Oct. 29, 1946. I. ' v.. FALKV 2,410,155 PROPELLER GOVERNOR TES TER Filed May 15, 1,944 2 Sheéts-Sheet '1 1.9 I! I 100 _ 4:; ‘ 'INVENTOR. ' ?mVV/ihx, BY- Ma= 2777019446715. Patented Oct. 29, 1946 ' 2,410,155 UNITEDSTATES PATENT OFFICE PROPELLER GOVERNOR TESTER Irvin V. Falk, Union, N. J., assignor to Reeves Pulley Company, Columbus, Ind., a corporation of Indiana Application May 15, 1944, Serial No. 535,693 14 Claims. . 1 . (Cl. 73—1) . 2 The present invention relates to a propeller - . ~ each provided with a ?nger underlying a disc l3 (see Fig. 3) at the upper end of a reciprocable governor tester, and is disclosed in connection with a commercial governor designed to adjust valve body I4 which is urged, by a spring I5, the pitch of an airplane propeller to optimum toward the position illustrated in Fig. 1. A positions for varying, conditions of aircraft op plunger l6 constitutes an abutment for the up eration. The governor disclosed is of a type per end of spring l5, and said plunger is pro which, in response to variations in engine speed, vided with rack teeth I‘! meshing with a pinion l8 adapted to be adjusted by manipulation of a controls the rate and direction of ?ow of ?uid (oil, in this case) ‘to a piston connected to ad hand wheel, or the like, I9, (Fig. 1) whereby‘ to just the propeller pitch, so that an increase in 10 adjust the position of the plunger l6 and the engine speed will result in an increase in the degree of pressure exerted by the spring I5 upon “bite” of the propeller, thus increasing the load the disc l3. It will be obvious that such adjust 'on the engine to retard the engine; and vice ment of the plunger 16 will vary the speed of versa. the rotor H at which the ?yweights l2 will as The present invention is not concerned with 15 sume the “on-speed” position of Fig, 3. ' ~ » the propeller adjusting mechanism, or with the The governor mechanism includes a ‘gear typ construction of the governor; but with a test pump 29 adapted to discharge ?uid through a stand comprising mechanism for simulating en passage 2| to a passage 22, one end‘ of which gine conditions, and impressing speed changes communicates, through a valve 23 biased to closed upon such a governor, the stand being so de 20 position by a spring 24, with a passage 25 for a signed as to respond to the operation of the purpose later to be described. - 1 . governor mechanism to vary the rate at which The valve I4 is reciprocably mounted‘in a the governor mechanism is driven in response to bore 26; and, near its upper end, said valve is the demands of that mechanism. A further ob formed with a port‘ 21 adapted, under “under ject of the invention is to provide a test stand 25 speed” conditions, to register with a passagee28. of the character described which shall be highly The port 21 communicates with a bore 29 which ?exible, so that it may be adapted to the testing. opens into the bore :26. The valve body His of various forms of governor mechanisms. further formed, intermediate its ends, with a To the accomplishment of the above and re reduced section 30, providing a circumferential lated objects, my invention may be embodied 30 space which, in the “over-speed’? position of Fig. in the form illustrated in the accompanying 4, establishes communication between‘ the pas drawings, attention being called to the fact, how sage 22 and the passage 28.v ever, that the drawings are illustrative only, and In the position of Fig. 3, all ?ow passages are that changes may be made in the speci?c con sealed from each other, except that the pressure struction illustrated and described, so long as the . 35 scope of the appended claims is not violated. Fig. "1 is a diagrammatic illustration of my test stand with a commercial governor mecha nism associated therewith, parts being broken - away or shown in section for clarity of illustra tion; ' ‘ produced by the operation of the pump 20 will depress the valve 23‘ against the tendency of‘the spring 24, thus moving the valve23 to the posi tion illustrated in Fig. 3, to establish a ?ow cir cuit from the pump outlet 2! through passage 40 22, valve 23, and passage 25, back to the pump inlet 91. ., - ' Fig. 2 is an enlarged‘section through a detail ‘ In the “under-speed” positionrof Fig. 1,-the _ of the test stand mechanism; and Figs. 3 and 4 are sectional views of a governor port 2'! registers with the passage 28 vto permit ?uid to ?ow from said passage 28 through the mechanism in various positions of adjustment. 