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Патент USA US2413017

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' '9 T1946:-
Filed Oct. l6,v 1943
3 $heets-Sheet 1
637M 1% grim
4770 IPA/E)’
@@m 245, 1394-6“
Filed Oct. 16, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
DQQ- 24» 394%
Filed Oct. 16, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
F0 c a! Plane
?eozexck X1.’ MLLCOX
Patented Dec. 24, 1946
Frederick P. Willcox, United States Army,
Arlington, Va.
Application October 16, 1943, Serial No. 506,521
9 Claims. (Cl. 95-44)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757)
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a portion of a
The invention described herein may be manu
factured and used by or for the Government for
range ?nder structure.
governmental purposes, without the payment to
. Fig, 6 is a plan view of the range ?nder.
Fig. '7 is a front elevational View of the range
?nder embodying a modi?cation.
Fig. 8 is a side of the structure shown in Fig. '7.
Fig. 9 is a. rear perspective view of the camera
with the rear door open.
Fig. 10 is a rear perspective of the range ?nder
me of any royalty thereon.
This invention relates to cameras, and more
particularly to improvements in range ?nders and
adjusting devices used on cameras.
An object of my invention is the provision of a
novel range ?nder for a camera having one single
adjustment which can be easily, de?nitely and 10 with cover removed.
Fig. 11 shows the position of images in elements
rapidly made by the camera user, not requiring
of the range ?nder while being adjusted,
the servicesof an expert, to coordinate the range
Fig. 12 shows the position of images in elements
?nder with any focal length lens which may be
of the range ?nder after adjustment.
used on the camera.
Fig, 13 is a diagram illustrating formulae used
A further object is the provision of a range
in designing the range ?nder.
?nder for a camera which has one single ad
Referring to the drawings, in Fig, 1, the camera
justment, controlled by an indicating dial, which
is shown to comprise a casing l, preferably made
can be easily and rapidly made to pre-set the
of a light weight metal, having side walls 2 and 3,
range ?nder for any particular focal length lens
which may be desired to be ?tted to the camera 20 and top and bottom walls 4 and 5, respectively.
Hinged to the bottom wall 5 is a bed 6 which
for the moment, providing the in?nity position of
also forms a front wall for the casing. Fixed to
the lens on the camera has been previously de
the bed 6 are a pair of spaced angle members ‘I, 8
termined and marked.
which together with the bed 6 form grooves re
A further object is the provision of a range
ceiving the ?anges 9 on a plate [0, which has a
?nder for a camera which has a. cam so designed
pair of spaced guide grooves l l and [2 adapted to
and located that the algebraic equation for the
receive and guide a plate [3 attached to the un
angular movement of the range ?nder mirror for
derside of the base Id of the body of the camera.
any given distance, and the algebraic equation for
Attached to the plate It is a rack IS in mesh
the linear advancement of the lens for any given
with a pinion l6 ?xed to a pin l1 passing through
distance are mechanically in perfect agreement
the bed 6 and ?xed to a knob l8. By rotating the
for all distances focused upon, Coupled range
knob, the plate Ill can be moved back and forth
?nders heretofore provided have required two ad
on the bed 6. The knob I8 is knurled and cham
justments to set the range ?nder for the lens to be
fered or beveled to present a frusto-conical shape
used on the camera, or can be used only on one
speci?c focal length lens. In maln'ng such ad
which enables it to be easily and positively. grasped
justments, it has been necessary to secure the
and be mounted with a minimum of clearance on
optimum setting by averaging near and far points.
a ?at surface.
a; horizontal position near the front edge of the
camera bed is easy to hold and enables ?ner ad
' justments of focus. Also, being thus located, part
of the weight of the camera is supported on the
heel or palm of the same hand which is used to
the use of a different lens on the camera.
A further object is the provision of a range
?nder for a camera which has a negative lens
included in its optical system and so located as
to‘ bring the direct and re?ected views of the ob
ject, as seen through the range ?nder, to the same
size in order to avoid errors in accurately deter
mining the range of the object.
