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Патент USA US2413006

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Dec. 24, 1946.
P, L, SPENCER
2,413,006
ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY FOR DISCHARGE TUBES
Filed Dec. 17, 1941
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2,413,006
Patented Dec. 24, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
stso'rn'ons ASSEMBLY FOR DISCHARGE
TUBES
Percy L.v Spencer, West Newton, Mass, assigncr,
by, m'esne assignments,v ‘to Baytheon Manufac
turing Company, a corporation of Delaware
Application December 17, 1941, Serial No. 423,308
8 Claims‘.
(01. 2504275)
1
.
with this invention. No unusual skill is neces-f
discharge device in which the dimensions of the
sary‘ to assure accuracy in the spacing of the
device are reduced to relativelyv small values.
This invention also relates to the method of con
structing the same.
2
dinary operatorin manufacturing in accordance
This invention relates’ to ‘an, electrical space
electrodes.
_ v
In an electrical space discharge device em
ployed in high frequency circuits it has been
found advantageous to employ electrodes of rela
tively small dimensions. Where such tubes are
designed for high ampli?cation it has been desir 10
able that the electrodes be arranged relatively
close together. In such a device the assembly
of the electrodes on a' mass production basis
‘
g
V
y
_
A furtherilmportant objector the present
invention is to provide a method of construction
and a novel arrangement?of the electrode assem
bly whereby said assembly is “capable of with
standing relatively severe shocks without damage
thereto.
‘
_
_
‘
Other" objects and advantages ‘of thistinven
tion willbecome apparent andlthe? foregoing ob
J'ects will be best understood from'the iollqwing
description of an exempli?cation thereof,__ refer
presents various difficulties because of the rela
tively' small size and close spacing thereof. 15 ence-being had to the accompanying drawing
Moreover since such a spacing oirthe electrodes
in a high gain, high frequency device of the char
acter described is relatively critical, the further
wherein‘:
discharge devices of uniform operating character
istics, is encountered when using standard meth
Fig‘. 2 is
h
enlarged crosslse'ctional'vie'w taken
along line 2—‘-2 of Fig. 1;
'
V
Fig. 313’ an‘ enlarged exploded view or the el‘el'
merits illustrated in Figs‘. 1 and'Z; the glass“ en
ve'lope and lead-‘in wires being‘om‘ittéd; and
Fig. 4 is an enlarged ‘perspective View of part
of the‘ electrode assembly illustrated in" the prior
?gures," the anjodesb'eing omitted'and'the lead-in
wires and~eathode~supporting spring being shown
ods of manufacture and standard types of con
,
When devices of the character described are
subjected to extreme shock, as for example when
they are located in rapidly acceleratingbodies,
a still further dif?culty is encountered. Because
assemble them in a relatively shock-proof con
struction.
t is of course obvious that While vI have men
tioned di?iculties encountered in the manufac
I
taken along line l;i of Fig‘. 2';
the electrodes, so as to produce electrical space 20
of the ‘relatively small size of theelements and‘
the necessity for close spacing thereof,-it has
proven di?icult to construct them sturdily or to
'
tube embodying my invention, said new being
di?iculty of achieving accurate spacing between
struction.
W
Fig. 1‘ is‘ an enlarged cross-sectional new of a
fragmentarily.
30
The electrode space" discharge device illus
trated is a tube I having an envelope 2 of som
suitablematerial such as glass.
7
'
A directly heated ?lamentary cathode 3' is
formed in the shapeof an'inverted V; It is sus
35
ture and in the structure of high frequency, high
gain electrical space discharge devices ofrela
tively small dimensions, these di?iculties are also
present to a greater or lesser degree in all types
of electrical space discharge devices having rela
tively small dimensions.
An object of this invention is to provide a
novel method of constructing and a novel ar
ra'ng’ement of the electrode assembly whereby the
electrodes may be easily and quickly assembled
and thereafter handled as an integral unit, this
novel method and arrangement being adapted
pended in theassembly from its apex 4, the free
ends 5 thereof being connected as will be‘de
scribed hereinafter.
t;_ i
;
When assembled with the other electrodes the
cathode is arranged ‘so that 'it is substantially
?at and lies in a plane substantially parallel to
the planes in whichthe othertelectrodes lie.
The grid 6 is formed in two sections ‘l and 3;
each of said sections consisting of a pair of P
shaped frames 9' of any suitable material such as
nickel. having the edges of i a ?ne wire mesh It,
arranged therebetw‘eeh along;v the closed portions
of the P, as illustrated in Fig. 3, and welded there
to and to each other. H
for mass production.
