathode.
within and closely spaced from the inner cylin
drical surface of sleeve i5 there is provided the
5. An electron discharge device adapted for
ultra high frequency operation comprising an
desired coupling capacity between the cavity and
the anode, so that the desired highfrequency
resonant circuit is set up by reason of the direct
connection of one periphery of the toroidal cavity
to the grid and the capacity coupling of the other
cavity periphery to the anode. This arrange
ment likewise has the advantage of placing the
coupling capacity within the vacuum of the
evacuated vessel having a resonator, said vessel
containing a cathode, a control grid and an anode,
` said grid being coupled to one portion of said
resonator and means coupling said anode to an
vessel.
'
p,
The output of the tube may be taken at the
concentric line l0 and lila, these portions being
sealed by the vitreous sealing section 39. The
other portion of said resonator, said coupling
means comprising means capacitatively coupling
said resonator with the surface of said anode.
6. An electron discharge device adapted for
ultra high Vfrequency operation comprising an
evacuated vessel having a resonator, said vessel
containing cathode, control grid and anode elec
trodes and a cylinder, said resonator being direct
input circuit could also be a toroid, or it might G f) ly connected at one side to one of said electrodes
be a transmission line, located Aexternally of the
and connected at its other side to said cylinder,
tube and connected with the grid and cathode
another of said electrodes being mounted at the
as its opposing terminating electrodes.
,
`
same side of said resonator as said cylinder but
The constructions according to this invention,
enabling the coupling capacity Vin the anode
grid resonant circuit to be placed within the
vacuum of the vessel, results in an increased
insulated therefrom and ’said cylinderv being
mounted coaxially vand capacitatively coupled
with respect to the surface of saidv other electrode.
'
'
‘
CHARLES V. LITTON.
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