These and other objects are attained by the
novel arrangement and construction of parts
hereinafter described and illustrated in the ac-v 50
companying drawings, forming a part hereof, and
in which:
' and greater compactness by removing the center
strut of the sliding part and allowing the front
of the lens more space to project into when the
.Fig. 4 is aperspective view showing a view‘ ?nderv
’ _
tion, and enables the camera to be held steadily.
Further, the construction described enables the
general thickness and bulk of the camera to be
reduced considerably.
The focusing rack l5 shown in the drawings is
single and centrally located on the inside edge of
the sliding portion of the camera bed. This con
on each inside edge of the sliding bed. Such Var
iation. in construction allows for still further
supporting the camera bed in various positions.
,Fig. 3 is a sectional view of a portion of the
used with the camera._
manipulate the knob during the focusing opera
struction can be modi?ed to use a train of small
gears across the front to operate two racks, one
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a camera embody
ing the invention. _
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a brace used for
structure shown in Fig. 2.
. The large focusing knob I8 centrally located in
Such adjustments necessarily are made by an ex
pert and not readily or conveniently changed for
camera is closed up.
A pair of spaced angles l9 and 28 are mounted
on the bottom wall 5, and alined with the grooves
II and I2 to provide grooves adapted to receive
plate I3. The top ?anges 2I of the angles are
adapted to be engaged on their undersides by the
plate I3, and on the upper sides by another plate
shown in Figs. 4, 5 and 6. Therange ?nder com
prises a shoe ‘II sliding on the bed 6 and guided
by the angle ‘I. Attached to the shoe is an arm
‘I2 bearing against the rear edge of the sliding
plate I0. Secured to the shoe ‘II by an eccentric
22 above and spaced from plate I3.
screw ‘I3 is a link ‘I4 pivoted to link ‘I5 which ex
A pin 23
passes through plates I3, 22 and base I4, and
through a washer plate 24. The pin 23 is in
tends along the inner side of wall 2. A wire
spring ‘I6 acts on link ‘I5 to constantly urge the
threaded engagement with a nut 25, the latter
link ‘I5 outward. Struck from the lower end of
having a small integral handle 26. The lower end 10 link ‘I5 is a ?nger ‘I9 which is adapted to engage
of the pin has a head 21 to prevent upward move
link ‘I4 to limit movement of link ‘I5 against the
ment of the pin; and rotation of the nut 25, by
action of spring ‘IS. A block I‘! ?xed to the un
means of the small handle 26, will draw the plates
derside of the top wall 4 supports a small shaft
together to clamp them in a ?xed position, either
‘I8 upon which the upper end of link ‘I5 is pivoted.
when closed, as shown, or. in operating position
Fixed to link ‘I5 is a plate ‘I9 carrying a split nut
along plate I9.
80 receiving a threaded screw 8I having a bevelled
The bed 6 is supported by a pair of braces con
head 82 bearing against a ?ange 83 extending
nected ‘to the side walls of the casing. Since the
upwardly from one end of a lever 84, which is
structure of the braces is the same on each side,
positioned in a recess 9I in the top wall 4 and
only one side will be described. (See Figs. 2, 3.) 20 pivoted at 85. A spring 86 bears against the
Fixed to bed 6 is a. lug 28 supporting a pivot pin
lever 84 and constantly urges the ?ange 83 into
29, which pivotally supports a link 39, provided
engagement with the head 82. The arm 84 has
with a groove 3 I, in which is positioned a tongue
a slot 8‘! through which passes a pin 88 upon
32 projecting from link 33. The links 39 and 33
which is pivoted a block 89 carrying a small mir
are pivotally connected by a pin 34. The link 33
ror 99. Attached to the block 89 is a ?at spring
has a longitudinal slot 35 in which is positioned
92 bearing against a wall of the recess 9|. Also
a threaded pin 36 having a head 31. Positioned
attached to the block 89, is a metal strip 93 urged
in an aperture in wall 3 is a bearing 42 having
by spring 92 into engagement with a small cam
an integral ?ange43 and a removable washer 44
94 ?xed to lever 84, the cam 94 being ?at and
?xed thereon and abutting a shoulder I21. The
having line contactwith the strip 93. Mounted
?ange 43 and Washer 44 are positioned on oppo
on the top wall 4 and adjacent side wall 3 is
site sides of wall 3. The pin 36 passes through
another small mirror 95 positioned at an angle of
bearing 42 and receives a frusto-conical knurled
45 degrees to the line of sight which is parallel
nut 38. By rotating the nut 38 in the proper
to the axis of the camera lens.