, In order to arrangethe grid so that it‘may
Another object of this invention is to provide
a novel method for construction and a novel 50 be interposed between the cathode‘ and anode
arrangement of the electrode assembly whereby
I prefer to upset each of the sections; 1 and 8 to
the electrodes are automatically accurately spaced
from each other. Despite the‘r'elatively small '
forth therein relatively‘shallowv pans I! and I2
dimensions of the" elements included in the elec-‘
trical assembly it is feasible to employ the or
respectively. _ These‘pans‘ H and ‘(l->2 are then
arrange'dopposite each’ other to form‘ an» open
ing l3 therebétween in which the cathode? is
2,418,006
4
arranged. To provide means for fastening the
bly between the spacers | 8 and I9, are bent over
sections 7 and 8 together, ?anges M are formed
to the straps 25 and welded thereto.
on opposite ends of each of the U-shaped pans
Upon assembly when the cathode 3 is ar
H and i2. These ?anges are thereafter welded
ranged within the grid opening I 3 the upper
together to thereby form a unitary grid electrode.
horizontal portions 28 and the lower horizontal
The legs |5 of the P-shaped frames 9 are thereby
portions 29 of the insulating spacer members l8
arranged against each other to form a tab l6
and I9 are immediately adjacent the cathode and
by which the grid 6 may be connected to its
the lower portion 29 of l8 abuts the same. These
lead-in.
horizontal portions help to position the cathode
The grid 6 is substantially flat and when ar 10 within the grid opening I 3.
The anode 3D is preferably made of a pair of
ranged in the assembly lies in a plane substan
?at plates 3| upset to form channels 32 which
tially parallel with the planes in which the other
are arranged opposite each other to provide an
electrodes lie.
In order to separate the electrodes I prefer to
provide insulating members I1, l8, and I9, said
15
members being substantially flat and of prede
termined thickness. These members may be
opening 33 therebetween within which opening
the various elements are arranged.
Flanges 34 on either side of the channel 32 are
provided, said ?anges 34 being welded together to
made of any suitable insulating material, such as,v _,
for example, mica. The insulating spacer mem
secure the. plates together and thereby form the
integral anode 30.
In order to prevent relative movement between
the insulating spacer members and. the plates 3|
of the anode, the horizontal portions 28 and 28
of insulating spacer members l8 and Hi and the
horizontal portions 24 and 35 of insulating spacer
25 member | ‘l which project above and below plates
ber |9 may be a single spacer or, as shown, a 20
plurality of spacers which when joined have the
desired thickness, spacers I‘! and I8 together be
ing preferably as thick as spacer l9. These
members serve not only to insulate the electrodes
from each other but also to provide accurate
spacing thereof, the accuracy of the spacing de
pending solely on the accuracy with which the
insulating spacing members are made. Since.
however, accurate control of the thickness of
such spacers is readily feasible in standard man
ufacturing processes, this offers no di?lculty.
In order to permit the electronic discharge to
pass unimpeded directly from the cathode to the
anode I prefer to provide openings 20, 2|, and 22
in insulating spacer members l1, I8, and I8 re
spectively. The insulating spacer members is
and I8 are arranged adjacent and abutting grid
6. In order that these spacers may be inter
3| are extended horizontally so as to form shoul
ders 36 between which the anode plates 3| are
held.
As will be seen the plates 3| of the anode pre
vent the elements forming the electrode assem
bly from spreading in a horizontal plane, while
the shoulders 36 which-interlock the spacers and
the anode prevent displacement in a vertical
plane. Since spacers | 8 and I9 are also inter
35 locked with the grid 6, the grid too is secured
against such displacement of these shoulders.
To further insure a sturdy shock-proof struc
ture the upper horizontal portions 28 of the in
sulating spacer members l8 and | 9 and the upper
locked with the grid so 2,8 to prevent relative 40 horizontal ‘portion 35 of spacer I"! are prefer
movement thereof the openings 2| and 22 are
ably provided with horizontal slots 3'! extending
made of such dimensions so that the pans H and
inwardly from the opposite ends of these por
I2 of the grid 6 ?t snugly within the openings 2|
tions. A metallic band 38 is passed through said
and 22, so the ‘vertical portions 23 of spacers | 8
slots 21 around said portions and the ends thereof
and I9 abut the ?anges | 4.
I‘
are welded together.
