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Patented Oct. 29, 1946
William A. Ray, Glendale, Calif., assignor to
General Controls (30., a corporation
Application May 8, 1943, Serial No. 518.6,].65
1 Claim.
(Cl. 175-335)
tion to eifect this mode of operation by energizing
the electromagnet ‘directly from the alternating
current source, and automatically switching the
This invention relates to an electromagnet;
and, more particularly, to one serving as a me
chanical operator.
Since electromagnets of this type are called
electromagnet to the output side of a recti?er as
upon for the exertion of considerable power, they 91 soon'as the plunger‘ or armature reaches its at
tracted position. The electromagnet, if desired,
are energized conveniently from a ‘commercial
may be provided with separate‘ coils, respectively
source of electrical energy, suchas from alternat
ing current distribution mains.
for using the heavy alternating current and for
In this way, the
using the recti?ed current‘ but‘ such separate
electromagnets can be designed to exert an at
tracting magnetic force capable of moving an
10 coils are'not essential, since, by appropriate ar
armature or plunger stronglyfenough to perform
rangement, the samé'coil' can 'be utilized for both
the operation required, such, for instance, as the
phases of operation.
opening of a valve. Once the magnetic member
(either armature or plunger) is pulled to the
This invention possesses many other advan
tages, and has other objects which may be made
attracted position, the magnetic force required
tohold themember is much less than that which
15 more easily apparent from a consideration of one
was required to move the member to attracted
embodiment of the invention.“ For this‘ purpose
there is shown a i‘orm‘iin‘the drawing accom
panying ‘and forming part of the present speci?
cation. The form will now be described in detail,
To create this large attracting force, a .corre- -
spondingly large current?ow is required; but this
illustrating the’ general principles 'of‘the inven
needfberexerted only during a short interval upon
energization of the magnet. For the remainder
of the period of energization, the current con
sumption may vbe very materially reduced.
‘It is one of the objects of this invention to 25
make it possible, in a simple ‘manner, to reduce
tion; but it is t'o'be understood that this detailed
description is not to bevtaken' in a limiting sense,
since the scope of this invention is best de?ned
the current consumption ‘of the electromagnet
electromagnet structure incorporating the inven
Referring to the drawing:
Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of an
tion, shown ‘as adapted to operate a ?uid c'on
‘promptly upon completion of movement of the
magnetic member to attracted position.
In order to simplify the structure of the elec
by‘the appended claim.
‘ trol valve;
Fig; 2 is‘a fragmentary sectional view, taken
tromagnet, it is desirable to operate it on recti?ed
vcurrent, derived from the alternating current
along planev2é2 of‘Fig'. 1;"
source. The problem of reducing chatter or hum
3--3 of Fig. 2; and‘
is thus simpli?ed; and the electromagnet has
relatively greater holding force. A dry disc rec
ti?er is a convenient instrumentality for obtain
ing the recti?ed current. However, if it be called
upon to provide the heavy current required for
‘ '
Fig.8 is a sectional View, taken along plane
Fig. 4 is a wiring diagram illustrating the mode
35 of operation of thejelectroma'gnet.
The jelectr'om'a’gnet structure includes a mag
netic circuit.‘ One portion‘ ‘of this :circuit is a
‘magnetic ‘frarnéml, having‘an annular wall that
attracting the movable magnetic armature or
houses inan‘yo-f the elements’of the electromag
plunger, the recti?er structure must be quite 40 net. ,At‘theupper portion of the‘ frame I there
is located’ the annular'pole piece 2, extending in
wardly of the wall. This poIe‘pieceZ is shown‘as
It is“ another object of this invention to make
having a tapered lower‘ surface l9, conforming
it possible to obtain substantially all of the ad
,vantages‘of recti?ed current operation, and yet
with the tapered surface 3 of a movable‘ magnetic
to require a relatively small ‘recti?er structure. 45
This object is “accomplished by utilizing recti
Thisyplunger-Q is ShOWn as adapted to be, at
?ed current during the vholding interval only;
v‘tracted upwardly ‘toward the pole piece 2* when
the‘ electromagnet is energized, inv a manner to
alternating currentis used during the brief in
terval while a heavy current consumption_is re
v‘be described.‘ '
quired for attracting the magnetic member. 50
‘ Duringthis attracting period, ‘the rate of energy
consumed is'high; but, since the period is very
brief, such high consumption can easily be toler
“Energizationofv the ,electromagnet is provided
by a'coil structure shown,‘,in this case, as includ
ing apair‘of coils 5 and 6. These coils are dis
posed‘ inthe' annular ~space betw'een‘rmme' l and I
plunger’ 4; 'fijim'fcfqils' maytéheid in ‘place as‘ by
,It isaccordingly vanother object of this inven 55, an apertured endlpla't‘e 'l,__ema_de\ of magnetic Ina
matedeven without recti?cation.
terial. This plate ‘I is threaded into the lower
opening of the frame I. It provides an annular
pole piece 8 opposite the bottom of the plunger 4.