direction, the link 33 will be clamped tightly in 35
The small cam 94 has its curved operating edge
a ?xed position between the ?ange 43 and the
out with a con?guration designed to give an
head 31. The shoulder I2‘I spaces the washer 44
accurate mechanical solution to the relative loca
from wall 3 to allow the bearing to be freely ro
tion of lenses of various focal lengths and the
tatable in wall 3 when the link 33 is clamped be
distances to the objects viewed through the range
tween head 31 and ?ange 43.
40 ?nder as expressed by the following formulae
When the bed 6 is opened to a position at right
(see Fig. 18) :
angles to the body of the camera, the links 30
and 33 assume a straight line position being
urged constantly forward to said position by
spring II2 secured to bed 6. Further movement 45
beyond a straight line extending through links
20 and 33 is limited by design of groove _3I and
tongue v32. The camera is closed by depressing
in which
the hinged joint between links'30 and 33 in a
e=angle of mirror 90 With the base line (which
rearward direction with the thumbs or v?ngers 50
is also the angle of the mirror with the re
thus permitting the bed 6 to be moved to a closed
?ected line of sight).
1'=range, or distance of object (in inches).
It is desirable that some indication be given
:base line of range ?nder (in inches).
when the links are in a position to hold the bed
drlens displacement outward from in?nity 'posie
5 at right angles to the body of the camera, that. 55
tion (ininches).
is, in the same plane as the bottom wall5. Such
‘=image distance (distance from lens to focal
indication is given by a clicking sound, which
can also be felt, and which is produced by a small
pin 49 snapping into a recess 39 in pin 31 (see
Fig. 3), the pin 40 being constantly under pres
sure from a ?at spring 4| attached to the link
33. the pin passing through an aperture in the
link 33.
In Figure 4 is shown a view ?nder arrangement
which is described in detail in my copending ap
plication, Serial, No. 580,059, ?led February 27,
1945, entitled “View Finder.” For the purposes
of the‘ present application, it is su?icient to state
that it‘ comprises a front frame 5| and a rear
frame 93, the latter being supported upon a plate
69 hingedly connected to a plate 58 secured to the
top 4 of the camera. Plate 69 has an aperture
I00 through which the user views the range»
?nder images as will be described below.
The camera is provided with a‘ range finder 75
p=algebraic distance of focal plane from they
base of the range ?nder.
The range is determined by the formulae:
r=b tan B
in which
B=included angle formed at mirror 99 by the
re?ected lines of sight (formed by the base line
and the hypotenuse of the right-angled sight
The mirrors 99 and 95, and the elements asso
ciated therewith, are housed in a ,small casing,
96, provided with a window lens I 99 adjacent
mirror 95, and a window I08 for mirror 90. ‘The _
rear of the casing is provided with a window IIl‘I
through which the object beingv photographed
can be directly seen through window lens I09.
An image of the object is simultaneously reflected
from mirror 90 to mirror 95. To accommodate
has been determined and marked on plate l0,
that particular lens is set at that position and
locked in place by lever 25. Focusing on objects
is then made by moving plate Ill back and forth
by means of knob l8 and viewing the object
through the ground glass until the camera lens
has been focused. The small plug llll in the top
the range ?nder to lenses of di?erent focal
lengths, the screw 8| is adjusted. This adjust
ment can be made through an aperture in the
casing 96 normally covered by a small screw I01.
The manner of adapting for different lenses is
described below.
In a range ?nder it is desirable to bring the
direct image of the object to the same size as the
reflected image to avoid errors when the range
of the object has been determined. The differ
ence in size is due to the re?ected line of sight
being longer than the direct line of sight to the
object. To equalize the sizes of the two images,
window lens W9 is made slightly negative in
power. This causes the size of the image of the
object seen through window lens I09 to be the
same as that of the image which is re?ected from
mirror 89 to mirror 95.