45 port 2'! and bore 29 to the bore 26. In the “over ’ In- Fig. 1, the reference numeral It] indicates speed” position of Fig. 4, a ?ow path is established generally a commercial form of governor mech from the pump outlet 2| through the passage .22, anism primarily constructed for the automatic past the reduced section 30 of the valve l4, and. control of controllable pitch aircraft propellers. to the passage 28. The effect'of these various The governor mechanism is illustrated, in Fig. 1, 50 positions upon the parts of the test stand, and in “under-speed” position. In Figs. 3 and 4, the results thereof upon the parts of the governor the mechanism is illustrated in, respectively, “on mechanism will become apparent as the descrip speed” and “over-speed”.positions. The selected governor mechanism comprises a tion proceeds. ' -- ' The test ‘stand includes an electric motor 3| rotor ll carrying centrifugal ?y weights [2, i2, 55 upon the spindle 32 of which ismounted a vari 2,410,155 3 4 and are well known in the art, an example being shown in the patent to E. Martin, No. 2,264,089, issued November 25, 1941; and therefore such details are not speci?cally disclosed herein. and a mating coned disc 35 axially sh‘ table rela Suffice it to say that, in view of the illustrated tive to said spindle 32. The shifting mechanism connection, it will be clear that the pump 20 and for said disc 35 comprises a thrust bearing 35 to the rotor ll of the governor mechanism iii will which is operatively connected a yoke 3i adjust~ be driven at varying speeds corresponding to the ably mountediupon a stem 38 reciprocably car speeds of the shaft 5! resulting from adjustments ried in ‘a guide sleeve '39. A lever iii is pivotally mounted at M upon a bracket carried by said 10 of the lever till to shift the disc 35. The test stand includes an oil reservoir 64% from guide sleeve 39, and is operatively connected to able-effective-diameter pulley, indicated gen erally by the reference numeral 33. Said pulley comprises a coned disc 34 ?xed to the spindle 32, cause reciprocation of the stem 38 in response to which leads a supply pipe 65 connected to the inletof a gear type pump 66 driven by the shaft oscillation of said lever it. The lever it carries extension ‘6'! ‘of the motor 3%. From the outlet a pair of pins 42 and 43 diametrically opposed of the pump 56 leads a short pipe section 68 com with respect to the fulcrum 4| for the lever 45}, municating with a pressure regulating device 69. and a cooperating lever 44 is provided with ears The pressure regulating device 59 is preferably 45 and 61-5 respectively supported upon said pins constructed to maintain a constant ?uid pres 42 and 43. The lever 44 may preferably take the sure of, say, one hundred pounds per square inch form of a yoke straddling the lever fill, and pro vided on both sides of said lever M] with cars 45 20 in the supply conduit ‘ill, in which is connected a flexible section ll. The conduit iii leads and 46 cooperating with opposite projections of through a four-way valve 12 to conduits con the pins 42 and 43. A spring M, hooked over nected with the opposite ends of a ?uid motor, pins 48 and 49 upon the levers MI and all, respec indicated generally by the reference numeral '54. tively, normally holds both ears of the lever til The motor ‘it comprises a cylinder iii, pivotally in‘contact with the pins 152 and 43; but if a force ' supported at Hil upon a bracket iii which may 'ten'dsito move ‘the lever 44 beyond either limiting be supported'upon the base which mounts the position of the lever All, the lever is will simply motor '38. Reciprocably mounted within the cyl pivot about one 'or the other of the pins K52 and inder ‘i5 is a piston l6 having a stem ll project t5, thus stretching the spring 41. Upon relaxa ing from the end of the cylinder ‘[5 remote from ‘ tion of the force applied to the lever 44, the spring . the pivotal mounting MB. A conduit 13 com~ - M will return said lever 44 to its illustrated po 'municates with‘ the lower end of the cylinder ‘i5 sition with respect to the lever 40; and a conduit 18 communicates with the upper ’ A bar 50, comprising an extension of the lever end thereof. 