It will therefore be seen that the grids and the
To support the cathode 3, a spring member 39
insulating spacer members l8 and H) are thereby
is provided having at one end thereof a hookv
interlocked so as to prevent relative movement
48 on which the apex 4 of the cathode 3 is hung,
thereof in a vertical plane when said elements
the opposite end of said spring member 38 being
are arranged as shown in Fig. 1.
'
50 welded to the band 38.
Spacer I‘! is especially designed so as to pro
In constructing an electrode assembly it is pre
vide a convenient means for fastening the free
ferred that a ring 4% of suitable getter material
ends 5 of the cathode 3. For this purpose the
be joined to the assembly by arranging said ring
spacer |1 is'preferably longer than the other
above the electrodes and securing it as by welding
spacers so that the lower horizontal portion24
thereof extends below the other spacers when
the electrode assembly is completed, as can best
be seen in Fig. 4.
The free ends 5 of the cathode 3 are prefer- .
to a supporting member 42 which may in turn
be welded to the band 38.
.
Before the assembly begins the straps 25 are
secured in' position on the lower horizontal por
tion 24 of spacer member i? and the grid sections
ably secured as by welding to metal straps 25, 60 are welded together. The anode plate 35 is ar
which straps may be arranged on horizontal por
tion 24 of spacer II. To secure the straps in
ranged on a suitable supporting surface and
spacer I9, grid 6, spacer I8, spacer i1, and the
position I prefer to provide vertical slots 26 in
upper anode plate 3| are placed thereon succes
the horizontal portion 24, said slots being spaced
sively in the order named. The anode plates are
and extending into opening 20.
65 welded together. The band 38, which preferably
The. straps 25 formed from a strip of a suit
able metal, such as nickel, each have one end 21
thereof doubled over the horizontal portion 24
adjacent the slots 26 so that a portion of each
strap lies within its corresponding slot. These 70
straps are bent tightly around the horizontal por
tion 24 and the ends 2'! of each of these straps
are welded to the main portion thereof, thereby
?xing the straps in position.
The free ends 5. .
of cathode 3, which protrude below the assem
75
has the spring 38 welded thereto as well as the
supporting member 24 which in turn is welded
to the getter ring 4|, is then arranged within
slots 3'! and‘the ends thereof welded together.
' The cathode 3 may. next be inserted in opening
I3 of the grid and the free ends. 5 thereof are bent.v
over towards the straps 25 and weldedthereto;
while the apexd is arrangedv over<the hookl?'
and maintained under‘tension by the spring 38.
It will be seen that I have here provided an
3,006
5
6
discharge device comprising a plurality of elec
trodes, each lying in a plane substantially paral-_
lel to the planes in which the other electrodes
lie, and a plurality of insulating spacer members
interposed between the said electrodes and in
integral electrode assembly which can be handled
as a unit. It will be further seen that the elec
trodes and insulating spacer members of this
unit which are arranged to lie substantially ?at
are stacked in layers lying in substantially par
allel planes.
Lead-in wires for the electrodes maybe pro
terlocked therewith, said insulating spacer mem
bers lying in planes parallel to the planes in
which said electrodes lie, a portion of each of
vided as follows: lead-in 43 may be connected
said insulating spacer members projecting be
to the ?ange 3d of the anode 3D; lead-ins 44 and
45 welded to straps 25'; and lead-in 46 to tab iii 10 yond the electrodes, and means cooperating with
said ‘projecting portions for securing said insulat
of the grid.
ing spacer members together.
'
The assembly as herein above described is
3. An electrode assembly for electrical space
thereafter ‘inserted within the glass envelope 2.
discharge devices comprising a plurality of elec
A press 41 is formed at the bottom of the enve
lope 2 and seals the lead-ins therein, thereby
providing support for the electrode assembly.
The electrodes are heated to drive off the occluded
gases and the getter ring 4! is ?ashed to release
the getter material while the tube I is being evac
uated through the tip 48. The tip 48 is thereafter
sealed.
It may be pointed out that the electrode assem
trodes, a plurality of insulating spacer members
of predetermined thickness interposed between
said electrodes, said electrodes being separated
by the thickness of said spacer members, said in
sulating spacer members and electrodes inter
locking to thereby prevent relative movement
along one plane and means for preventing move
ment along a plane perpendicular to said ?rst
mentioned plane.
bly is a unit and can be handled as such in mass
4. An electrode assembly for an electrical space
discharge device comprising a cathode, a grid
production. Since the accuracy of spacing is
dependent solely on the dimensions of the spacers
and electrodes, highly skilled operators are un
necessary despite the relatively small dimensions
of the elements. By the method and arrange
ment hereinabove described I have been able to
produce tubes of a very small size on a mass pro
30
duction basis. For example, tubes of the type
hereinbefore described and made according to
this method have been constructed on a mass
surrounding said cathode, said grid having a sub
stantially rectangular cross-section, a pair of ?at
insulating plates placed on opposite sides of said
grid, each of said insulating plates having an
opening of substantially the size and shape of
the corresponding side of said grid to receive said
side of said grid therein, each insulating plate
having a total thickness greater than the depth
of the grid extending into said opening, and an
production basis, the outside overall dimensions
of said tubes being .275 inch thick, .365 inch wide,
and 11/8 inches long.
anode plate member supported in contact with
the other side of each of said insulating plates.