In using the range ?nder to focus the camera
lens, a portion of the object being photographed
is viewed through aperture H10 in plate 60 and
through window I01 where the two images will
of casing 96 is removed and a screw driver is used
to adjust screw 8| until the same object is in
focus in the range ?nder with the two images of
the object in vertical alinement (see Fig. 12).
The range ?nder is now set for the particular lens
being used and no further adjustment is necessary
until a different lens is used. To focus on any
other object after the above adjustment, it is only
necessary to manipulate knob 18 to move plate (0
until the images are alined as shown in Fig. 1'7.
This is the only adjustment necessary and this
single adjustment can be made easily, de?nitely,
and rapidly by the camera user to coordinate the
range ?nder with a lens of any focal length which
may be used on the camera.
Range ?nders here
tofore provided on cameras eithcr require two
adjustments to average near and far points, or
they can only be used for one speci?c focal length
be seen, one above the other. The upper part of
the object is directly seen through window lens
In the construction shown in Figs. '7 and 8, the
I99 over the top of mirror 95, and an image of
threaded adjusting screw 8| has affixed to its
the lower part of the object passes through win
lower end an indicating dial W3 which has ?gures
dow I08 and is re?ected from mirror 90 to mirror
engraved on its periphery to indicate the angle
95. (See Fig. 11.) To focus the camera lens, the
through which the screw is rotated. The extent
knob 18 is rotated to move the plate Hi support
to which the screw is moved up or down is indi
ing the lens to cause spring 16 to move link 15
cated by a vertical scale located on strip Hi2
and associated parts to adjust the angle of mirror
which is formed fro-m link 15. Indicating dial
90 until the images seen in mirror 95 and through
lens Hi9 are in vertical alinement. (See Fig. 12.) 35 H33, which is attached to adjusting screw 8|,
provides means for pre~setting the range ?nder
The operating cam 94, which maintains the
for any camera lens the user may desire, provid
mechanical relation of the equation for linear
ing the in?nity position of the lens has previously
advancement of the camera lens with the angular
been determined and marked on plate l8 and the
equation of the range ?nder, is set in position at
40 position of screw 8i for the same lens, as shown
the factory.
by dial I03 and scale strip I62, has been previ
The eccentric screw 13 is used to set the link
ously determined and recorded. In this con
‘E5 in such a position that the axis of the main
struction it is not necessary to use a screw driver
adjusting screw 8| is parallel with ?ange 83 when
to adjust screw 8| as adjustment is accomplished
the sliding plate 10 is positioned at its rearward
by rotating the indicating dial I03.
limit of movement, that is, in?nity position (see
The invention having been described, what is
Fig. 1). This is normally a factory adjustment
claimed is:
and is made by screwing the main screw 8| in
1. In a photographic camera having a casing
and out, with plate In at its in?nity position, and
and a movable bed for carrying the camera lens,
observing if any angular movement of mirror 90
takes place. If mirror 90 moves, eccentric screw 50 a range?nder comprising a pair of spaced re?ec
tors arranged to provide adjacent partial images
13 is adjusted to alter the position of link 15 until
of an object from different viewpoints, the angu
there is no further movement of mirror 90 when
lar relation of said re?ectors being adjustable
screw Bl is screwed in or out.
to permit coincidence of said images, means for
The in?nity position of link 15 and lever 84 is
adjusting the angular relationship of said re?ec
the same for all lenses used on the camera, and
tors, comprising an arm connected to one of said
adjustment to accommodate the range ?nder to
re?ectors for pivotal movement thereof, a second
each different lens is made by rotating screw 81
arm movably mounted in said casing and carry
when the lens has been located at its particular
in?nity position.