154, is formed to provide a portion bent down The four-way valve '52 is illustrated in detail in wardly in the ‘manner illustrated for a purpose 35 Fig.2.. Its function is to connect the opposite >_la-ter‘~ to become apparent. ends of the cylinder l5 alternatively with the :Suitably 'journalled in parallelism with the supply line ‘it. Said valve comprises a casing 79 jm’otor spindle 32 is a driven shaft 55 carrying a within which is mounted‘a valve body 88 formed variableeffective-diameter ‘pulley indicated gen erally by the reference numeral 52 and compris 40 with two straight-through passages 89 and 32, and with crossed passages 83 and 815. In the ing a coned disc-‘53 ?xed to the shaft 5! vand a illustrated position, it will be seen that the pas mating coned disc “54 axially shiftable with re sage 83 connects the conduit 13, communicating spect thereto. A coiled spring 55 sleeved on the with the lower end of the cylinder '55, with the shaft 5| bears at one end against‘the disc 5!} conduit 85, while the passage ?ll connects the andlat its opposite end against a ?xed abutment supply line ‘ill with the conduit ‘l8 communicating 56,, tending constantly to urge the disc 54 toward with the upper end of the cylinder. The valve thevdisc‘ 53. An edge-active belt 57 provides a body 82'!- is ‘provided with a stem projecting j driving connection between the ‘pulleys '33 and from the housing iii; and an actuating lever Bl, 52. 'It will be clear that, as the disc 35 is moved suitably pivotally mounted, as at 853, has a lost toward the disc 34, the belt 51 will be squeezed motion connection 89 with said stem E35. Clock “ outwardly between the two discs, thereby increas wise movement of the lever Bl will shift the valve ing the effective driving diameter of the pulley v‘body 8% to its opposite position, in which the '33. correspondingly, the belt 51 Will be drawn passage 8'! will establish communication between ' inwardly between the discs 53 and 54. thus forcing the disc 54. to move, against the tendency of the spring 55, away from the disc 53, thus decreasing ‘the effective diameter of the pulley 52, to in ' the supply line it and the conduit l3 leading to the lower end of the cylinder l5,‘while the passage 82 will connect the conduit 18 leading from the upper end of the cylinder ‘Li with the conduit 8'5. "crease the output ‘speed of the shaft 55. Simi When the test stand is being used to test a larly. when the disc '35 is moved away from the disc 34, the tension upon the belt 5'! is relaxed,‘ 60 governor-of the character illustrated'herein, the valve 12 will always be maintained either in the whereby the spring 55 is permitted to force the position illustrated in'Fig. 2, or, under special disc 53 toward the disc 53. Thus the effective circumstances, in its intermediate position in diameter of the pulley 33 is reduced, the effective which ‘the supply line ‘IE3 and the conduit 85 are diameter of the pulley 52 is increased, and the entirely disconnected from the ?uid motor ‘E4. output speed of the shaft 5! is decreased. The opposite position of the valve 12 is for use An adapter bracket 58 supports a pillow ‘block .in connection with a different type of governor 59 which is formed to provide a journal mounting Y for a block 69, ?xed to the driven shaft 55, and mechanism, _ ’ ' The conduit '85 is provided with a ?exible sec driving seat for a bevel gear 52 at the end of the 70 tion 98, and leads to a passage 9! in the pillow bloc-k 58 which, when the governor mechanism ' e‘gerating shaft'iiiii for the governor mechanism ‘ illustrated herein is'in position vfor test, registers _ As ‘is well understood in the art. the shaft with the passage 28 ‘thereof. 63 is connected to drive the governor pump 2% A conduit 92 ‘leads from the pressure regulat and the governor rotor III. The details of this > drive are immaterial to the present invention, 75 ing mechanism 69 to a T-fitting >93 communicat I provided with a socket 5! formed to provide a 2,410,155 6 'ing, through a pipe 94, with the reservoir 64. . The regulating mechanism 69 is so. ‘constructed that, when the ?uid pressure'therein materiallyex ceeds the above-mentioned predetermined value _of,'say, one hundred pounds per square inch, ?ow is permitted through said regulating device and the conduit 92 to the reservoir 64. a A further conduit 95 leads ‘from the T-?tting ‘93 to a passage 95 in the pillow block 59 which, when the governor mechanism illustrated herein ' ' With the parts in these positions, the lower end of the cylinder 15 is vented through the conduit 13, passage 83, conduit 85,'passage 9|, passage '28, port 21, bore 29, bore 26, sump 98, passage 99, and conduit I 00 to the reservoir 64. Fluid under the