5. An electrode assembly for an electrical space
This arrangement has proved so sturdy that
discharge device comprising a cathode, a grid
during tests in which the assembly has been
surrounding said cathode, said grid having a sub
placed in several glass tubes successively and the
stantially rectangular cross-section, a pair of
~10
glass broken away, the only parts damaged were
flat insulating plates placed on opposite sides of
the getter ring and the cathode. Tubes made in
said grid, each of said insulating plates having an
accordance with this invention have been placed
opening of substantially the size and shape of
in a centrifuge and the Weight thereof increased
the corresponding side of said grid to receive
from a few ounces to about one hundred pounds.
Under these severe conditions, the tubes remained
intact.
While I have described my invention in speci?c
detail it is obvious that these details may be con
siderably varied without departing from the spirit
thereof. For example, the various steps may be
performed in a different order.
to
The tube may
have additional grids and. anodes, the cathode
said side of said grid therein, said grid having a
flange extending between said pair of insulating
plates on opposite sides of said grid, each in
sulating plate having a total thickness greater
than the depth of the grid extending into said
opening, an anode plate member supported in
contact with the other side of each of said in
sulating plates, and means for clamping said
insulating plates together to clamp said ?ange
may be indirectly heated, or it may be a cold
and retain said grid ?rmly in place.
cathode. The tube may be a high vacuum or gas
6. An electrode assembly for an electrical space
or vapor-?lled type. The getter ring may be 55
discharge
device comprising a cathode, a grid
omitted. These are but a few of the variations
surrounding said cathode, said grid having a sub
that would be apparent to anyone skilled in the
stantially rectangular cross-section, a pair of ?at
art upon reading the disclosure hereof. It is
insulating
plates placed on opposite sides of said
accordingly desired that the appended claims be
given a broad interpretation commensurate with 60 grid, each of said insulating plates having an
opening of substantially the size and shape of
the scope of the invention within the art.
the corresponding side of said grid to receive said
What is claimed is:
side of said grid therein, said grid having a ?ange
1. In an electrical space discharge device, an
integral electrode assembly arranged in layers
extending between said pair of insulating plates
and comprising a plurality of substantially flat
electrodes and a plurality of substantially ?at
on opposite sides of said grid, each insulating
plate having a total thickness greater than the
insulating spacer members interposed therebe
tween, said insulating spacer members lying in
planes parallel to the planes in which said elec
trodes lie, a portion of each of said insulating
spacer members projecting beyond the electrodes,
and means cooperating with said projecting por
tions for preventing relative movement of saidv
and supported in contact with the other side of
each of said insulating plates, abutments on said
insulating plates engaging said anode plate mem
spacer members.
-
2. An electrode assembly for an electrical space 75
depth of the grid extending into said opening,
an anode plate member surrounding said grid
ber to prevent longitudinal movement thereof,
and means for clamping said insulating plates
together.
7. An electrode assembly for an electrical space
7
2,413,996
discharge device comprising a plurality of elec
trodes, each lying in a plane substantially paral
lel to the plane in which the other electrodes
lie, and a plurality of insulating spacer members
8
discharge device comprising a plurality of elec
trodes, each lying in a plane substantially paral
lel to the plane in which the other electrodes
lie, and a plurality of insulating spacer members
interposed between the said electrodes and in
interposed between’the said electrodes, said in
terlocked therewith, said insulating spacer mem
sulating spacer members lying in a plane parallel
bers lying in a plane parallel to the plane in
to the plane in which the electrodes lie, a por
which the electrodes lie, a portion of each of the
tion of each of the outer insulating spacer mem
outer insulating spacer members projecting be
bers projecting beyond the electrodes, and means
yond the electrodes, and means cooperating with 10 cooperating with said projecting portions for
said projecting portions for securing said insulat
securing said insulating members together.
ing members together.
8. An electrode assembly for an electrical space
PERCY L. SPENCER.
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