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0d. 29, 1946.
Filed Oct. 1, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
’ cizbzrleaff’e'rbm
2Q '
Oct. 29, 1946.
Filed Oct. 1, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
C/lzézrlea fiverh'na,
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
Charles T. Perkins, Racine, Wis, assignor to‘v '
Modine Manufacturing Company, Racine, Wis'.,'
a corporation of Wisconsin
Application Gctober 1, 1942, Serial No. 460,334.
4 Claims. (El. 257-4130)
.The present invention relates to a new and
novel arrangement of tubes and fins and more
outer or less efiicient tubes from the standpoint of
receiving heat to thaw out the oil may never be
come warm enough to allow the oil to ?nally
speci?cally is directed to the introduction of ad
ditional thermal members in combination with
the tubes and ?ns which will aid in conducting
heat from tub-e to tube for the prime purpose of
inducing the flow of fluid that may be congealed
in the tubes. The device of the present inven
tio'nfisparticularly devised for the purpose of
break through and?ow in themanner required
in oil coolers particularly when subjected to a
continuous streamof low temperaturedair.
Brie?y then, as has been proven by practical
?eld tests, oil coolers of the present day construc
tion are not of su?icient capacity and of suitable
design to readily operate in their full capacity
‘quickly and eiliciently causing a flowage of oil in '
a core member of an oil cooler wherein the oil
whenever such oil coolers ‘are, called into use
‘has become congealed due to low temperatures
whenever such core or cooler has been standing
from freezing to approximately 20° below zero.
idle. '
Many of the, practical units of present day
after remaining idle in temperatures ranging
If the ?ns are of ferrous or low conductivity metal
an insufficient amount of heat will be radiated
from steel, Monel metal, Cupro nickel, and other
or thermally conducted through the ?ns between
the tubes to cause a breaking down of the con
low thermal conductivity metal to withstand
gealed oil in many of the high capacity cooling
construction of oil coolers are being fabricated
pressures, but such oil coolers present the fur
ther. problem of limited heat conductivity be
tween the various tubes carrying oil and wherein
certain of the tubes might become thawed out
while certain of the outer or the more exposed
Even in the event that copper ?ns are
employed, while the heat conductivity is relative
ly high, the surfaces are also designed and ar
ranged so as to give ahigh rate of heat transfer
for the cooling function and consequently the
same troubles prevail in copper ?n cores wherein
tubes may never fully reach a temperature for
the oil to break through so as to allow the proper 25 su?icient heat cannot be conducted from tube to
tube while a cold air blast is ?owing over the
and efficient functioning of an oil cooler in its
designed capacity. It has been found that most
of the existing oil coolers will function properly
and efficiently at temperatures ranging from 32°
Fahrenheit to between 200° and 300° Fahrenheit.
?ns, and therefore the oil cannot be broken
through to bring the tube into service to sub
sequently function as a cooling instrumentality
In these devices, in order to obtain an e?icient
heat transfer it has been the practice to use Vari
ous devices in obtaining exceptional heat trans
One of the main objects of the present inven
tion is, therefore, to overcome the de?ciencies
fervability in moderate or high temperatures.
unit which will function below freezing tempera
tures and possibly to approximately 20° below
in the oil cooler core.
above mentioned and to create a core or oil cooler
Such devices may encompass an assortment of
methods which are well known in the practice
zero and which also remains ef?cient and prac
and by those skilled in the art, many of such
tical for higher temperatures.