pressure of the pump 65 is therefore supplied, through the conduit 68, regulator mech anism 69, ‘conduit 10, passage 84, and conduit ‘I8, to. the upper end of the cylinder ‘I5 to move the piston ‘I5 downward, thus swinging the lever is in position for test, registers with the passage 44 and the lever 40 in a counter clockwise direc 25 of said governor mechanism. The pillow block tion to shift the disc 35 toward the disc 34 to in is further formed with a bore 98 into which opens crease the speed of the shaft 5| and of the gov the bore 26 of the governor mechanism, and from ernor mechanism. As speed of the governor which leads a passage 99 with which is connected 15 mechanism is increased, it ultimately reaches a a conduit I00 leading to the reservoir94. value at which the ?y weights I2 will assume the ' ' The conduit 73 has a branch -|0I and the con duit '78 has a branch I02, which branches lead positions iluustrated in Fig. 3, ‘at which instant communication between the passage 28 and the through a four-way valve I03'similar to the valve bore 29 is cut off so that further flow of ?uid from 12. From said valve I03 are extended av conduit 20 the lower end of the cylinder ‘I5 is prevented. I05 leading to the delivery side of the pump 66, This is the condition of equilibrium which will'be and a conduit I06 leading to the reservoir 64'. maintained by the mechanism unless some fur vIn the illustrated position of the actuating lever ther extraneous adjustment is made. I04, the branches IN and I02 are blocked, In The speed of the shaft 5| may be further in one extreme position of said lever, however, the 25 creased either by manipulation of the lever‘ I04 conduit I05 will be connected with the branch or by manipulation of the hand wheel I9. If the I02, while the branch IOI will be connected with adjustment is made by manipulation of the lever the conduit ‘I06 whereby ?uid under pressure will I04, such increase in the speed of the shaft 5| ‘be supplied to the upper end of the cylinder 15 will cause the ?y weights to move toward the andthe lower end of said cylinder will be con- ' position illustrated in Fig. 4, thus further lifting nected to the reservoir 64. Thus, the piston 16 the valve I4 to establish communication between will be moved downwardly in the cylinder ‘I5 to the outlet 2| of the pump 20 and the passage 28. shift the disc 35 toward vthe disc 34, thus increas The ?uid pressure produced by the pump 20 ing the speed of the shaft‘5 I. In the opposite ex is considerably higher than that produced by the treme position of the lever I04, the branch I 0| pump 66. Consequently, when’the valve I4 as will be- connected to the conduit I95 while the sumes the position of Fig. 4, ?uid will ?ow from vbranch I02'is connected to the conduit I06, the pump 20 throughthe passages 2| and 22,; whereby ?uid under pressure will be supplied to around the reduced section 30 of the valve I 4, and the lower end of the cylinder 15, the upper end through passage 28, passage 9|, conduit 85, pas of said cylinder will be vented, 'and‘the disc 35 40 sage 83, and conduit 13 to the lower end of the will be moved away from the disc 34 to reduce cylinder ‘I5. There,‘ acting upon the piston ‘I6 at a pressure higher than the pressure supplied by the speed of the shaft 5|. Of ‘course, during any such preliminary adjustment of the mechanism the pump 66. the ?uid will cause upward move the lever 8‘! will be in its intermediate position, ment of the piston 16, crowding ?uid out of the axis '4I of said lever, - Thereby, the volume \of upper end of the cylinder 15 through the conduit ‘I8, passage 84, and conduit 10 to the regulator mechanism 69. Such ?ow of ?uid to the regu lator mechanism 09 will increase the pressure within said mechanism beyond that for which the valve at the right end thereof is set, and that valve will open to permit ?ow of ?uid through the conduit 92, the ?tting 93, and conduit 94 to the reservoir 54. Of course, the ?uid driven. by the pump 29 will be drawn thereto either from the reservoir (54 or from the conduit 92through ?uid required to be delivered to the ?uid motor the T-?tting93, conduit 95, and passages 96-, 25, 14 in order to effect a given degree of adjustment and 91. of the disc 35 may be varied to ?t desired oper Such upward movement of the piston ‘IE will shift the disc 35 away from the disc 34 to reduce the speed of the shaft 5|, thus returning that speed to the value at which the fly weights I2 will