The plunger 4, in this instance, is shown as
carrying a downwardly projecting valve operating
stem 9.
disc full-wave recti?er structure 25, connected to
be fed from mains 2|.
Recti?er structure 25 is shown as fed with al
ternating current across the diagonal 23—2‘I
when certain circuit controllers or switches are
This valve stem 9 is shown as carrying
closed. Alternating current is fed to the recti?er
a closure member I!) adapted to seat upon a valve
through a circuit including the upper side of
seat II. This valve seat II is disposed around a
valve opening l2 that serves to establish com
switch 20, contact arm 22, upper contact point
24, connection point 25, and point 21, at the op
posite side of the diagonal, back to the lower side
munication between the inlet and outlet passage
ways 60 and 6! in the valve body 13. The valve
of switch 20. The recti?ed current is taken from
the diagonal points 28 and 29 of the rectifier 25.
is shown merely as one example of a device that
may be operated by the electromagnet structure.
Its details are, therefore, immaterial, and it is
shown merely diagrammatically.
These two points 28 and 29 are shown as con
nected to the opposite terminals, respectively, of
15 the holding coil 5.
In Fig. 1, the plunger 4 is shown in its unat
tracted or lowermost position, the closure mem
ber l0 serving to close the valve.
While the input for the recti?er 25 is open
between contact arm 22 and contact point 24,
The plunger ,
the coil 5 is not energized. However, as soon as
the contact arm 22 moves upwardly to discon
netic liner sleeve [4. The upper part of the sleeve 20 nect the attracting coil 5, the contact 24 is
I4 is formed as a tapered shoulder ?tting snugly
rendered active, and the holding coil 5 is encr~
against the pole piece 2. Liner sleeve [4 has
gized with the rectified current.
a rather wide lateral extension Hi. The sleeve
The current consumption in holding coil 5 is
is shown as freely slidable in a thin non-mag
is further provided with an upwardly projecting
considerably less than in the attracting coil 6,
tubular extension l8.
formed respectively on
body l3. These ?anges
together, as by bolts.
Flanges l6 and [1 are 25 since, as before stated, holding the plunger at
the frame I and the valve
tracted can .be accomplished with considerably
are appropriately fastened
less power than attracting the plunger.
The sleeve 14 thus serves
For this reason, the recti?er structure 25 can
to isolate the ?uid controlled by the valve closure
be made quite small, since its power output is low.
In from the external atmosphere.
30 In fact, the structure 25 may be disposed con
When the electromagnet is energized, the
veniently above the electromagnet structure and
plunger 4 is raised; its tapered surface 3 is thus
housed within a hollow cover member 30 (Figs. 1
urged into contact with the inner tapered shoul
and 2). This cover member 3|] is shown as in
der 62 of the sleeve l4.
threaded engagement with the top of the frame
In order to attract the plunger 4 and to lift the 35 I, to form a space for the accommodation of
closure ID, a relatively large force is required;
the recti?er structure 25, as well as the circuit
but, as soon as the plunger 4 reaches its attracted ‘
controlling device including the arm 22 an
contacts 23 and 24.
position, the force required to hold the valve open
The recti?er structure 25 is shown as supported
is much less than the attracting force. Accord
ingly, the arrangement is such that the energiza 40 by the aid of brackets 3| and 32 (Figs, 1, 2, and 3).
tion of the electromagnet structure is reduced
These brackets are held ?rmly on top of an in
as soon as the attracted position is reached.
sulation block 33, disposed over the frame I.
Screws 34 extend through the top of the frame I,
Furthermore, the attracting force is provided by
the aid of alternating current, and the holding
as well as through the insulation block 33, and
force is obtained by the aid of a recti?ed direct 45 the legs of the brackets 3| and 32 serve to hold
the bracket assembly together. The recti?er
current. Since the period of movement of the
plunger 4 upwardly is very brief, upon energiza~
structure includes a central screw 65 that con
tion of the electromagnet, the use of alternating
veniently passes through apertures in the brack
ets 3i and 32, for supporting the structure. This
current for this brief period renders it unneces-v
sary to provide special features adapting the elec 50 screw may serve also as a binding post, and is
tromagnet to alternating current operation. An
therefore insulated from the brackets.
ordinary direct current type of electromagnet can
The operation of the contact arm 22, in re
sponse to the movements of plunger 4, is accom
be used.