One of the other objects of the present inven
items incorporating exceptionally thin, ?at
tion is to employ a core or oil cooler unit which
tubes, various spacers or agitators located inside
of the tubes, or other means such as exceptional 40 is made of ?ns that are of ferrous or low con
;ly high velocities of the ?uid created by virtue of
,certain arrangement of serpentine flow. All of
.such devices are intended to create a higher rate
of heat transfer. However, most of such de
ductivity metal but which are provided with efli
cient heat conducting and direct heat transfer
members that will act to readily break down
congealed oil in the tubes whenever the oil cooler
vices are actually only e?icient at moderate tem
has been standing idle in abnormally low tem
peratures from approximately 32° Fahrenheit "
peratures of freezing to zero and below.
and upward, but are extremely inefficient when
‘All other advantages and novel features shall
hereinafter appear in the following detailed de
subjected to act in their created capacity when
scription having reference to'the accompanying
the same are exposed to freezing temperatures
that drop‘ 32° below Fahrenheit. Such units have 50 drawings.
been found to congeal the oil at the low'tem
peratures referred to and it takes an excessive
amount of pressure to ?nally break loose and 'al-.
low the congealed oil to flow. This may only oc
cur in certain of thetubeswhile many of the
‘In the drawings:
Fig. 1 isa front elevational view of a section
of core of 'an oil cooler illustrating a preferred
form and arrangement of the oil cooler and ther
mal members of the. present invention.
ring and dissipating heat between the tubes in
the manner mentioned. Furthermore the heat
tion illustrated in Fig. 1 taken substantially along
conducting wires are exposed to the cooling me
the line 2—2 in Fig. 1.
dium passing over the ?ns.
Fig. 3 is another plan section simulating Fig. 2
Obviously, the wires I 4 may be of any other
but illustrating another arrangement of the heat G1
relatively high heat conductivity metal and may
conducting thermal members in contrast with
or may not be in the form of wires. The thermal
that illustrated in Fig. 2.
conductivity members can also be made, if pre
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan sectional view also
ierred, as metal bars or bands or in any other
illustrating another arrangement of heat con
ducting members such as may be employed in fol 10 form or shape applicable to the particular situa
tion and arrangement of elements.
lowing the teachings of the present invention.
In Fig. 3, the general core construction re
Fig. 5 is a front elevational view of another
mains substantially the same as in Figs. 1 and 2
modi?ed form of core section.
with the exception that the wires I4 are now
Fig. 6 is a plan sectional view taken substan
tially along the line 6-6 of Fig. 5.
15 supplanted by a modi?ed arrangement and
grouping of wires such as at I5 which are adapted
Fig. '7 is a plan sectional view of the same core
to act and function for the same purpose as here
section shown in Fig. 5 but illustrating a modi?ed
inbefore stated. In Fig. 3, the wires I 5 radiate or
arrangement of the heat conducting thermal
expand in pairs from the central enlarged tube
members as applied thereto.
Fig. 8 is still another form of core section as 20 I I to the peripherally grouped tubes ID. A mod
i?cation of this arrangement is illustrated in
viewed in front elevation; and
Fig. 4 wherein wires I6 are employed, and where
Fig. 9 is a plan sectional view taken substan
in the ends of two wires extend laterally from the
tially along the line 9-—9 in Fig. 8.
center enlarged tube to the laterally disposed side
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, a preferred form of
tubes Iii in the same manner as in Fig. 3 but
core section is indicated with a plurality of tubes
wherein the other ends of the wires I6 are ?rst
IE! which may be interspersed with one or more
directed to the outermost corner tubes for the
tubes I I arranged at intervals between the tubes
sake of better conductivity and a greater amount
II). In this form of construction, the tubes I53
of heat transfer to such tubes, and wherein the
may be of the usual size and cross-sectional area
or of any standard size while tubes such as I I 30 ends I? of the wires it are then turned inwardly
to meet the intermediate tubes Iii at opposite
are over-sized with respect to the former for the
purpose of reducing friction and to permit the
sides thereof. In this manner the wire ends
free ?ow of ?uid such as oil therethrough and
terminate on each side of one remote tube in
under abnormally cold conditions and under the
stead of having one wire terminate on one tube
usual range of pressures normally employed in
alone as in Fig. 3. This would a?ord a better
oil coolers.
controlled and guided heat distribution for the
All of the tubes in Figs. 1 and 2 are suitably
purpose of thawing out the corner tubes or such
connected and disposed in spaced relation by
other tubes that are more remotely located with
conventional ?ns of any well known form or con
respect to the central region of the core.