assume the position illustrated in Fig. 3 in which the valve I4 cuts o? communication be tween the pump outlet 2| and the passage 28. locking the ?uid motor ‘14 against any in?uence ~ under the control ‘of the governor mechanism I0. The piston 16 is'connected to shift the disc 35, by means of a link vI01 pivotally connected at I08 to the piston stem ‘I1 and adapted to embrace the lever 50, being secured thereto by set screws I09. : Because of the pivotal mounting of the'cylinder -'I5 at II9, it ‘will be clear that the yoke I01 may be secured to the lever ‘50 at any one of a plu rality of points differently spaced from the pivotal ating conditions. When a governor mechanism to be tested has A so been suitably associated with the'pillow block-59, the lever 87 being in its intermediate position, the motor 3| is energized, and the position of-the piston ‘I6 and lever 40 will be adjusted, by ma nipulation of the lever I04, to bring the governor 65 parts into the position of Fig. 3. The positions of " If, ‘instead of manipulating the valve 404, the operator shifts the hand wheel I 9 to increase the compression of the spring I5, the ?y weights I2, the parts under these conditions of equilibrium [at a given speed of the rotor II, will be swung are now noted, and then the lever I04 is further inwardly by that increase in spring pressure, thus manipulated to reduce the speed of the shaft 5| to a value approximately 600 R. P. M lower than returning the valve I4 to the position illustrated the ‘equilibrium value. Now the lever I04 is set in Fig. 1. Under these circumstances, the cycle in its intermediate position and the lever '81 is ?rst above described will be followed to increase set in the position illustrated in Fig. 1. Because the speed of the shaft 5| to, a new value of :of the lower speed, the governor parts will now assume the positionsillustrated in Fig, 1. 75. One of the'points to be determined in testing equilibrium. ' , i 2,410,155 8 7 governor mechanisms of the type ghere‘under con sideration is the'time required for the governor to pass a sufficient volume of ?uid to bring the governor speed from a value 600 R. P. M. below optimum to the optimum, or equilibrium value. It is sometimes ‘found that the adjustment is made'so quickly as not to be feasibly measurable. cylinder and a piston reciprocable therein, ‘a ?uid reservoir, conduit means connecting said reservoir withsaid inlet, conduit means connecting said outlet with one end of said cylinder, pressure regulating means ‘in said last-named conduit means for maintaining substantially constant the struction or connections of the governor mecha nism. If the link Hl'l is shifted to a position farther from the axis of oscillation of the lever named conduit means, and means for driving said speed-responsive means comprising a shaft, pressure in such conduit means, conduit means communicating with the opposite end of said In such a case, the ?exible construction of the cylinder, speed-responsive means for controlling ‘present test stand makes it possible to increase that ‘time interval without modifying the con 10 the rate and direction of flow through said last a driver connected to drive said shaft, and an element shiftable oppositely to vary oppositely'the 49, ,a greater degree of movement of the piston 16 will be required to effect a given degree of 15 speed of rotation of said shaft, said piston being operatively connected to shift said element. movement of the disc 35. Thus, by so shifting 4. In a device of the class described, a ?uid the position of the link fill, the volume of ?uid reservoir, a ?uid pump having an inlet and an required to be passed by the governor mechanism outlet, a first conduit connecting said reservoir to produce ‘a speed increase of 7600 R. P. M., and therefore the time interval required to produce 20 with said pump inlet, a fluid motor comprising va cylinder 1 and a piston reciprocable therein, a that speed increase, can ‘be materially enlarged. second conduit connecting said pump outlet with I claim as my invention: 1. For use with a governor including a ?uid pump, a rotor, means connected to drive said pump and said rotor, speed-responsive means op one end of said cylinder, a third conduit com municating with the other end of said cylinder, 25 afourth conduit communicating with said reser eratively associated with said rotor and connected to shift avalve oppositely, in response to opposite variations in the speed of