ing a cam arranged to engage the ?rst arm, a
To adjust the range ?nder, the camera is placed 60 ?ange on said second arm, a shoe adapted to be
engaged and moved by said movable bed, a third
on a solid support such as a tripod, and the slid
lever-like arm pivotally mounted in said casing
ing plate I0 is set at its in?nity position. (See
and connected to said shoe so as to be rotated by
Fig. 1.) The lens supporting assembly, base M
movement of said shoe, and means of adjustable
with its associated parts, is carefully slid back
effective length mounted on said third arm and
and forth on plate Ii! until the lens is in focus at
arranged to contact said ?ange at different dis
in?nity on some object over 500 feet away, as
tances from the pivot of said third arm, whereby
determined by the image on the ground glass
the transmission ratio between the shoe and the
focusing panel 209 of the camera (see Fig. 14).
movable re?ector may be adjusted to accommo
The holding assembly is locked in this position
date for camera lenses of different focal lengths.
by means of lever 25, and this in?nity position
2. In a photographic camera having a casing
is marked on plate l0. (See line 2!! of Fig. 1.)
and a movable bed for carrying the camera lens,
In this manner the in?nity position for each dif
a rangefinder comprising a pair of spaced re
ferent lens can be determined and the various
in?nity positions marked on the plate I0.
Once the in?nity position for a particular lens
?ectors arranged to provide adjacent partial
images of an object from different viewpoints,
the angular relation of said re?ectors being ad-_
justable to permit coincidence of said images,
means for adjusting the angular relationship of
said re?ectors, comprising an arm connected to
one of said re?ectors, for pivotal movementl there
of, a second arm movably mounted in said casing
and carrying a cam arranged to engage the ?rst
arm, a contact surface on the second arm, a shoe
claim 2, in which cooperating elements are pro,
vided on the parts for indicating the adjustment
of said means of adjustable e?ective length.
7.- A photographic camera of the type includ
ing an adjustably mounted lens, a range?nder,
and means coupling said lens to said range?nder,
said coupling means comprising a pivotally
mounted lever arm having a ?xed length on one '
adapted to be engaged and moved by said mov
side of its pivot, a screw threaded member en
able bed, a third lever-like arm pivotally mounted 10 gaging in a nut on said arm and extending to
in said casing and connected to said shoe, so as
the other side of the pivot, and providing a
to be rotated by movement of said shoe, and
variable e?ective length of said arm on the other
means of adjustable effective length on said third
side of the pivot, whereby the coupling may be
arm and arranged to engage said contact surface
adjusted to accommodate lenses of different focal
at diiierent distances from the pivot of said third 15
arm, whereby the transmission ratio between the
'8. A camera in accordance with claim 7, in
shoe and the movable re?ector may be adjusted
which cooperating elements are provided on said
to accommodate for camera lenses of different
arm .and on said screw threaded member for in
focal lengths.
~ 1
dicating the adjustment of said screw-threaded
3. A photographic camera in accordance’with
member relative to said arm.
claim 1, in which the means of adjustable e?ec
9. In a photographic camera, the combination
tive length comprises a screw member having its
of an adjustably mounted lens, a range ?nder
axis substantially parallel to said third arm and
having at least one adjustably mounted re?ector,
threadedly engaging a split friction-nut secured
and means for coupling said, lens to said range
to said third arm.
25 ?nder and‘for providing an adjustment whereby
4. A photographic camera in accordance with
said range ?nder may be employed for accurately
claim 2, in which the means of adjustable effec
determining the range while focusing with lenses
tive length comprises a screw member having its
oi diiferent focal lengths, which comprises two
axis substantially parallel to said third arm and
levers movable in planes disposed at substan
threadedly engaging a split friction-nut secured 30 tially a right angle, one said lever having opera
to said third arm.
tive connection to the movable re?ector and the
5. A photographic camera in accordance with
other having connecting means by which it is at
claim 1, in which the means of adjustable e?ec
tached for movement with the lens as the latter
tive length comprises a screw member having its
is focused, and means for transmitting move
axis substantially parallel to said third arm, and 35 ment of the second lever to the ?rst comprising a
threadedly engaging a split friction-nut secured to
knife-edged contact member carriedby one of the
said third arm, and cooperating means on said
levers and engageable with the other, and adjust
screw member and said third arm for indicating
able for varying the e?ective length of one of the
the effective length of said screw member.
6. A photographic camera in accordance with 40
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