struction and in the present case such ?ns are
By arranging the wires I6 in the manner shown
straight as shown and designated by the refer
in Fig. 4, a certain shielded or dead air space is
ence numeral I2. As hereinbefore referred to the
theoretically formed upon the ?n I2 that may be
?ns may be constructed of steel, Monel metal or
designated generally as I8 in Fig. 4. This area
Cupro nickel or of any other ferrous material
simulates the shielded areas 49 and 26 which are
of low thermal conductivity metal for the pur
so created by the looped wires I4 in Fig. 2. This
pose of strengthening the core structure of the
affords the additional advantage of having a seg
oil cooler; and the tubes I0 and II may or may
regated portion of certain ?ns shielded more or
not be of such metal and are preferably of cop
less by encompassing wires or wire. This shielded
per. The ?ns can also be made of copper when
?n area, for all practical purposes, will receive
ever conditions permit.
somewhat less cooling air and will therefore act
In addition to the tubes It and I I and the ?ns
to become a more ef?cient and better heat con
I2, the present invention proposes and very effi
ducting pathway or surface to further aid the
ciently incorporates the use of copper wire con
thermal members in thawing out the outlying
nectors such as I I! that act as heat conducting
members which are so incorporated in the core 55 tubes with respect to the other and over-sized
free ?owing tubes such as I I.
as to substantially offer no additional resistances
In Figs. 5 to 7 inclusive, the core structures are
to the free flow of the air therethrough. These
primarily such as to be directed to the use of
copper wires I4 are conveniently connected be
tubes such as Ii] that may all be of a standard
tween the free ?owing oil tubes I I of larger cross
Fig. 2 is a plan sectional view of the core sec
also then act as a collateral instrumentality as a
size but which are divided into smaller heat con
60 ducting passages by means of thin longitudinal
members such as the vanes or dividers 22 best
illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7. The vanes or di
viders 22 are associated with certain tubes 23 that
65 actually are of the same cross-sectional area and
outline as tubes Ill. By the addition of the vanes
we have arrived at the same results that pre
vail in the use of over-sized tubes II in combina
tion with the smaller size tubes I0. The only
70 difference in Figs. 5 to '7 inclusive is that all of
the tubes are of the same external size with the
exception that tubes IE} remain free and open and
are equivalent to the over-sized tube II of Figs.
2 to 4, while the tubes 23 carrying the vanes or
further convenient and efficient way of transfer
75 dividers 22, simulate the tubes Ii] in the sense
sectional area which will naturally receive a con
siderable amount of heat from the oil as the lat
ter starts to flow therethrough, and the wires
extend to the other tubes of lesser cross-sectional
area and in which the oil would normally be
congealed during the early warm-up stage of the
oil cooler. The wires I4 may be brazed or sol
dered or secured in any manner desirable and
are also secured to the ?ns I2 thereby to further
expedite the transfer of heat between the large
warm or hot tube II and the smaller tubes I 0.
Inasmuch as the wire forms a shielding means
or a small wind break for a limited portion of
the ?n, the latter shielded section of said ?n will
that they contain more restricted and narrower
plicable to produce the same‘ fundamental results
and to carry out the purpose herein related. For
this reason the present invention is not to be
limited to the exact description or identical dis
closures excepting insofar as shall be determined
by the breadth and scope of the appended claims.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent is:
1. A core for liquid coolers comprising a plu
In Figs. 5 and 6, the heat transfer elements
are composed of relatively short wires 24 that
transgress the lateral space between the sets or
rows of tubes to form the conducting members
for transferring the heat from the open tubes to
the divided tubes 23.