said rotor, between a high-speed position and a low-speed position through an intermediate position; testing appa 30 voir, a driving shaft, a driven shaft, means con necting said driving shaft to drive said driven shaft ‘including an element shiftable oppositely to ‘vary oppositely the speed ratio between said shafts, means‘ connecting said piston to. shift said shiftable velement, and means operable by ratus comprising a source of fluid under con said driven shaft for controlling the rate and stant pressure, a ?uid motor including a cylinder direction of ?uid ?ow through said conduits, in and a piston reciprocable therein, conduit means response to variations in the speed of said driven connecting said ?uid source ‘with said cylinder on one side of said ‘piston, conduit means connecting 35 shaft. said cylinder on'the other side of said piston with 5. The combination with a driving shaft, a said valve, passages controlled by said valve for driven shaft, and means connecting said driving ' alternatively vplacing said last-named conduit shaft to drive said driven shaft at variable speeds including an element shiftable oppositely to vary means in communication with said pump or with exhaust, a shaft connected to drive said pump oppositely the ‘speed ratio between said shafts, and said rotor, and ‘means for driving said shaft of a ?uid motor including a cylinder and a piston at variable speeds, said last-named means includ reciprocable therein, said piston being operatively ing an element sh-i-ftable oppositely to vary oppo connected to shift said element, means for con sitely the speed of said shaft, and said ?uid motor being connected to shift said‘shiftab'le element, stantly impressing a predetermined ?uid pressure 2. For use with a governor including a ?uid pump, a rotor, means connected to drive said upon one side of said piston, a source of ?uid under higher pressure, and‘ valve means effective at times to establish communication between the pump and said rotor, speed-responsive means op eratively associated with said rotor and connected to shift a valve oppositely, in response to opposite variations in the speed of said rotor, between a opposite side of said piston and said source, at other ‘times to establish communication between said opposite, side of said piston and exhaust, and at other times to close communication with high-speed position and a low-speed position said opposite side of said piston, said valve means through an intermediate position; testing appa being responsive to the speed of said driven shaft. ratus comprising a source of ?uid under constant '6. A test stand for governor mechanism of the pressure, a ?uid motor including a cylinder and. 55 type including a ?uid pump and a variably a piston reciprocable therein, conduit means con dr'iven element operable in response to speed necting said ?uid source with said cylinder on one side of said piston, conduit means connecting said cylinder on the other side of said piston with said valve, passages controlled by said valve for plac ing said last-named conduit means in communi cation with said pump when said valve is in its high-speed position and for placing said last named conduit means in communication with ex haust when said valve is in its low-speed ‘position, said valve closing said last-named conduit means when in intermediate position, a shaft connected to drive said pump and said rotor, and means for} driving said shaft at variable speeds, said last named means including an element shifta'ble vop positely to vary oppositely the speed of said shaft, and said fluid motor being connected to shift said shiftable element. ‘ 3. In a test stand, a ?uid pump having an inlet and an outlet, a ?uid motor comprising a variations to shift a valve from a position es tablishing ‘communication between a ?rst port and an exhaust through a position closing both 60 of said ports, to a position establishing communi cation between the delivery port of said pump and said ?rst port, said stand comprising a driven shaft connectible to drive said variably-driven element, a driving shaft, means connecting said driving shaft to drive said driven shaft includ ing an element shiftable oppositely to vary op positely the speed of said driven shaft, a stand ?uid pump, a ?uid motor comprising a cylinder and a piston reciprocable therein, a conduit pro viding communication between the outlet of said stand ?uid pump and one end of said cylinder, a conduit connected to the other end of said cyl inder and connectible with said ?rst port of said governor ‘mechanism, and means connecting said piston toshift said shiftable element. 