The wiring diagram illustrated in Fig. 4 shows,
plished in a manner now to be described.
in general, the manner in which the electromag 55 The arm 22 is shown as fastened to the top
net is operated: ?rst, on alternating current when
of a magnetic member 35. This magnetic mem
it is ?rst closed, and then on recti?ed direct cur‘
ber is fastened to an upright resilient leaf spring
rent after the plunger movement is completed.
member 36. The lower end of this leaf spring
In this diagram, a circuit controlling switch 2"
36 is shown as clamped to the upright arm of a
is illustrated connected to conventional alternat 60 bracket 31 carried by the insulation block 33.
ing current power mains 2|. When this switch
Normally, the arm 22 is held in the lower posi
20 is open, the plunger 4 is in its lower position,
tion (Fig. 2) by a magnetic force in?uencing the
as illustrated in Fig. 1. As soon as the switch 20
member 35 and produced by a permanent magnet
38. This permanent magnet is disposed directly
is closed, a circuit can be traced through the
attracting coil 6. This circuit may be traced as 65 on top of the insulation block 33. It may be
follows: from the upper side of switch 29, a mov
held in place by a lip 39 (Fig. 1) stamped out
able contact arm 22, a stationary contact point
‘from the bracket 32. It is so arranged that its
23, coil 6, back to the lower side of the switch 20.
poles are directly underneath the magnetic arm
As soon as the plunger 4 is pulled to its ate
35. ‘Accordingly, this magnetic arm is attracted,
tracted position, the Contact arm 22 is caused to 70 and the leaf spring 36 is flexed so as to bring the
move upwardly and thereby to disconnect col 6
contact 49, carried near‘ the free end of the arm,
from the alternating current mains. Instead, _ into engagement with the contact 23.
contact is now made with an upper contact point
A tension spring 4| (Fig. 2) is provided, con
24. This contact point completes the circuit for
stantly to urge the arm upwardly; but the force
the holding coil 5. This circuit includes a dry
of the spring is not sufiicient to do this while
the permanent magnet 38 is operating to attract
the magnetic arm 35.
The spring 4| is shown as
anchored at its lower end to a screw 42 extending
in an aperture in the block 33. Anchoring of the
spring may be accomplished by having the lower
turns of the spring in close frictional engage
ment with the threads of the screw 42. The
upper turns of the spring 4| are in threaded en
gagement with a screw 43. This screw 43 is
carried by the laterally extending arm 44 of a
member 44’, which serves as a ‘clamp for attach
ing the leaf spring 36 to the magnetic arm 35.
By rotation of the screw 43, the tension of the
spring 4| may be adjusted, since the helical turns
of this spring are in operative contact with the
screw threads of the screw 43.
When the plunger 4 is in attracted position,
it causes a magnetic shunt to be disposed across
the poles of the permanent magnet 38. This
sulatcd leads. Two such leads 52 (Figs. 1 and 2‘)
are shown as extending through an aperture in
the top of cover 30. The aperture may be pro
vided with a soft rubber insulation bushing ‘61.
Insulation block 33, as indicated most clearly
in Figs. 1 and 3, may be apertured for the passage
of the connections from the space in cover 30
to the coils 5 and 6; and the apertures (such as
66, Fig. 1) extend as well through the top wall
10 of frame I.
The connections for the recti?er 25 may be .
provided appropriately by the aid of terminal
plates, such as 53, 54, 55, etc., corresponding in
position to the four points 25, 21, 28, and 29
(Fig. 4) of the recti?er.
The inventor claims:
In an electromagnet structure: a magnetic cir
cuit including a magnetic member movable to an
attracted position with respect to the remainder
magnetic shunt so reduces the magnetic force 20 of the magnetic circuit; an attracting coil asso
ciated with said magnetic circuit for moving said
member to its attracted position when the attract
ing coil is energized; a holding coil associated
upper position, in which the contact 45 is urged
with said magnetic circuit, for maintaining said
into contact with the stationary contact'mem
25 member in its attracted position when the hold
ber 24.
ing coil is energized; a dry disc full-wave recti
The plunger 4 carries an upwardly extending
?er structure having an input side and an out
stem 45 that supports the cylindrical magnetic
put side, said output side being connected to the
shunting member 41. This shunting member is
holding coil; a contact arm operated by the op
slidably movable in the tubular extension 18 of
eration of the electromagnet between two posi
sleeve I4. When the plunger is moved upwardly,
tions corresponding respectively to the unat
this shunting member 41 moves between the poles
tracted position and the attracted position of the
of the magnet 38 and “the arm 35 is released.
member; contacts engaged by said arm respec
The stationary contact members 23 and 24
tively in said two positions; and an alternating
are shown as carried by screws 50 and 5|. These
current circuit connected by aid of the arm when
screws, in turn, are shown as adjustably threaded
the member is in the unattracted position, to
in brackets 48 and 49. These brackets can be
energize the attracting coil, and connected by
appropriately mounted on top of the insulation
aid of the arm when the member is in attracted
block 33.
position to the input side of said recti?er.
The connections from switch 20 (Fig. 4) to
the coils 5, 6, recti?er 25, and circuit controller 40
22—-—23—24, may all be made by appropriate in
operating on the arm 35 that that arm and the
contact arm 22 are urged by spring 4| to the
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