In Fig. 7, the wires 24 have been supplanted
by means of the straight wires 25 to function in 10 rality of liquid cooling tubes, some with relatively
the same capacity, namely, as solid thermal con
small liquid passageways and certain others have
ducting members. The Wires 25 are disposed to
ing comparatively large liquid passageways, cool
. ?ank the tubes Ill and 23 so as to extend in the
ing ?ns traversing said tubes, and heat conduct—
line of the normal ?ow of air through the core
ing members for thermally connecting a tube
having a large liquid passageway with a plurality
The oil cooling core structure shown in Figs. 8
of tubes having smaller liquid passageways to
and 9 is essentially an outcrop of several of the
provide heat transfer and equalizing heat dissi
foregoing forms and includes a plurality of tubes
pation units, said heat conducting members com
23 having the dividers 22 inserted therein, which
prising wires of comparatively large cross-sec
tubes are interspersed with one or more over
tional areas with relatively small exposed surface
sized tubes such as H. In this core as in the
areas and having a greater coe?icient of heat
cores of Figs. 1 and 5, the usual and conventional
conductivity than the ?ns.
type of ?ns l2 are employed for cooling the tubes.
2. A core for liquid coolers comprising a plu
However, certain of the ?ns l2 are supplanted
rality of liquid cooling tubes, some with rela
by means of the heavier and. more ef?cient heat 25 tively small liquid passageways and certain others
conducting ?ns 26 for the purpose of functioning
having comparatively large liquid passageways,
as the thermal conducting members for trans
cooling ?ns traversing‘ said tubes, and heat con
ferring and dissipating a more generous amount
ducting members bonded to the tubes and adapt
of heat from the enlarged and oversized tubes ! l
ed for thermally connecting a tube having a
to the smaller and more restricted tubes 23 during 30 comparatively large liquid passageway with a
the warm-up stages at the beginning of the op
plurality of tubes having relatively small passage
eration of the oil cooler. The ?ns 2B in Figs. 8
ways to provide heat transfer and equalizing heat
and 9 are preferably of heavy copper or of other
dissipation wires, said heat conducting members
high heat conductivity metal.
comprising solid wires composed of a material of
From the foregoing description relating to the 35 higher heat conductivity characteristics com
various forms and modi?cations of means for
pared to said cooling ?ns.
creating an e?icient equalization of heat dissipa
3. A heating conducting means in a core of a
tion during the early stages of the warm-up
liquid cooler having tubes and ?ns, comprising a
period of the oil cooler, it should be noted that
solid heat conducting member exposed to a cool
the main principle predominant in the descrip 40 ing medium passing over said ?ns, said heat con
tion and'disclosure relates to the use of a wire
or any other formed piece of metal of compara
tively large cross-sectional area and which wire
or formed piece of metal possesses a low or
ducting member being of relatively large cross
sectional area and relatively small surface area
and carried between and bonded to certain tubes
and secured contiguous with a ?n, said member
reasonably small exposed surface that is not read 45 being of higher heat conductivity than said ?n
ily a?ected by the air ?ow through the oil cooler
and providing a de?nite pathway for directed
core. The sole function of this wire or formed
heat dissipation between tubes, said portion of
piece of metal or heavy ?n as in the case of Figs.
said ?n immediately adjacent said heat conduct
8 and 9 is to transmit heat from the large tubes
ing member also coacting with said member to
to the small high cooling capacity tubes for the 50 increase said heat dissipation along the direction
purpose of breaking down the congealed oil and
of said member.
to quickly place these tubes into service for the
4. A core for a liquid cooler comprising a tube
purpose ._'of subsequently cooling said oil. The
having a large passageway, a plurality of tubes
same wire or formed piece of metal also acts in
having relatively smaller passageways, cooling
the dual capacity of subsequently preventing the 55 ?ns connecting all of said tubes, and a heat con
congealing of oil in the small high cooling ca
ducting copper wire bonded to the tube having
pacity tubes whenever said core is subjected to
the large passageway and to the plurality of
continual cold air blasts of abnormally low tem
tubes having the relatively small passageways
and serving to conduct heat from the ?rst named
As is obvious from the description and the dis 60 tube to the others during the warming up stage,
closures in the drawings, the principal features
and the ?ns serving to prevent overheating of
of the present invention may be adapted to
the tubes.
numerous modi?cations which are ultimately ap
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