2,410,155 " 9 a said standcomprising a driven shaft connectible A test: stand for governor mechanism of the ‘type including'iai ?uid'ipump' and a variably ~to;drive said variably-driven element, a driving driven elementloperable" invresponse 'to speed shaft, means ‘connecting said driving shaft to variations to shift a ‘valve, from a position es drive-said driven shaft including an element . shiftable oppositely to vary oppositely the speed of said driven shaft, a source of ?uidunder pres sure, a?uid motor comprising acylinder and a tablishing‘ communication , between a ' ?rst L port "and an exhaust through a'position closing both of said ports,’ to‘a position establishing com munication» between the delivery port of said pump and said ?rst port, said'stand comprising ‘a driven shaft connectible to drive said variably , piston 'reciprocable therein, a ?rst conduitv means connected to oneend of said cylinder, a second .conduit means connected to the opposite end of driven element, a driving shaft, . means lconn'ect .said cylinder, a third conduit means leading from --in‘-'g's'ai'd'-driving shaft to. drive said driven shaft i .said source, a fourth conduit means connectible to said ?rst port of 'said'governor mechanism, "including an element shiftable oppositely to vary ‘oppositely the speed of said drivenshafua ?uid reservoir, a stand ?uid" pump having-an inlet and an outlet;ia»l?uid"motor comprisinga cyl inder ar1d__a_ piston reciprocable therein, a ?rst ‘valve means associated with saidconduit means and shiftable between aposition connectingsaid ?rst conduitmeans with said third conduit means and. said, second conduit, means, with said, fourth , conduit means, and a position connecting said conduit‘means-‘connecting said stand ?uid pump inlet with said reservoir, a second conduit means connecting said stand ?uid pump outlet with one end of said cylinder, at third conduit means connecting said second conduit means and said stand fluid pump outlet with said reservoir, pressure-responsive flow-controlling means oper able to prevent ?uid ?ow through said third con duit means toward said reservoir at pressures below a predetermined value, a fourth conduit means communicating with the opposite end of said cylinder and connectible with the ?rst port of such'governor mechanism, a ?fth conduit means communicating with said reservoir and connectible with the intake of said governor ?uid pump, a sixth conduit means connectible with said governor mechanism exhaust and leading to said reservoir and means connecting said piston to shift said shiftable element. 8. A test stand for governor mechanism of the type including a fluid pump and a variably driven element operable in response to speed variations to shift a valve from a position estab lishing communication between a first port and an exhaust through a position closing both of said ports, to a position establishing communica tion between the delivery port of said pump and said ?rst port, said stand comprising a driven shaft connectible to drive said variably-driven element, a driving shaft, means connecting said driving shaft to drive said driven shaft includ ing an element shiftable oppositely to vary op positely the speed of said driven shaft, a source of ?uid under pressure, a ?uid motor comprising a cylinder and a piston reciprocable therein, a ?rst conduit means connected to one end of said ‘cylinder, a second conduit means connected to ?rst conduit means with said fourth conduit 20 means and said second conduit means with said third conduit means, a pressure-responsive ex haust valve in said third conduit means, said valve means being operable to vent said third conduit means only when the pressure therein exceeds the pressure of said source by a predeter mined amount, and means connecting said piston to shift said governor mechanism. 10. A test stand for governor mechanism of the type including a ?uid pump and a variably 30 driven element operable in response to speed variations to shift a valve from a position estab lishing communication between a ?rst port and an exhaust through a position closing both of said ports, to a position establishing communica 35 tion between the delivery port of said pump and said ?rst port, said stand comprising a driven shaft connectible to drive said variably-driven element, a driving shaft, means connecting said driving shaft to drive said driven shaft includ 40 ing an element shiftable oppositely to vary oppo sitely the speed of said driven shaft, a source of ?uid under pressure, a ?uid motor comprising a cylinder and'a piston reciprocable therein, a first conduit means connected to one end of said cylin der, a second conduit means connected to the opposite end of said cylinder, a third conduit means leading from said source, a fourth conduit means connectible to said ?rst port of said gov ernor mechanism, valve means associated with 50 said conduit means and shiftable between a po sition connecting said ?rst conduit means with said third conduit means and said‘ second con duit means with said fourth conduit means, and a position connecting said ?rst conduit means the opposite end of said cylinder, a third conduit 55 with said fourth conduit means and said second conduit means with said third conduit means, ':.means leading from said source, a fourth con means independent of said conduit means for [duit means connectible to said ?rst port of said supplying ?uid under pressure to either end of rgovernor mechanism, valve means associated said cylinder while venting the other end of said with said conduit means and shiftable between :a position connecting said ?rst conduit means 60 cylinder, and means for connecting said piston to shift said governor mechanism. ‘with said third conduit means and said second 11. The combination of claim 3 in which the conduit means with said fourth conduit means, operative connection between said piston and and a position connecting said ?rst conduit means said shiftable element comprises a pivoted lever with said fourth conduit means and said second conduit means with said third conduit means, 65 operatively connected to said shiftable element, and a yoke pivotally connected to said piston and and means connecting said piston to shift said adjustably attachable to said lever at any one governor mechanism. of a plurality of points on said lever differently 9. A test stand for governor mechanism of the type including a ?uid pump and a variably-driven spaced from the pivotal axis of said lever, said element operable in response to speed variations 70 cylinder being pivotally mounted to swing about an axis parallel with the pivotal axis of said lever. to shift a valve from a position establishing com 12. The combination of claim 3 in which said munication between a ?rst port and an exhaust cylinder is mounted to swing about an axis per through a position closing both of said ports, to pendicular to the line of movement of said piston a position establishing communication between the delivery port of said pump and said ?rst port, 75 and in which the operative connection between 2,410,155 said piston and said shiftable' element comprises 12 with said lever at any one'of a plurality of points on said angularly related portion di?erently a- lever mounted for oscillation about an axis par spaced from the axis of oscillation of said lever. allel with said ?rst-mentioned axis and opera 14; The combination of claim 3 in which said tively connected with said- shiftable element, and cylinder is mounted to swing about an- axis per means connecting said piston with said lever at pendicular to the line of movement of said piston any one of a plurality of points differently spaced and in which the operative connection between from the axis of oscillation-of said lever. said piston and said shiftable element comprises 13. The combination of claim 3 in which said a lever mounted for oscillation about an axis par cylinder is mounted to swing about an axis per pendicular to the line‘ of movement of said piston 10 allel with said ?rst-mentioned axis and opera tively connected with said shiftable element, a and in which the operative connection between second lever operatively but resiliently connected said piston and said shiftable element comprises to said ?rst-mentioned lever, and means connect a lever mounted for oscillation about an axis ing said piston with said second lever at any one parallel with said ?rst-mentioned axis and op of a plurality of points di?erently spaced from eratively connected with said shiitable element, the axis of oscillation of said levers. said lever having a portion angularly related to its main body and inclined toward said ?rst-men tioned axis, and means connecting said ‘piston IRVIN V, FALK.